Moisture sorption isotherm
At equilibrium, the relationship between water content and equilibrium relative humidity of a material can be displayed graphically by a curve, the so-called moisture sorption isotherm. For each humidity value, a sorption isotherm indicates the corresponding water content value at a given, constant temperature. If the composition or quality of the material changes its sorption behaviour changes; because of the complexity of sorption processes, the isotherms cannot be determined by calculation, but must be recorded experimentally for each product. The relationship between water content and water activity is complex. An increase in aw is accompanied by an increase in water content, but in a non-linear fashion; this relationship between water activity and moisture content at a given temperature is called the moisture sorption isotherm. These curves constitute the fingerprint of a food system. Desiccant Food chemistry Moisture vapor transmission rate Bell, L. N. and Labuza, T. P. 2000. "Practical Aspects of Moisture Sorption Isotherm Measurement and Use".
2nd Edition AACC Eagan Press, Eagan, MN
A sachet is a small cloth scented bag filled with herbs, potpourri, or aromatic ingredients. A sachet is a small porous bag or packet containing a material intended to interact with its atmosphere. A sachet can be defined as a small soft bag containing perfumed or sweet-smelling items referred to as an ascent bag, scent bag, sweet bag, sachet bag, sachet de senteurs, spiced sachet, potpourri sachet, scented sachet, perfume cushion, smelling cushion, scented cushion, fragrant bag, pomander and "dream pillow." During the Chinese Warring States period a scented sachet was an ornament worn on the body and used to absorb sweat, repel insects and ward off evils. In the Han Dynasty both boys and girls wore sachets and in the Tang Dynasty and Song Dynasty scented bags became preferred only by women. A scented sachet became a love token in the Qing Dynasty. In medieval Europe the sachet was known as a "plague-bag"; these were worn around the neck, or dangled from the waist. It was believed; these "sachets" contained sweet powders, aromatic calamus, storax, galingale and other fragrances from a herb or flower garden.
Queen Isabella of Spain used fragrant sachets consisting of dried rose and carnation petals and calamus root, other ingredients like powdered coriander seeds. In the nineteenth century a sachet filled with hops was called a "Pulvinar Humuli" and used by George III of Great Britain and Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg to help induce sleep. In modern times, a small cloth bag filled with potpourri may be laid among garments in a dresser. Scented sachets are for containing odorous substances to be laid among handkerchiefs to perfume them, they are used to make undergarments and outer garments sweet smelling as well as placed amongst linens. Scented sachets are hung in closets and cupboards, they are put into briefcases and luggage. Some are used in stationary packets and others are put under pillows to help one sleep. Scented sachets are "sweet bags" and are put in automobiles, clothes dryers, clothes closets, inside or about children's stuffed animals, on the backs of chairs, on doorknobs. Sachets with herbs like hops and lavender act as a sedative.
These type of sachets are put in closets and dresser drawers for their scents. Some "dream pillow" types of scented sachets are made with sleep inducing ingredients like hops, valerian and lavender that help promote sleep; these scented sachets of aromatic herbs are referred to as "herb pillows" or "sleep pillows" and are designed to overcome sleeplessness. Ram's 1606 booklet Little Dodoen gave a sachet formula to take to bed to help one sleep: Certain herbs used in these type sachet "sleep pillows", like hops, have a soporific and a slight narcotic effect; these herb filled sachets are called "dreamtime pillows". There are formulas using rosemary seeds to fill sachets and these are to be hung in a bedroom to promote sleep; the traditional method to treat insomnia with herb filled sachets of hops or lavender is to place them in, under or near your sleeping pillow. The "dream pillow" or "sleep pillow" sachet concept has been used for decades to help overcome sleeplessness; these "sleep pillows" have a therapeutic effect and hops as an ingredient to this type of sachet are considered best at inducing sleep.
One type of "sleep pillow" sachet recipe by herb and flower author Penny Black calls for violets, rose petals, tonka bean, vanilla bean, a drop of lemon oil. Scented sachets are many times homemade and come in many sizes, styles and fragrances. A typical size would be 4 inches square or thereabouts - some as small as a one-inch ball and others as large as an 8 inch square. Many are in the shape of a plump little pillow; the potpourri mix put inside the sachet can be herbal items or flower parts. Some sachets that are made from spices like allspice, cinnamon, cloves and vanilla beans are referred to as "spiced sachets." A scented sachet used as a pot holder, stuffed with allspice and cloves will release an apple pie smell when a hot dish is put on it. Other scented sachets are made from the winter savory, rosemary, tops of hyssop, chippings of cassia ligna and sassafras; this type is not only used to make garments sweet smelling but keep away destructive insects and worms. Sachets with dried moth-repellent herbs like wormwood, costmary, pennyroyal, lemon verbena rosemary, rue and tansy are called "moth bags."A sachet base can be made where you can add certain aromatic or perfumed oils to make various sachets.
