Backpacking is the outdoor recreation of carrying gear on ones back, while hiking for more than a day. It is often but not always an extended journey, and may or may not involve camping outdoors, in North America tenting is common, where simple shelters and mountain huts found widely in Europe are rare. In New Zealand, tramping is an equivalent term though overnight huts are frequently used, hill walking is the equivalent in Britain, though backpackers make use of all kinds of accommodation, in addition to camping. Backpackers use simple huts in South Africa, similar terms used in other countries are trekking and bushwalking. Backpacking as a method of travel is a different activity, which mainly utilizes public transport during a journey which can last months, backpacking is an outdoor recreation where gear is carried in a backpack. This can include food, bedding, clothing, backpacking trips consist of at least one night and can last for weeks or months, sometimes aided by planned resupply points or drops.
A skilled backpacker minimizes their impact on the environment, including staying on established trails, not disturbing vegetation, the Leave No Trace movement ethos is direct, Leave nothing but footprints. Backpackers must always be prepared for difficulties, whether mishaps are experienced or not, the remoteness of backpacking locations can exacerbate any mishap. Survival gear and the skills to use it are paramount, backpacking camps are usually more spartan than campsites where gear is transported by car or boat. In areas with heavy traffic, a hike-in campsite might have a fire ring, an outhouse. Many hike-in camps are no more than level patches of free of underbrush. In remote wilderness areas hikers must choose their own site, established camps are rare and the ethos is to leave no trace when gone. In some regions, varying forms of accommodation exist, from simple log lean-tos to staffed facilities offering escalating degrees of service, beds and even drinks may be had at Alpine huts scattered among well-traveled European mountains.
In the more parts of Great Britain, especially Scotland. On the French system of long distance trails, Grande Randonnées, backpackers can stay in gîtes detapes, there are some simple shelters and occasional mountain hut provided in North America, including on the Appalachian trail. Another example is the High Sierra Camps in the Yosemite National Park, long distance backpacking trails with huts exist in South Africa, including the 100 km plus Amatola Trail, in the Eastern Cape Province. Backpacking is popular in the Himalayas, where porters and pack animals are often used, backpacking gear begins with a suitable backpack, proper both in size and fit. Next is clothing and footwear appropriate for expected conditions, third is an adequate amount and type of food
The wolverine, Gulo gulo, referred to as the glutton, skunk bear, or quickhatch, is the largest land-dwelling species of the family Mustelidae. It is a stocky and muscular carnivore, more resembling a small bear than other mustelids. The wolverine, an animal, has a reputation for ferocity and strength out of proportion to its size. Its population has declined since the 19th century owing to trapping, range reduction. The wolverine is now absent from the southern end of its European range. Genetic evidence suggests that the wolverine is most closely related to the tayra and martens, within the Gulo genus, a clear separation occurs between two subspecies, the Old World form Gulo gulo gulo and the New World form G. g. luscus. Some authors had described as many as four additional North American subspecies, including ones limited to Vancouver Island, the most currently accepted taxonomy recognizes either the two continental subspecies or recognize G. gulo as a single Holarctic taxon. Anatomically, the wolverine is a stocky and muscular animal, with short legs and rounded head, small eyes and short rounded ears, it more closely resembles a bear than it does other mustelids.
Though its legs are short, its large, five-toed paws with claws and plantigrade posture enable them to climb up and over steep cliffs, trees. The males are as much as 30% larger than the females, shoulder height is reported from 30 to 45 cm. Wolverines have thick, oily fur which is highly hydrophobic and this has led to its traditional popularity among hunters and trappers as a lining in jackets and parkas in Arctic conditions. A light-silvery facial mask is distinct in some individuals, and a buff stripe runs laterally from the shoulders along the side. Some individuals display prominent white patches on their throats or chests. Like many other mustelids, it has potent anal scent glands used for marking territory, the pungent odor has given rise to the nicknames skunk bear and nasty cat. Wolverines, like other mustelids, possess a special upper molar in the back of the mouth that is rotated 90 degrees and this special characteristic allows wolverines to tear off meat from prey or carrion that has been frozen solid.
