A desk accessory in computing is a small transient or auxiliary application that can be run concurrently in a desktop environment with any other application on the system. Early examples, such as Sidekick and Macintosh desk accessories, used special programming models to provide a small degree of multitasking on a system that did not have any other multitasking ability. Early personal information managers, such as Norton Desktop and Borland's Sidekick, provided pop-up calculator, alarm and other functions for single-tasking operating systems like MS-DOS using terminate and stay resident techniques. Introduced in 1984, as part of the operating system for the Apple Macintosh computer, a Desk Accessory was a piece of software written as a device driver, conforming to a particular programming model; the purpose of this model was to permit small helper-type applications to be run concurrently with any other application on the system. This provided a small degree of multitasking on a system that did not have any other multitasking ability.
DAs were implemented as a special class of driver. It was installed in the driver queue, given time periodically and co-operatively as a result of the host application calling SystemTask within its main loop. A DA was permitted to have a user interface. A special window frame with black title bar and rounded corners was reserved for the use of DAs so that the user could distinguish it from the windows of the hosting application. Typical early DAs included the Alarm Clock; the Control panel and Scrapbook were implemented as DAs. Third-party DAs such as spelling checkers could be purchased, it was considered hard to write a DA early on when there was little in the way of developer tools. However, since on the early Mac OS drivers did not have any special privileges, writing a DA was, with practice, no more difficult than any other application. A special Font/DA Mover utility was used to change the configuration of DAs; because DAs were not installed or launched in the same way that applications were, the user could not drag and drop DAs into or out of the system.
They resided in the System file's'DRVR' resources, like actual drivers, though they could be installed in any file whose resources were loaded into the memory, were stored in "suitcases" when not installed in the system file. If installed within a separate application, such as MacWrite, their functionality would be accessible only when that application was running; that is, a desk accessory installed as a resource within an application would appear on the Apple menu as a desk accessory only when that application was active. It could be activated while the application was run and would disappear when the application was terminated through the Quit function.. As a resource numbering scheme was implemented for marking resources as belonging to another resource of some particular type and number in the same file, such as a DA, it was possible for desk accessories to have a limited "resource fork" of their own within the file they were contained in. With the advent of System 7, which included a standard co-operative multitasking feature, the need for DAs diminished and developers were encouraged to develop small applications instead.
The system continued to run DAs for backward compatibility. Under System 7 and DAs could be moved and renamed using the Finder like normal applications, removing the need for Font/DA Mover and confining suitcases to font management; when a DA was run under System 7, it always executed in the Finder's address space. The icon for a desk accessory program under System 7 and is a reversed version of the application icon, with the writing hand on the left side instead of the right. A similar mechanism to allow small utility programs to run along with regular applications was present in the operating system for the Apple IIGS and Apple IIe. GEM resembled the Macintosh in many respects, one of them was the presence of desk accessories, for the same reason: to allow multiple programs to be used in a system that only supported one full application at a time. From a programming point of view, desk accessories were implemented, like other GEM applications, as DOS. EXE files, with names ending with. ACC rather than.
APP. Each. ACC file could support multiple accessories. ACC. Installation was a matter of placing the. ACC in the correct directory - \GEMBOOT in earlier versions, \GEMAPPS\GEMSYS in GEM/3 and later. Since each desk accessory loaded reduced the amount of memory available for programs, one technique for temporarily increasing available space was to rename one or more. ACC files to have a different suffix and restart GEM. On the Amstrad PC-1512, for example, the Snapshot accessory was shipped as SNAPSHOT. ACX and had to be renamed to. ACC if required. Desk accessories continued to be supported in ViewMAX, the DR-DOS file manager, supplied with unchanged versions of Calculator and Clock. For much the same reason as desk accessories were used in Mac OS and in GEM, namely to allow more than one simultaneous program on a system which did not support multitasking, the concept of desk accessories was extended to Palm OS by third-party developers. DA are
Alan Curtis Kay is an American computer scientist. He has been elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, the Royal Society of Arts, he is best known for his pioneering work on object-oriented programming and windowing graphical user interface design. He is the president of the Viewpoints Research Institute, an adjunct professor of computer science at the University of California, Los Angeles, he is on the advisory board of TTI/Vanguard. Until mid-2005, he was a senior fellow at HP Labs, a visiting professor at Kyoto University, an adjunct professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Kay is a former professional jazz guitarist and theatrical designer, an amateur classical pipe organist. In an interview on education in America with the Davis Group Ltd. Kay said, I had the fortune or misfortune to learn how to read fluently starting at the age of three. So I had read maybe 150 books by the time, and I knew that the teachers were lying to me.