Some types of sachets are called "Patchouli Sachet". Some scented sachets have names like ""Heliotrope Sachet" and "Tonka Bean Sachet." Others still are called "Provencal pillows", "Country pillows" and "Pillows for Love". Some are made into Sweet Bag necklaces; some are decorated with embroidery, buttons and fancy cloth. The oldest formula printed for a list of ingredients in an America scented sacket comes from a Colonial Williamsburg book, The Compleat Housewife, published in 1742. Black, The book of potpourri: fragrant flower mixes for scenting & decorating the home and Schuster, 1989, ISBN 0-671-68210-5 Bond, Annie B. Home Enlightenment: Practical, Earth-Friendly Advice for Creating a Nurturing and Toxin-Free Home and Lifestyle, Rodale, 2005, ISBN 1-57954-811-3 Booth, Nancy M. Perfu
A molecular sieve is a material with pores of uniform size. These pore diameters are similar in size to small molecules, thus large molecules cannot enter or be adsorbed, while smaller molecules can; as a mixture of molecules migrate through the stationary bed of porous, semi-solid substance referred to as a sieve, the components of highest molecular weight leave the bed first, followed by successively smaller molecules. Some molecular sieves are used in chromatography, a separation technique that sorts molecules based on their size. Other molecular sieves are used as desiccants; the diameter of a molecular sieve is measured in nanometres. According to IUPAC notation, microporous materials have pore diameters of less than 2 nm and macroporous materials have pore diameters of greater than 50 nm. Molecular sieves can be mesoporous, or macroporous material. Zeolites Zeolite LTA: 3–4 Å Porous glass: 10 Å, up Active carbon: 0–20 Å, up Clays Montmorillonite intermixes Halloysite: Two common forms are found, when hydrated the clay exhibits a 1 nm spacing of the layers and when dehydrated the spacing is 0.7 nm.
Halloysite occurs as small cylinders which average 30 nm in diameter with lengths between 0.5 and 10 micrometres. Silicon dioxide: 24 Å Mesoporous silica, 200–1000 Å Molecular sieves are utilized in the petroleum industry for drying gas streams. For example, in the liquid natural gas industry, the water content of the gas needs to be reduced to less than 1 ppmv to prevent blockages caused by ice. In the laboratory, molecular sieves are used to dry solvent. "Sieves" have proven to be superior to traditional drying techniques, which employ aggressive desiccants. Under the term zeolites, molecular sieves are used for a wide range of catalytic applications, they catalyze isomerisation and epoxidation, are used in large scale industrial processes, including hydrocracking and fluid catalytic cracking. They are used in the filtration of air supplies for breathing apparatus, for example those used by scuba divers and firefighters. In such applications, air is supplied by an air compressor and is passed through a cartridge filter which, depending on the application, is filled with molecular sieve and/or activated carbon being used to charge breathing air tanks.
Such filtration can remove particulates and compressor exhaust products from the breathing air supply. The U. S. FDA has as of April 1, 2012 approved sodium aluminosilicate for direct contact with consumable items under 21 CFR 182.2727. Prior to this approval Europe had used molecular sieves with pharmaceuticals and independent testing suggested that molecular sieves meet all government requirements but the industry had been unwilling to fund the expensive testing required for government approval. Methods for regeneration of molecular sieves include pressure change and purging with a carrier gas, or heating under high vacuum. Regeneration temperatures range from 175 °C to 315 °C depending on molecular sieve type. In contrast, silica gel can be regenerated by heating it in a regular oven to 120 °C for two hours. However, some types of silica gel will "pop"; this is caused by breakage of the silica spheres. Approximate chemical formula: 2/3K2O•1/3Na2O•Al2O3• 2 SiO2 • 9/2 H2O Silica-alumina ratio: SiO2/ Al2O3≈23Å molecular sieves do not adsorb molecules whose diameters are larger than 3 Å.