Wolverines are considered to be primarily scavengers, a majority of the wolverines sustenance is derived from carrion, on which they depend almost exclusively in winter and early spring. Wolverines may find themselves, feed on it after the predator is done feeding or simply take it from another predator. Wolverines are known to follow wolf and lynx trails, purportedly with the intent of scavenging the remains of their kills, whether eating live prey or carrion, the wolverines feeding style appears voracious, leading to the nickname of glutton
Populus tremuloides is a deciduous tree native to cooler areas of North America, one of several species referred to by the common name aspen. It is commonly called quaking aspen, trembling aspen, American aspen, mountain or golden aspen, trembling poplar, white poplar, the trees have tall trunks, up to 25 meters tall, with smooth pale bark, scarred with black. The glossy green leaves, dull beneath, become golden to yellow, rarely red, the species often propagates through its roots to form large groves originating from a shared system of rhizomes. Populus tremuloides is the most widely distributed tree in North America and it is the defining species of the aspen parkland biome in the Prairie Provinces of Canada and extreme northwest Minnesota. The quaking or trembling of the leaves that is referred to in the names is due to the flexible flattened petioles. The specific epithet, evokes this trembling behavior and can be translated as like tremula. Some species of Populus have petioles flattened partially along their length, while the aspens and some other poplars have them flattened from side to side along the entire length of the petiole.
Quaking aspen is a tall, fast growing tree, usually 20–25 m at maturity, with a trunk 20 to 80 cm in diameter, the bark is relatively smooth, colored greenish-white to gray, and is marked by thick black horizontal scars and prominent black knots. Parallel vertical scars are tell-tale signs of elk, which strip off bark with their front teeth. The leaves on trees are nearly round, 4–8 centimeters in diameter with small rounded teeth. Young trees and root sprouts have much larger nearly triangular leaves, aspens are dioecious, with separate male and female clones. The quaking aspen is the State Tree of Utah, quaking aspen occurs across Canada in all provinces and territories, with the possible exception of Nunavut. It occurs at low elevations as far south as northern Nebraska, in the western United States, this tree rarely survives at elevations lower than 1,500 feet due to hot summers experienced below that elevation, and is generally found at 5, 000–12,000 feet. It grows at altitudes as far south as Guanajuato, Mexico.
Quaking aspen grows in a variety of climatic conditions. January and July average temperatures range from −30 °C and 16 °C in the Alaska Interior to −3 °C and 23 °C in Fort Wayne, average annual precipitation ranges from 1,020 mm in Gander and Labrador to as little as 180 mm in the Alaska Interior. The southern limit of the range roughly follows the 24 °C mean July isotherm. Shrub-like dwarf clones exist in environments too cold and dry to be hospitable to full-size trees
The mule deer is a deer indigenous to western North America, it is named for its ears, which are large like those of the mule. There are believed to be several subspecies including the black-tailed deer, unlike the related white-tailed deer, mule deer are generally more associated with the land west of the Missouri River, and more specifically with the Rocky Mountain region of North America. Mule deer have introduced to Argentina and Kauai, Hawaii. The most noticeable differences between white-tailed and mule deer are the size of their ears, the color of their tails, in many cases, body size is a key difference. The mule deers tail is black-tipped, whereas the whitetails is not, mule deer antlers are bifurcated, they fork as they grow, rather than branching from a single main beam, as is the case with white-tails. Each spring, a bucks antlers start to regrow almost immediately after the old antlers are shed, shedding typically takes place in mid-February, with variations occurring by locale.