From Springfield, Kay's family relocated several times due to his father's career in physiology before settling in the New York metropolitan area when he was nine. He attended the prestigious Brooklyn Technical High School, where he was suspended due to insubordination in his senior year. Having accumulated enough credits to graduate, Kay attended Bethany College in Bethany, West Virginia, he majored in biology and minored in mathematics before he was asked to leave by the administration for protesting the institution's Jewish quota. Thereafter, Kay taught guitar in Denver, Colorado for a year and hastily enlisted in the United States Air Force when the local draft board inquired about his nonstudent status. Assigned as a computer programmer after passing an aptitude test, he devised an early cross-platform file transfer system. Following his discharge, Kay enrolled at the University of Colorado Boulder, earning a bachelor's degree in mathematics and molecular biology in 1966. Before and during this time, he worked as a professional jazz guitarist.
During his studies at CU, he wrote the music for an adaptation of The Hobbit and other campus theatricals. In the autumn of 1966, he began graduate school at the University of Utah College of Engineering, he earned an M. S. in electrical engineering in 1968 before taking his Ph. D. in computer science in 1969. His doctoral dissertation, FLEX: A Flexible Extendable Language, described the invention of a computer language known as FLEX. While at Utah, he worked with "father of computer graphics" Ivan Sutherland, best known for writing such pioneering programs as Sketchpad; this inspired Kay's evolving views on objects and programming. As he grew busier with ARPA research, he ended his musical career. In 1968, he met Seymour Papert and learned of the Logo programming language, a dialect of Lisp optimized for educational purposes; this led him to learn of the work of Jean Piaget, Jerome Bruner, Lev Vygotsky, of constructionist learning, further influencing his professional orientation. Leaving Utah as an associate professor of computer science in 1969, Kay became a visiting researcher at the Stanford Artificial Intelligence Laboratory in anticipation of accepting a professorship at Carnegie Mellon University.
Instead, in 1970, he joined the Xerox PARC research staff in California. Throughout the decade, he developed prototypes of networked workstations using the programming language Smalltalk; these inventions were commercialized by Apple in their Lisa and Macintosh computers. Kay is one of the fathers of the idea of object-oriented programming, which he named, along with some colleagues at PARC; some of the original object-oriented concepts, including the use of the words'object' and'class', had been developed for Simula 67 at the Norwegian Computing Center. He said: I'm sorry that I long ago coined the term "objects" for this topic because it gets many people to focus on the lesser idea; the big idea is "messaging" While at PARC, Kay conceived the Dynabook concept, a key progenitor of laptop and tablet computers and the e-book. He is the architect of the modern overlapping windowing graphical user interface; because the Dynabook was conceived as an educational platform, Kay is considered to be one of the first researchers into mobile learning.
The field of computing is awaiting new revolution to happen, according to Kay, in which educational communities and children will not see in it a set of tools invented by Douglas Engelbart, but a medium in the Marshall McLuhan sense. He wrote: As with Simulas leading to OOP, this encounter hit me with what the destiny of personal computing was going to be. Not a personal dynamic vehicle, as in Engelbart's metaphor opposed to the IBM "railroads", but something much more profound: a personal dynamic medium. With a vehicle one could wait until high school and give "drivers ed", but if it was a medium, it had to extend into the world of childhood. From 1981 to 1984, Kay was Atari's Chief Scientist, he became an Apple Fellow in 1984. Following the closure of the company's Advanced Technology Group in 1997, he was recruited by his friend Bran Ferren, head of research and development at Disney, to join Walt Disney Imagineering as a Disney Fellow, he remained there until Ferren left to start Applied Minds Inc with Imagineer Danny Hillis, leading to the cessation of the Fellows program.