The characteristics of these molecular sieves include fast adsorption speed, frequent regeneration ability, good crushing resistance and pollution resistance. These features can improve both the lifetime of the sieve. 3Å molecular sieves are the necessary desiccant in petroleum and chemical industries for refining oil and chemical gas-liquid depth drying. 3Å molecular sieves are used to dry a range of materials, such as ethanol, refrigerants, natural gas and unsaturated hydrocarbons. The latter include cracking gas, ethylene and butadiene. 3Å molecular sieve is utilized to remove water from ethanol, which can be used directly as a bio-fuel or indirectly to produce various products such as chemicals, foods and more. Since normal distillation cannot remove all the water from ethanol process streams due to the formation of an azeotrope at around 95 percent concentration, molecular sieve beads are used to separate ethanol and water on a molecular level by adsorbing the water into the beads and allowing the ethanol to pass freely.
Once the beads are full of water, temperature or pressure can be manipulated, allowing the water to be released from the molecular sieve beads.3Å molecular sieves are stored at room temperature, with a relative humidity not more than 90%. They are sealed under reduced pressure, being kept away from water and alkalis. Chemical formula: Na2O•Al2O3•2SiO2•9/2H2O Silica-alumina ratio: SiO2/ Al2O3≈24Å molecular sieves are used to dry laboratory solvents, they can absorb water and other molecules with a critical diameter less than 4 Å such as NH3, H2S, SO2, CO2, C2H5OH, C2H6, C2H4. It is used in the drying and purification of liquids and gases; these molecular sieves are used t
Pre-harvest crop desiccation refers to the application of a herbicide to a crop shortly before harvest. Herbicides used include glyphosate and glufosinate. For potatoes, carfentrazone-ethyl is used. Other desiccants are cyanamide, cinidon-ethyl, pyraflufen-ethyl. Desiccation corrects for uneven crop growth, a problem in northern climates during wet summers or when weed control is poor. Several additional advantages of desiccation have been cited: more ripening is achieved and harvest can be conducted earlier; some crop may be mechanically destroyed. The application of glyphosate differs between countries significantly, it is used in the UK where summers are wet and crops may ripen unevenly. Thus in the UK 78% of oilseed rape is desiccated before harvest, but only 4% in Germany. Residue quantities are regulated by Codex Alimentarius of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Several technical recommendations by governmental agricultural services suggest guidelines regarding sprays.
Pre-harvest desiccation is used in agriculture in crops including: Maize Cereals such as barley and oats Oilseed rape Legumes including lentils and soybeans Sunflower Potatoes Cotton Glyphosate is used as a pre-harvest herbicide and harvest aid on cereal crops including wheat and oats and on oil seed rape. As a systemic herbicide it is not a true desiccant as it can take weeks rather than days for the crop to die back after application. In the UK, it began to be applied to wheat crops in the 1980s to control perennial weeds such as common couch, effective and meant that sowing of the next crop could occur sooner. Use as a harvest aid in the UK increased after the introduction of strobilurin fungicides which prolong the longevity of the leaves, in 2002, 12% of UK wheat crops were treated; the timing of application is crucial as the moisture content of the grain must be below 30% for the yield of the crop to be unaffected and to minimise uptake of glyphosate by the grain. Yield may be affected and residues increased if applications are made to uneven fields in which some areas have a moisture content over 30%.
Although used in weed-free and evenly maturing crops with the aim of reducing the grain moisture content more to hasten the harvest, there is little or no advantage in doing so. Glyphosate was found in 5–15% of cereal crop samples tested in the UK between 2000 and 2004, although never exceeding the Maximum Residue Level of 20 mg/kg. A survey of British wheat in 2006–8 found average levels of 0.05–0.22 mg/kg with maximum levels of 1.2 mg/kg. In July 2013 Austria banned the use of pre-harvest glyphosate citing the precautionary principle. In April 2015 an oat buyer in Western Canada announced that it was refusing oats in which pre-harvest glyphosate had been used. Media related to Crop desiccation at Wikimedia Commons
Hygroscopy is the phenomenon of attracting and holding water molecules from the surrounding environment, at normal or room temperature. This is achieved through either absorption or adsorption with the adsorbing substance becoming physically changed somewhat; this could be an increase in volume, boiling point, viscosity, or other physical characteristic or property of the substance, as water molecules can become suspended between the substance's molecules in the process. The word hygroscopy uses combining forms of hygro- and -scopy. Unlike any other -scopy word, it no longer refers to a viewing or imaging mode, it did begin that way, with the word hygroscope referring in the 1790s to measuring devices for humidity level. These hygroscopes used materials, such as certain animal hairs, that appreciably changed shape and size when they became damp; such materials were said to be hygroscopic because they were suitable for making a hygroscope. Though, the word hygroscope ceased to be used for any such instrument in modern usage.