Although capable of running, mule deer are often seen stotting, the mule deer is the larger of the two Odocoileus species on average, with a height of 80–106 cm at the shoulders and a nose-to-tail length ranging from 1.2 to 2.1 m. Of this, the tail may comprise 11.6 to 23 cm, adult bucks normally weigh 55–150 kg, averaging around 92 kg, although trophy specimens may weigh up to 210 kg. Does are rather smaller and typically weigh from 43 to 90 kg, an exception to this is the subspecies, the Sitka black-tailed deer. This race is smaller than other mule deer, with an average weight of 54.5 kg and 36 kg in males and females. In addition to related to available shelter and food, the breeding cycle is important in understanding deer behavior. The rut or mating season begins in the fall as does go into estrus for a period of a few days and males become more aggressive. Does may mate more than one buck and go back into estrus within a month if they did not become pregnant. The gestation period is about 190–200 days, with fawns born in the spring, staying with their mothers during the summer, mule deer females usually give birth to two fawns, although if it is their first time having a fawn, they often have just one. A bucks antlers fall off during the winter, to again in preparation for the next seasons rut.
The annual cycle of growth is regulated by changes in the length of the day. For a guide to identify the sex and age class of Rocky Mountain mule deer at various seasons see S1 File, for more information see the main article on deer. The size of mule deer groups follow a seasonal pattern
The bobcat is a North American cat that appeared during the Irvingtonian stage of around 1.8 million years ago. Containing 12 recognized subspecies, it ranges from southern Canada to central Mexico, the bobcat is an adaptable predator that inhabits wooded areas, as well as semidesert, urban edge, forest edge, and swampland environments. It remains in some of its range, but populations are vulnerable to local extinction by coyotes. With a gray to brown coat, whiskered face, and black-tufted ears and it is smaller on average than the Canada lynx, with which it shares parts of its range, but is about twice as large as the domestic cat. It has distinctive black bars on its forelegs and a black-tipped, stubby tail, though the bobcat prefers rabbits and hares, it hunts insects, chickens and other birds, small rodents, and deer. Prey selection depends on location and habitat and abundance, like most cats, the bobcat is territorial and largely solitary, although with some overlap in home ranges. It uses several methods to mark its boundaries, including claw marks.
The bobcat breeds from winter into spring and has a period of about two months. Although bobcats have been hunted extensively by humans, both for sport and fur, their population has proven resilient though declining in some areas, the elusive predator features in Native American mythology and the folklore of European settlers. The Lynx genus is now accepted, and the bobcat is listed as Lynx rufus in modern taxonomic sources. Johnson et al. reported Lynx shared a clade with the puma, leopard cat, the first wave moved into the southern portion of North America, which was soon cut off from the north by glaciers. This population evolved into modern bobcats around 20,000 years ago, a second population arrived from Asia and settled in the north, developing into the modern Canada lynx. Hybridization between the bobcat and the Canada lynx may sometimes occur, the bobcat resembles other species of the Lynx genus, but is on average the smallest of the four. Its coat is variable, though generally tan to grayish-brown, with streaks on the body and dark bars on the forelegs.
Its spotted patterning acts as camouflage, the ears are black-tipped and pointed, with short, black tufts. Generally, a color is seen on the lips, chin. Bobcats in the regions of the southwest have the lightest-colored coats, while those in the northern. Kittens are born well-furred and already have their spots, a few melanistic bobcats have been sighted and captured in Florida
Sierra Nevada (U.S.)
The Sierra Nevada is a mountain range in the Western United States, between the Central Valley of California and the Basin and Range Province. The vast majority of the lies in the state of California. The Sierra runs 400 miles north-to-south, and is approximately 70 miles across east-to-west, the Sierra is home to three national parks, twenty wilderness areas, and two national monuments. These areas include Yosemite and Kings Canyon National Parks, the character of the range is shaped by its geology and ecology. More than one hundred years ago during the Nevadan orogeny. The range started to uplift four M. A. ago, the uplift caused a wide range of elevations and climates in the Sierra Nevada, which are reflected by the presence of five life zones. Uplift continues due to faulting caused by forces, creating spectacular fault block escarpments along the eastern edge of the southern Sierra. The Sierra Nevada has a significant history, the California Gold Rush occurred in the western foothills from 1848 through 1855.