In 2001, he founded Viewpoints Research Institute, a non-profit organization
A file folder is a kind of folder that holds loose papers and money together for organization and protection. File folders consist of a sheet of heavy paper stock or other thin, but stiff, material, folded in half, are used to keep paper documents. Files may contain other things like magazines, cased in music cd's, etc. sometimes not used for any official use, rather used as normal storage in a home. They are used in conjunction with a filing cabinet for storage. File folders can be purchased at office supply stores. File folders are labeled based on what is inside them. Folders can be labeled directly on the tab with a pencil. Others write on adhesive labels. There are electronic label makers that can be used to make the labels. File folders can be made from paper; when paper is used, it is preferable that it is made from paper pulp with long cellulose fibre, such as kraft paper or manila paper. File or folder are other terms used for file folders, but file folders is a common name for the item in the United States.
Manila folders are the most common, but file folders come in many different forms. In the United States and legal sizes are common; the exact way to refer to this kind of folder is somewhat unclear. There is no internationally standard term; the term file folder seems to be one that dominates North American language, but does not seem as common in other countries. As stated, some refer to file folders as folders, but in North America this is confusing because folder can refer to several different things. Others use the term manila folders, but this is confusing because not all file folders are made of Manila hemp; this type of folder is sometimes incorrectly referred to as a "vanilla folder." Another used folder type is the hanging folder, which has hooks on all four corners that slide over a rail. Hanging folders are used to file one or more manila folders, it is not a common practice to put loose sheets directly into hanging folders; when some documents need to be retrieved, the corresponding manila folder are removed from the hanging folder.
The hanging folder. The term for the item changes based on its context; some may refer to file folders as files. For example, one might say, "Would you get me the file on the Patterson case?" Or someone might say, "That information is with the files on the insurance claims." File folder or just folder seems to be how many refer to the item when it is being purchased or not containing any paper yet. For instance, someone might say, "Would you give me an empty folder from the box? I need to make a file on the Thompson estate." Or someone might say, "When you run to the store would you get me some legal size file folders?" Again, office furniture that holds paper documents is invariable referred to as a Filing cabinet or a file cabinet, never a folder cabinet. The terms are more distorted in their digital counterparts. In computing, the word "folder" is used as a synonym for "directory", while the word "file" is universally used for actual data items on a disk. In Unix-like systems, this is resolved to some degree by the creed "everything is a file".
File folders can have tabs in them. Tabs are helpful when many files are being stored together and there needs to be an easy way to differentiate them; the tabs can be on the end/side. Tab sizes vary and are designated based on the size of each tab in proportion to the total length of the folder, they can be: Straight cut. There is one long tab. 1/3 cut. There are three tab positions, each is 1/3 of the total length of the folder. Tabs are cut to be in the left, center, or right positions. 1/5 cut. Similar to the 1/3 cut, except there are five tab positions, each being 1/5 of the total length of the folder. 2/5 cut. There are only the right and the right of center positions. ROC is somewhat like a left position, but doesn't extend to the end of the folder because the tabs are only 2/5 of the total length. 1/2 cut. There are two tab positions and right; because tabs can be cut in different positions, the position of the tab can be referred to as well. For instance, for the 1/3 cut style, folders with tabs in the farthest right position are considered to have a tab in position number three.
Some brands of file folders include: AccuFax Alliance Ames AMZfiling Esselte Find It Gartner Studios Globe-Weis Innovative Storage JAM Paper Jeter systems Office Depot OIC Pendaflex Roaring Spring Paper Products Smead TAB Products Tomodachi Company Folders Lisa Frank Five Star Manila folder Presentation folder Ring binder
Other types of writing desks are the roll top, based on the pedestal desk, the escritoire and the secretaire. A writing desk or bureau acts as a kind of compact office. Traditionally, a writing desk is for writing letters by hand, it has a top that closes to hide current work, which makes the room containing it look tidy, maintains privacy, protects the work. The closing top may contain several joints so that it can roll closed, or may fold closed; the writing surface folds down or slides out, to preserve the compact size when closed. They have small drawers or "pigeon holes". Modern writing desks are designed for laptop computers of the 21st century, they are too small for most desktop computers or a printer. Desk Drawing board
Douglas Carl Engelbart was an American engineer and inventor, an early computer and Internet pioneer. He is best known for his work on founding the field of human–computer interaction while at his Augmentation Research Center Lab in SRI International, which resulted in creation of the computer mouse, the development of hypertext, networked computers, precursors to graphical user interfaces; these were demonstrated at The Mother of All Demos in 1968. Engelbart's law, the observation that the intrinsic rate of human performance is exponential, is named after him. In the early 1950s, he decided that instead of "having a steady job" – such as his position at Ames Research Center – he would focus on making the world a better place, he reasoned that because the complexity of the world's problems was increasing, because any effort to improve the world would require the coordination of groups of people, the most effective way to solve problems was to augment human intelligence and develop ways of building collective intelligence.