But the word hygroscopic lived on, thus hygroscopy. Nowadays an instrument for measuring humidity is called a hygrometer. Hygroscopic substances include cellulose fibers, caramel, glycerol, wood, sulfuric acid, many fertilizer chemicals, many salts, a wide variety of other substances. If a compound absorbs enough moisture so that it dissolves it is classed as hydrophilic. Zinc chloride and calcium chloride, as well as potassium hydroxide and sodium hydroxide, are so hygroscopic that they dissolve in the water they absorb: this property is called deliquescence. Not only is sulfuric acid hygroscopic in concentrated form but its solutions are hygroscopic down to concentrations of 10% v/v or below. A hygroscopic material will tend to become cakey when exposed to moist air; because of their affinity for atmospheric moisture, hygroscopic materials might require storage in sealed containers. When added to foods or other materials for the express purpose of maintaining moisture content, such substances are known as humectants.
Materials and compounds exhibit different hygroscopic properties, this difference can lead to detrimental effects, such as stress concentration in composite materials. The volume of a particular material or compound is affected by ambient moisture and may be considered its coefficient of hygroscopic expansion or coefficient of hygroscopic contraction —the difference between the two terms being a difference in sign convention. Differences in hygroscopy can be observed in plastic-laminated paperback book covers—often, in a moist environment, the book cover will curl away from the rest of the book; the unlaminated side of the cover absorbs more moisture than the laminated side and increases in area, causing a stress that curls the cover toward the laminated side. This is similar to the function of a thermostat's bi-metallic strip. Inexpensive dial-type hygrometers make use of this principle using a coiled strip. Deliquescence is the process by which a substance absorbs moisture from the atmosphere until it dissolves in the absorbed water and forms a solution.
Deliquescence occurs when the vapour pressure of the solution, formed is less than the partial pressure of water vapour in the air. While some similar forces are at work here, it is different from capillary attraction, a process where glass or other solid substances attract water, but are not changed in the process; the amount of moisture held by hygroscopic materials is proportional to the relative humidity. Tables containing this information can be found in many engineering handbooks and is available from suppliers of various materials and chemicals. Hygroscopy plays an important role in the engineering of plastic materials; some plastics are hygroscopic. The seeds of some grasses have hygroscopic extensions that bend with changes in humidity, enabling them to disperse over the ground. An example is Needle-and-Thread, Hesperostipa comata; each seed has an awn. Increased moisture causes it to untwist, upon drying, to twist again, thereby drilling the seed into the ground. Thorny dragons collect moisture in the dry desert via nighttime condensation of dew that forms on their skin and is channeled to their mouths in hygroscopic grooves between the spines of their skin.
Water collects in these grooves when it rains. Capillary action allows the lizard to suck in water from all over its body. Deliquescence, like hygroscopy, is characterized by a strong affinity for water and tendency to absorb moisture from the atmosphere if exposed to it. Unlike hygroscopy, deliquescence involves absorbing sufficient water to form an aqueous solution. Most deliquescent materials are salts, including calcium chloride, magnesium chloride, zinc chloride, ferric chloride, potassium carbonate, potassium phosphate, ferric ammonium citrate, ammonium nitrate, potassium hydroxide, sodium hydroxide. Owing to their high affinity for water, these substances are used as desiccants an application for concentrated sulfuric and phosphoric acids; these compounds are used in the chemical industry to remove the water produced by chemical reactions. Many engineering polymers are hygroscopic, including nylon, ABS, polycarbonate and poly. Other polyme
Calcium chloride is an inorganic compound, a salt with the chemical formula CaCl2. It is a white coloured crystalline solid at room temperature soluble in water. Calcium chloride is encountered as a hydrated solid with generic formula CaCl2x, where x = 0, 1, 2, 4, 6; these compounds are used for de-icing and dust control. Because the anhydrous salt is hygroscopic, it is used as a desiccant. By depressing the freezing point of water, calcium chloride is used to prevent ice formation and is used to de-ice; this application consumes the greatest amount of calcium chloride. Calcium chloride is harmless to plants and soil; as a de-icing agent, it is much more effective at lower temperatures than sodium chloride. When distributed for this use, it takes the form of small, white spheres a few millimeters in diameter, called prills. Solutions of calcium chloride can prevent freezing at temperature as low as −52 °C, making it ideal for filling agricultural implement tires as a liquid ballast, aiding traction in cold climates.