Due to inaccessibility, the range was not fully explored until 1912, the Sierra Nevada lies in Central and Eastern California, with a very small but historically important spur extending into Nevada. West-to-east, the Sierra Nevadas elevation increases gradually from 1,000 feet in the Central Valley to an height of about 10,500 feet at its crest only 50–75 miles to the east. The east slope forms the steep Sierra Escarpment, unlike its surroundings, the range receives a substantial amount of snowfall and precipitation due to orographic lift. The Sierra Nevada stretches from the Susan River and Fredonyer Pass in the north to Tehachapi Pass in the south and it is bounded on the west by Californias Central Valley and on the east by the Basin and Range Province. The geographical boundary between the Sierra and the Cascades is virtually indistinguishable, with the Fredonyer Pass designation being traditional, physiographically, the Sierra is a section of the Cascade-Sierra Mountains province, which in turn is part of the larger Pacific Mountain System physiographic division.
The range is drained on its western slope by the Central Valley watershed, the northern third of the western Sierra is part of the Sacramento River watershed, and the middle third is drained by the San Joaquin River. The eastern slope watershed of the Sierra is much narrower, its rivers flow out into the endorheic Great Basin of eastern California and western Nevada. Although none of the eastern rivers reach the sea, many of the streams from Mono Lake southwards are diverted into the Los Angeles Aqueduct which provides water to Southern California, the height of the mountains in the Sierra Nevada increases gradually from north to south. Between Fredonyer Pass and Lake Tahoe, the range from 5,000 feet to more than 9,000 feet. The crest near Lake Tahoe is roughly 9,000 feet high, farther south, the highest peak in Yosemite National Park is Mount Lyell
Lake Tahoe is a large freshwater lake in the Sierra Nevada of the United States. Lying at 6,225 ft, it straddles the border between California and Nevada, west of Carson City. Lake Tahoe is the largest alpine lake in North America, and its depth is 1,645 ft, making it the second deepest in the United States after Crater Lake in Oregon. The lake was formed about 2 million years ago as part of the Lake Tahoe Basin and it is known for the clarity of its water and the panorama of surrounding mountains on all sides. The area surrounding the lake is referred to as Lake Tahoe. More than 75% of the watershed is national forest land. Lake Tahoe is a major tourist attraction in both Nevada and California and it is home to winter sports, summer outdoor recreation, and scenery enjoyed throughout the year. Snow and ski resorts are a significant part of the areas economy, the Nevada side offers large casinos, with highways providing year-round access to the entire area. It is about 22 mi long and 12 mi wide and has 72 mi of shoreline, approximately two-thirds of the shoreline is in California.
Although highways run within sight of the shore for much of Tahoes perimeter. The Lake Tahoe Watershed of 505 sq mi includes the area that drains to the lake. Lake Tahoe is fed by 63 tributaries and these drain an area about the same size as the lake and produce half its water, with the balance entering as rain or snow falling directly on it. The Truckee River is the only outlet, flowing northeast through Reno, Nevada. It accounts for one third of the water leaves the lake. The flow of the Truckee River and the height of the lake are controlled by the Lake Tahoe Dam at the outlet, the natural rim is at 6,223 ft above sea level, with a spillway at the dam controlling overflow. The maximum legal limit, to which the lake can be allowed to rise in order to water, is at 6,229.1 ft. Around New Year 1996/1997 a Pineapple Express atmospheric river melted snow and caused the lake and river to overflow, inundating Reno, the Lake Tahoe Basin was formed by vertical motion faulting. Uplifted blocks created the Carson Range on the east and the main Sierra Nevada crest on the west, down-dropped blocks created the Lake Tahoe Basin in between
South Lake Tahoe, California
South Lake Tahoe is the most populous city in El Dorado County, United States, in the Sierra Nevada. As its name suggests, the city is located on the shore of Lake Tahoe. The citys population was 21,403 at the 2010 census, the city extends about 5 miles west-southwest along U. S. Route 50, known as Lake Tahoe Boulevard. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has an area of 16.6 square miles, of which 10.2 square miles is land and 6.4 square miles. Its elevation is about 6,237 feet above sea level, the 2010 United States Census reported that South Lake Tahoe had a population of 21,403. The population density was 1,289.1 people per square mile. The racial makeup of South Lake Tahoe was 15,733 White,182 African American,232 Native American,1,186 Asian,39 Pacific Islander,3,230 from other races, Hispanic or Latino of any race were 6,665 persons. The Census reported that 21,034 people lived in households,181 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, there were 857 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, and 67 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 2,918 households were made up of individuals and 652 had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older, the average household size was 2.36.