He believed that the computer, at the time thought of only as a tool for automation, would be an essential tool for future knowledge workers to solve such problems. He was a committed, vocal proponent of the development and use of computers and computer networks to help cope with the world’s urgent and complex problems. Engelbart embedded a set of organizing principles in his lab, which he termed "bootstrapping", his belief was that when human systems and tool systems were aligned, such that workers spent time "improving their tools for improving their tools" it would lead to an accelerating rate of progress. NLS, the "oN-Line System," developed by the Augmentation Research Center under Engelbart's guidance with funding from DARPA, demonstrated numerous technologies, most of which are now in widespread use; the lab was transferred from SRI to Tymshare in the late 1970s, acquired by McDonnell Douglas in 1984, NLS was renamed Augment. At both Tymshare and McDonnell Douglas, Engelbart was limited by a lack of interest in his ideas and funding to pursue them, retired in 1986.
In 1988, Engelbart and his daughter Christina launched the Bootstrap Institute – known as The Doug Engelbart Institute – to promote his vision at Stanford University. In December 2000, United States President Bill Clinton awarded Engelbart the National Medal of Technology, the U. S.'s highest technology award. In December 2008, Engelbart was honored by SRI at the 40th anniversary of the "Mother of All Demos". Engelbart was born in Portland, Oregon, on January 30, 1925, to Carl Louis Engelbart and Gladys Charlotte Amelia Munson Engelbart, his ancestors were of German and Norwegian descent. He was the middle of three children, with a sister Dorianne, a brother David; the family lived in Portland, Oregon, in his early years, moved to the surrounding countryside along Johnson Creek when he was 8. His father died one year later, he graduated from Portland's Franklin High School in 1942. Midway through his undergraduate years at Oregon State University, near the end of World War II, he was drafted into the United States Navy, serving two years as a radar technician in the Philippines.
On a small island, in a tiny hut on stilts, he read Vannevar Bush's article "As We May Think", which inspired him. He returned to Oregon State and completed his bachelor's degree in electrical engineering in 1948. While at Oregon State, he was a member of Sigma Phi Epsilon social fraternity, he was hired by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics at the Ames Research Center, where he worked in wind tunnel maintenance. In his off hours he enjoyed hiking and folk dancing, it was there he met Ballard Fish, just completing her training to become an occupational therapist. They were married in Portola State Park on May 5, 1951. Soon after, Engelbart left Ames to pursue graduate studies at the University of California, Berkeley. There, he received an M. S. in electrical engineering in 1953 and a Ph. D. in the discipline in 1955. Engelbart's career was inspired in December 1950 when he was engaged to be married and realized he had no career goals other than "a steady job, getting married and living ever after".
Over several months he reasoned that: he would focus his career on making the world a better place any serious effort to make the world better would require some kind of organized effort that harnessed the collective human intellect of all people to contribute to effective solutions. If you could improve how we do that, you'd be boosting every effort on the planet to solve important problems – the sooner the better computers could be the vehicle for improving this capability. In 1945, Engelbart had read with interest Vannevar Bush's article "As We May Think", a call to action for making knowledge available as a national peacetime grand challenge, he had read something about the recent phenomenon of computers, from his experience as a radar technician, he knew that information could be analyzed and displayed on a screen. He envisioned intellectual workers sitting at display "working stations", flying through information space, harnessing their collective intellectual capacity to solve important problems together in much more powerful ways.
Harnessing collective intellect, facilitated by interactive computers, became his life's mission at a time when computers were viewed as number cru
A joystick is an input device consisting of a stick that pivots on a base and reports its angle or direction to the device it is controlling. A joystick known as the control column, is the principal control device in the cockpit of many civilian and military aircraft, either as a center stick or side-stick, it has supplementary switches to control various aspects of the aircraft's flight. Joysticks are used to control video games, have one or more push-buttons whose state can be read by the computer. A popular variation of the joystick used on modern video game consoles is the analog stick. Joysticks are used for controlling machines such as cranes, underwater unmanned vehicles, surveillance cameras, zero turning radius lawn mowers. Miniature finger-operated joysticks have been adopted as input devices for smaller electronic equipment such as mobile phones. Joysticks originated as controls for aircraft ailerons and elevators, are first known to have been used as such on Louis Bleriot's Bleriot VIII aircraft of 1908, in combination with a foot-operated rudder bar for the yaw control surface on the tail.