It is used in domestic and industrial chemical air dehumidifiers. The second largest application of calcium chloride exploits hygroscopic properties and the tackiness of its hydrates. A concentrated solution keeps a liquid layer on the surface of dirt roads, which suppresses formation of dust, it keeps. If these are allowed to blow away, the large aggregate begins to shift around and the road breaks down. Using calcium chloride reduces the need for grading by as much as 50% and the need for fill-in materials as much as 80%; the average intake of calcium chloride as food additives has been estimated to be 160–345 mg/day. Calcium chloride is permitted as a food additive in the European Union for use as a sequestrant and firming agent with the E number E509, it is considered as recognized as safe by the U. S. Food and Drug Administration, its use in organic crop production is prohibited under the US National Organic Program. In marine aquariums, calcium chloride is one way to introduce bioavailable calcium for calcium carbonate-shelled animals such as mollusks and some cnidarians.
Calcium hydroxide or a calcium reactor can be used. As a firming agent, calcium chloride is used in canned vegetables, in firming soybean curds into tofu and in producing a caviar substitute from vegetable or fruit juices, it is used as an electrolyte in sports drinks and other beverages, including bottled water. The salty taste of calcium chloride is used to flavor pickles without increasing the food's sodium content. Calcium chloride's freezing-point depression properties are used to slow the freezing of the caramel in caramel-filled chocolate bars, it is added to sliced apples to maintain texture. In brewing beer, calcium chloride is sometimes used to correct mineral deficiencies in the brewing water, it affects flavor and chemical reactions during the brewing process, can affect yeast function during fermentation. In cheesemaking, calcium chloride is sometimes added to processed milk to restore the natural balance between calcium and protein in casein, it is added before the coagulant. Calcium chloride is used to prevent cork spot and bitter pit on apples by spraying on the tree during the late growing season.
Drying tubes are packed with calcium chloride. Kelp is dried with calcium chloride for use in producing sodium carbonate. Anhydrous calcium chloride has been approved by the FDA as a packaging aid to ensure dryness; the hydrated salt can be dried for re-use but will dissolve in its own water of hydration if heated and form a hard amalgamated solid when cooled. Calcium chloride is used in concrete mixes to accelerate the initial setting, but chloride ions lead to corrosion of steel rebar, so it should not be used in reinforced concrete; the anhydrous form of calcium chloride may be used for this purpose and can provide a measure of the moisture in concrete. Calcium chloride is included as an additive in plastics and in fire extinguishers, in wastewater treatment as a drainage aid, in blast furnaces as an additive to control scaffolding, in fabric softener as a thinner; the exothermic dissolution of calcium chloride is used in self-heating cans and heating pads. In the oil industry, calcium chloride is used to increase the density of solids-free brines.
It is used to provide inhibition of swelling clays in the water phase of invert emulsion drilling fluids. CaCl2 acts as flux material in the Davy process for the industrial production of sodium metal, through the electrolysis of molten NaCl. CaCl2 is used as a flux and electrolyte in the FFC Cambridge process for titanium production, where it ensures the proper exchange of calcium and oxygen ions between the electrodes. Calcium chloride is used in the production of activated charcoal. Calcium chloride is an ingredient used in ceramic slipware, it suspends clay particles so that they float within the solution making it easier to use in a variety of slipcasting techniques. Calcium chloride dihydrate dissolved in ethanol has been used as a sterilant for male animals; the solution is injected into the testes of the animal. Within 1 month, necrosis of testicular tissue results in sterilization. Calcium chloride can act as an irritant by desiccating moist skin. Solid calcium chloride dissolves exothermically, burns can result in the mouth and esophagus if it is ingested.