There were 4,677 families, the family size was 3.06. The median age was 35.6 years, for every 100 females there were 113.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 115.7 males, there were 15,087 housing units at an average density of 908.7 per square mile, of which 3,473 were owner-occupied, and 5,445 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 4. 5%, the vacancy rate was 14. 6%. 7,684 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 13,350 people lived in housing units. As of the census of 2010, there were 21,403 people,9,410 households, the population density was 2,347.5 people per square mile. There were 14,005 housing units at a density of 1,392.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 75. 73% White,0. 75% Black or African American,0. 97% Native American,6. 01% Asian,0. 17% Pacific Islander,12. 48% from other races, and 3. 90% from two or more races. 26. 66% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race,29. 1% of all households were made up of individuals and 7. 1% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older
Rodents are mammals of the order Rodentia, which are characterized by a single pair of continuously growing incisors in each of the upper and lower jaws. About 40% of all species are rodents, they are found in vast numbers on all continents except Antarctica. They are the most diversified mammalian order and live in a variety of terrestrial habitats, Species can be arboreal, fossorial, or semiaquatic. Well-known rodents include mice, squirrels, prairie dogs, beavers, guinea pigs and capybaras. Other animals such as rabbits and pikas, whose incisors grow continually, were included with them, but are now considered to be in a separate order. Nonetheless and Lagomorpha are sister groups, sharing a most recent common ancestor, most rodents are small animals with robust bodies, short limbs, and long tails. They use their incisors to gnaw food, excavate burrows. Most eat seeds or other plant material, but some have more varied diets and they tend to be social animals and many species live in societies with complex ways of communicating with each other.
Mating among rodents can vary from monogamy, to polygyny, to promiscuity, many have litters of underdeveloped, altricial young, while others are precocial at birth. The rodent fossil record back to the Paleocene on the supercontinent of Laurasia. Rodents greatly diversified in the Eocene, as spread across continents. Rodents reached both South America and Madagascar from Africa, and were the only placental mammals to reach. Rodents have been used as food, for clothing, as pets, some species, in particular the brown rat, the black rat, and the house mouse, are serious pests and spoiling food stored by humans, and spreading diseases. The distinguishing feature of the rodents is their pairs of continuously growing and these incisors have thick layers of enamel on the front and little enamel on the back. Because they do not stop growing, the animal must continue to wear them down so that they do not reach and pierce the skull. As the incisors grind against each other, the softer dentine on the rear of the teeth wears away, most species have up to 22 teeth with no canines or anterior premolars. A gap, or diastema, occurs between the incisors and the teeth in most species.
This allows rodents to suck in their cheeks or lips to shield their mouth and throat from wood shavings and other inedible material and guinea pigs have a high-fiber diet, their molars have no roots and grow continuously like their incisors
Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
The American badger is a North American badger, somewhat similar in appearance to the European badger. It is found in the western and central United States, northern Mexico, American badgers habitat is typefied by open grasslands with available prey. The species prefers areas such as regions with sandy loam soils where it can dig more easily for its prey. The American badger is a member of the Mustelidae, a family of carnivorous mammals that includes the weasel, ferret. The American badger belongs to the Taxidiinae, one of three subfamilies of badgers – the other two being the Melinae and the Mellivorinae, the American badgers closest relative is the prehistoric Chamitataxus. Ranges of subspecies overlap considerably, with intermediate forms occurring in the areas of overlap, in Mexico, this animal is sometimes called tlalcoyote. The Spanish word for badger is tejón, but in Mexico this word is used to describe the coati. This can lead to confusion, as both coatis and badgers are found in Mexico, measuring generally between 60 and 75 cm in length, males of the species are slightly larger than females.