The name "joystick" is thought to originate with early 20th century French pilot Robert Esnault-Pelterie. There are competing claims on behalf of fellow pilots Robert Loraine, James Henry Joyce, A. E. George. Loraine is cited by the Oxford English Dictionary for using the term "joystick" in his diary in 1909 when he went to Pau to learn to fly at Bleriot's school. George was a pioneer aviator who with his colleague Jobling built and flew a biplane at Newcastle in England in 1910, he is alleged to have invented the "George Stick". The George and Jobling aircraft control column is in the collection of the Discovery Museum in Newcastle upon Tyne, England. Joysticks were present in early planes; the coining of the term "joystick" may be credited to Loraine, as his is the earliest known usage of the term, although he most did not invent the device. The electrical two-axis joystick was invented by C. B. Mirick at the United States Naval Research Laboratory and patented in 1926". NRL was developing remote controlled aircraft at the time and the joystick was used to support this effort.
In the awarded patent, Mirick writes: "My control system is applicable in maneuvering aircraft without a pilot."The Germans developed an electrical two-axis joystick around 1944. The device was used as part of the Germans' Funkgerät FuG 203 Kehl radio control transmitter system used in certain German bomber aircraft, used to guide both the rocket-boosted anti-ship missile Henschel Hs 293, the unpowered pioneering precision-guided munition Fritz-X, against maritime and other targets. Here, the joystick of the Kehl transmitter was used by an operator to steer the missile towards its target; this joystick had on-off switches rather than analogue sensors. Both the Hs 293 and Fritz-X used FuG 230 Straßburg radio receivers in them to send the Kehl's control signals to the ordnance's control surfaces. A comparable joystick unit was used for the contemporary American Azon steerable munition to laterally steer the munition in the yaw axis only; this German invention was picked up by someone in the team of scientists assembled at the Heeresversuchsanstalt in Peenemünde.
Here a part of the team on the German rocket program was developing the Wasserfall missile, a variant of the V-2 rocket, the first ground-to-air missile. The Wasserfall steering equipment converted the electrical signal to radio signals and transmitted these to the missile. In the 1960s the use of joysticks became widespread in radio-controlled model aircraft systems such as the Kwik Fly produced by Phill Kraft; the now-defunct Kraft Systems firm became an important OEM supplier of joysticks to the computer industry and other users. The first use of joysticks outside the radio-controlled aircraft industry may have been in the control of powered wheelchairs, such as the Permobil. During this time period NASA used joysticks as control devices as part of the Apollo missions. For example, the lunar lander test models were controlled with a joystick. In many modern airliners aircraft, for example all Airbus aircraft developed from the 1980s, the joystick has received a new lease on life for flight control in the form of a "side-stick", a controller similar to a gaming joystick but, used to control the flight, replacing the traditional yoke.
The sidestick saves weight, improves movement and visibility in the cockpit, may be safer in an accident than the traditional "control yoke". Ralph H. Baer, inventor of television video games and the Magnavox Odyssey console, released in 1972, created the first video game joysticks in 1967, they were able to control the vertical position of a spot displayed on a screen. The earliest known electronic game joystick with a fire button was released by Sega as part of their 1969 arcade game Missile, a shooter simulation game that used it as part of an early dual-control scheme, where two directional buttons are used to move a motorized tank and a two-way joystick is used to shoot and steer the missile onto oncoming planes displayed on the screen. In 1970, the game was released in North America as S. A. M. I. by Midway Games. Taito released a four-way joystick as part of their arcade racing video game Astro Race in 1973, while their 1975 run and gun multi-directional shooter game Western Gun introduced dual-stick controls with one eight-way joystick for movement and the other for changing the shooting direction.