Ingestion of concentrated solutions or solid products may cause gastrointestinal irritation or ulceration. Consumption of calcium
Humidity indicator card
A humidity indicator card is a card on which a moisture-sensitive chemical is impregnated such that it will change color when the indicated relative humidity is exceeded. This has been a blotting paper impregnated with cobalt chloride base. Humidity indicators are an inexpensive way to indicate or quantify relative humidity levels inside sealed packaging, they are available in many configurations and used in many applications military and semiconductor. The most common humidity indicator cards change color from blue to pink; the need for an read humidity indicator that could not be damaged by vibration was identified during World War II. Rear Admiral Welford C. Blinn, at that time the Commander of the USS Pope, became concerned about the poor condition of the weapons and ammunition arriving in the Pacific Theater. High humidity in the South Pacific, coupled with poor packaging methods, was causing corrosion and moisture damage. A significant amount of ordnance was arriving in an unstable, sometimes dangerous, condition.
Following the end of the war Rear Admiral Blinn was assigned to Washington, D. C. where he had the use of a research lab. There he developed the concept for the first color change humidity indicator, a simple Go/no go method of monitoring humidity. In the late 1940s, Relative Humidity in the range of 30-35% was the concern because this is when corrosion can begin. For 50 years and military applications for color change humidity indicators were the primary market for these products. R. Admiral Blinn founded Humidial Corporation in 1948 Acquired by Süd-Chemie, Inc. in 1989 to commercialize humidity indicators acquired by Clariant In the mid-1980s descendants of R. Admiral Blinn began working with manufactures of semiconductors to identify and resolve the problem of “pop corning”, it was determined that the solder mounting of semiconductors known as devices, onto boards can cause "pop corning" of certain types of surface mount packages if they have been improperly stored or handled. This package delamination occurs as excessive moisture within the package expands as a result of the rapid thermal changes experienced during solder mount operations.
As a result, an industry wide standard for packaging of semiconductors was released in 1989. This standard, EIA 583, called for the use of humidity indicator card that would indicate as low as 10%. Adherence to proper storage and handling methods reduced the number of failures in the semiconductors, but over the years it became apparent that humidity levels under 10% were detrimental to the devices. Once again, the Joint Electron Device Engineering Council, now the standards body for semiconductor packaging, went to the descendants of R. Admiral Blinn to determine the feasibility of making a 5% color change humidity indicator. In April 1999, J-STD-033 was released with 10, 15 % color change indicator card specified. Humidity indicator cards are present on many small electronic devices, ranging from cellular phones to laptop computers, for the purpose of alerting the manufacturer that the device has been exposed to high levels of moisture. In many cases this changes the terms of warranty coverage for the device.
The previous United States Military Specification Mil-I-8835A was the governing specification for a humidity indicator card. The humidity indicator card is specified for use in J-STD-033, the standard for handling, packing and use of moisture/reflow sensitive surface-mount devices; this is a joint standard developed by the Joint Electron Device Engineering Council and IPC and is used in semiconductor packaging. Several cobalt-free systems have been developed. Cobalt-free brown to azure HICs can be found on the market. In 1998, the European Community issued a directive which classifies items containing cobalt chloride of 0.01 to 1% w/w as T, with the corresponding R phrase of R49. As a consequence, new cobalt-free humidity indicator cards have been developed by some companies. Although the EC issued this directive, it did not ban humidity indicators that contain cobalt chloride; the only effect the EC directive has on a humidity indicator card that contains cobalt chloride is setting labeling requirement thresholds.
There are two ways to consider the EC directive: The cobalt based HIC producers says that if a humidity indicator is considered an article in the EC definition and therefore has no labeling requirements if the content of cobalt chloride by weight is <0.25%. The T and R49 is not applicable. On the other hand, if you consider HIC as a chemical on a paper card the consequence is that it should be considered as a preparation, the concentration limit changes to 0.01% weight of cobalt chloride, it should be labeled as T and R49. Moreover, it is clear that the HIC can not be inhaled, but the regulation is about the content of substances and is a warning for users: e.g. if they know that there are harmful substances in the HIC, they will not dispose of them by burning. For semiconductor packaging, HICs are packed inside a moisture-sensitive bag, along with the desiccant, to aid in determining the level of moisture to which the moisture-sensitive devices have been subjected. Moisture sensitivity levels are indicated with a number as in the MSL list.
JEDEC is the leading developer of standards for the solid-state industry and sets the standards for semiconductor p