Northern subspecies such as T. t. jeffersonii are heavier than the southern subspecies, in the fall, when food is plentiful, adult male badgers can exceed 11.5 kg. Except for the head, the American badger is covered with a grizzled, brown and white coat of hair or fur. The coat aids in camouflage in grassland habitat and its triangular face shows a distinctive black and white pattern, with brown or blackish badges marking the cheeks and a white stripe extending from the nose to the base of the head. In the subspecies T. t. berlandieri, the white stripe extends the full length of the body. The American badger is a fossorial carnivore, the American badger is a significant predator of snakes including rattlesnakes, and is considered the most important predator of rattlesnakes in South Dakota. American badgers are nocturnal, however, in remote areas with no human encroachment they are routinely observed foraging during the day. Seasonally, a badger observed during daylight hours in the Spring months of late March to early May often represents a female foraging during daylight, badgers do not hibernate, but may become less active in winter. A badger may spend much of the winter in cycles of torpor that last around 29 hours and they do emerge from their burrows when the temperature is above freezing. A widely held misconception is that badgers and coyotes hunt together, badgers are solitary foragers, coyotes will observe badgers in the process of foraging and position themselves in proximity in order to attempt to capture any prey seeking to escape.
Badgers are normally solitary animals, but are thought to expand their territories in the season to seek out mates
It is listed as least concern by the IUCN. Its range has increased alongside human expansion, having introduced to Australia. Due to its presence in Australia, it is included among the list of the worlds 100 worst invasive species, the red fox originated from smaller-sized ancestors from Eurasia during the Middle Villafranchian period, and colonised North America shortly after the Wisconsin glaciation. Among the true foxes, the red fox represents a progressive form in the direction of carnivory. Apart from its size, the red fox is distinguished from other fox species by its ability to adapt quickly to new environments. Despite its name, the species often produces individuals with other colourings, including albinos, forty-five subspecies are currently recognised, which are divided into two categories, the large northern foxes, and the small, basal southern foxes of Asia and North Africa. Red foxes are usually together in pairs or small groups consisting of families, such as a pair and their young.
The young of the pair remain with their parents to assist in caring for new kits. The species primarily feeds on rodents, though it may target rabbits, game birds, invertebrates. Fruit and vegetable matter is eaten sometimes, the species has a long history of association with humans, having been extensively hunted as a pest and furbearer for many centuries, as well as being represented in human folklore and mythology. Because of its distribution and large population, the red fox is one of the most important furbearing animals harvested for the fur trade. Too small to pose a threat to humans, it has colonised many suburban areas. Females are called vixens, and young cubs, pups, or kits, the word fox comes from Old English, which derived from Proto-Germanic *fuhsaz. Compare with West Frisian foks, Dutch vos, and German Fuchs and this, in turn, derives from Proto-Indo-European *puḱ- ‘thick-haired, tail. Compare to the Hindi pū̃ch ‘tail, Tocharian B päkā ‘tail, the bushy tail forms the basis for the foxs Welsh name, literally ‘bushy, from llwyn ‘bush.
Likewise, raposa from rabo ‘tail, Lithuanian uodẽgis from uodegà ‘tail, and Ojibwa waagosh from waa, the scientific term vulpes derives from the Latin word for fox, and gives the adjectives vulpine and vulpecular. It is, not as adapted for a carnivorous diet as the Tibetan fox. The species is Eurasian in origin, and may have evolved from either Vulpes alopecoides or the related Chinese V. chikushanensis, the earliest fossil specimens of V. vulpes were uncovered in Baranya, Hungary dating from 3. 4-1.8 million years ago