In North Americ
The Amiga is a family of personal computers introduced by Commodore in 1985. The original model was part of a wave of 16- and 32-bit computers that featured 256 KB or more of RAM, mouse-based GUIs, improved graphics and audio over 8-bit systems; this wave included the Atari ST—released the same year—Apple's Macintosh, the Apple IIGS. Based on the Motorola 68000 microprocessor, the Amiga differed from its contemporaries through the inclusion of custom hardware to accelerate graphics and sound, including sprites and a blitter, a pre-emptive multitasking operating system called AmigaOS; the Amiga 1000 was released in July 1985, but a series of production problems kept it from becoming available until early 1986. The best selling model, the Amiga 500, was introduced in 1987 and became one of the leading home computers of the late 1980s and early 1990s with four to six million sold; the A3000, introduced in 1990, started the second generation of Amiga systems, followed by the A500+, the A600 in March 1992.
As the third generation, the A1200 and the A4000 were released in late 1992. The platform became popular for gaming and programming demos, it found a prominent role in the desktop video, video production, show control business, leading to video editing systems such as the Video Toaster. The Amiga's native ability to play back multiple digital sound samples made it a popular platform for early tracker music software; the powerful processor and ability to access several megabytes of memory enabled the development of several 3D rendering packages, including LightWave 3D, Aladdin4D, TurboSilver and Traces, a predecessor to Blender. Although early Commodore advertisements attempt to cast the computer as an all-purpose business machine when outfitted with the Amiga Sidecar PC compatibility add-on, the Amiga was most commercially successful as a home computer, with a wide range of games and creative software. Poor marketing and the failure of the models to repeat the technological advances of the first systems meant that the Amiga lost its market share to competing platforms, such as the fourth generation game consoles and the dropping prices of IBM PC compatibles which gained 256-color VGA graphics in 1987.
Commodore went bankrupt in April 1994 after the Amiga CD32 model failed in the marketplace. Since the demise of Commodore, various groups have marketed successors to the original Amiga line, including Genesi, Eyetech, ACube Systems Srl and A-EON Technology. AmigaOS has influenced replacements and compatible systems such as MorphOS, AmigaOS 4 and AROS. "The Amiga was so far ahead of its time that nobody—including Commodore's marketing department—could articulate what it was all about. Today, it's obvious the Amiga was the first multimedia computer, but in those days it was derided as a game machine because few people grasped the importance of advanced graphics and video. Nine years vendors are still struggling to make systems that work like 1985 Amigas." Jay Miner joined Atari in the 1970s to develop custom integrated circuits, led development of the Atari 2600's TIA. As soon as its development was complete, the team began developing a much more sophisticated set of chips, CTIA, ANTIC and POKEY, that formed the basis of the Atari 8-bit family.
With the 8-bit line's launch in 1979, the team once again started looking at a next generation chipset. Nolan Bushnell had sold the company to Warner Communications in 1978, the new management was much more interested in the existing lines than development of new products that might cut into their sales. Miner wanted to start work with the new Motorola 68000, but management was only interested in another 6502 based system. Miner left the company, for a time, the industry. In 1979, Larry Kaplan founded Activision. In 1982, Kaplan was approached by a number of investors. Kaplan hired Miner to run the hardware side of the newly formed company, "Hi-Toro"; the system was code-named "Lorraine" in keeping with Miner's policy of giving systems female names, in this case the company president's wife, Lorraine Morse. When Kaplan left the company late in 1982, Miner was promoted to head engineer and the company relaunched as Amiga Corporation. A breadboard prototype was completed by late 1983, shown at the January 1984 Consumer Electronics Show.
At the time, the operating system was not ready, so the machine was demonstrated with the Boing Ball demo. A further developed version of the system was demonstrated at the June 1984 CES and shown to many companies in hopes of garnering further funding, but found little interest in a market, in the final stages of the North American video game crash of 1983. In March, Atari expressed a tepid interest in Lorraine for its potential use in a games console or home computer tentatively known as the 1850XLD, but the talks were progressing and Amiga was running out of money. A temporary arrangement in June led to a $500,000 loan from Atari to Amiga to keep the company going; the terms required the loan to be repaid at the end of the month, otherwise Amiga would forfeit the Lorraine design to Atari. During 1983, Atari lost over $1 million a week, due to the combined effects of the crash and the ongoing price war in the home computer market. By the end of the year, Warner was desperate to sell the company.
In January 1984, Jack Tramiel resigned from Commodore due to internal battles over the future direction of the company. A number of Commodore employees followed him to Tramiel Technology; this included a number of the senior technical staff, where they began development of a 68000-based machine of the