Principality of Lippe
Lippe was a historical state in Germany, ruled by the House of Lippe. It was located between the southeast part of the Teutoburg forest; the founder of what would become the County of Lippe the Principality of Lippe was Bernhard I, who received a grant of territory from Lothair III in 1123. Bernhard I assumed the title of edler Herr von Lippe; the history of the dynasty and its further acquisitions of land began with Bernard II. His territory was formed out of land he acquired on the destruction of the Duchy of Saxony following the demise of Henry the Lion in 1180. From 1196 to 1666 the descendants of Bernard II passed their holdings from father to sons for sixteen generations. Thereafter until 1905, a collateral branch passed Lippe from father to sons for eight generations. A distant relation the became the last ruler until the Revolution of 1918 when Lippe became a republic. Simon V was the first ruler of Lippe to style himself as a count in 1528. Following the death of Simon VI in 1613, the county was partitioned between his three sons.
The county of Lippe-Brake was reunited with the main Detmold line in 1709. Another branch of the family was founded by Jobst Herman, a son of Simon VII, founder of the Lippe-Biesterfeld line. From this branch, the branch Lippe-Weissenfeld was to be separated. Both the Counties of Lippe-Biesterfeld and Lippe-Weissenfeld were sold to the princely line of Lippe in 1762; the Counts of Lippe-Detmold were granted the title of Imperial prince in 1789. Shortly after becoming a member state of the German Empire in 1871, the Lippe-Detmold line died out on 20 July 1895; this resulted in an inheritance dispute between the neighbouring principality of Schaumburg-Lippe and the Lippe-Biesterfeld line. The dispute was resolved by the Imperial Court in Leipzig in 1905, with the lands passing to the Lippe-Biesterfeld line who, until this point, had no territorial sovereignty; the Principality of Lippe came to an end on 12 November 1918 with the abdication of Leopold IV, with Lippe becoming a Free State. In 1947, Lippe merged into the state of North Rhine-Westphalia.
The princely family still owns the castle at Detmold. Raised to County in 1528. Raised to Principality 1789. Lippe-Biesterfeld line succeeded as senior line: List of consorts of Lippe Ostwestfalen-Lippe German Genealogy: Lippe Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Lippe". Encyclopædia Britannica. 16. Cambridge University Press. Pp. 740–741. A. Falkmann, Beiträge zur Geschichte des Fürstenthums Lippe Schwanold, Das Fürstentum Lippe, das Land und seine Bewohner Piderit, Die lippischen Edelherrn im Mittelalter A. Falkmann and O. Preuss, Lippische Regenten H. Triepel, Der Streit um die Thronfolge im Fürstentum Lippe P. Laband, Die Thronfolge im Fürstentum Lippe' Schiedsspruch in dem Rechtstreit uber die Thronfolge im Fürstentum Lippe vom 25 Okl. 1905 Ordinances and by-laws of the county of Lippe online Guidelines for the integration of the Land Lippe within the territory of the federal state North-Rhine-Westphalia of 17 January 1947
Horn-Bad Meinberg is a German city in the Principality of Lippe in the north-east of North Rhine-Westphalia on the edge of the Teutoburg forest. The district Bad Meinberg is a spa resort, it has 17,185 inhabitants. It was formed in 1970 by merging various other municipalities that had grown together, including Bad Meinberg and Horn - the new entity's original name was Bad Meinberg-Horn, before taking its present name. Horn-Bad Meinberg is the location of the Externsteine, a rock formation consisting of several tall, narrow columns. In the municipality are the two highest peaks of the Eggegebirge, the Lipp Velmerstot and the Prussian Velmerstot with about above sea level and the highest elevation of the Teutoburg forest, the Barnacken with; the deepest point of the metropolitan area is. Between the districts Horn and Holzhausen-Externsteine is the most famous natural monument of the Teutoburg Forest, the Externsteine, nearby springs the Wiembecke. Starting in the west the municipality is bordering to Schlangen, Detmold and Schieder-Schwalenberg in Lippe.
It follows in the south Höxter with the community Steinheim. Southwest still meets the Kreis Paderborn with the communities Altenbeken and Bad Lippspringe on the border with the municipality Horn-Bad Meinberg; the merger of the city of Horn and the municipalities Bad Meinberg, Bellenberg, Fromhausen, Holzhausen-Externsteine, Schmedissen, Vahlhausen at Horn and Wehren and Kempenfeldrom and the integration of parts of the municipalities Oberschönenbuch Hagen and Schönemark formed the newly Horn-Bad Meinberg" The oldest known written mention of Horn shows that the foundation of the city was in 1248. Armed conflicts around the city were during the Soest Feud and during the Thirty Years' War. 1761 the town resisted in the Seven Years' War the siege of the French troops commanded by the princes of Beauvau. In 1864, large parts of the city were destroyed including the old town hall. A connection for the city of Horn to the railway connection was made in 1895; the station is located on the route Detmold-Altenbeken.
In the east of Horn arose at the beginning of World War II, the settlement Moorlage. Reason was the relocation of the village Haustenbeck in Senne, given to the Sennelager Training Area. Many people from the community moved to Horn; the farmers received courtyards of the Reichsumsiedlungsgesellschaft. On February 18, 1938, the first proposal was made to build a closed settlement; some forty families settled around to Horn. End of August 1939 arrived mayor Wilhelm Mehrmann. 1989 were still 42 of 44 settlement houses owned by the families, who they built before the war. Official website Official website
Burgomaster is the English form of various terms in or derived from Germanic languages for the chief magistrate or executive of a city or town. The name in English was derived from the Dutch burgemeester. In some cases, Burgomaster was the title of the head of state and head of government of a sovereign city-state, sometimes combined with other titles, such as Hamburg's First Mayor and President of the Senate). Contemporary titles are translated into English as mayor. In history in many free imperial cities the function of burgomaster was held by three persons, serving as an executive college. One of the three being burgomaster in chief for a year, the second being the prior burgomaster in chief, the third being the upcoming one. Präsidierender Bürgermeister is now an obsolete formulation sometimes found in historic texts. In an important city in a city state, where one of the Bürgermeister has a rank equivalent to that of a minister-president, there can be several posts called Bürgermeister in the city's executive college, justifying the use of a compound title for the actual highest magistrate, such as: Regierender Bürgermeister in West Berlin and reunited Berlin, while in Berlin the term Bürgermeister without attribute – English Mayor – refers to his deputies, while the heads of the 12 boroughs of Berlin are called Bezirksbürgermeister, English borough mayor.
Erster Bürgermeister in Hamburg Bürgermeister und Präsident des Senats in Bremen Amtsbürgermeister can be used for the chief magistrate of a Swiss constitutive canton, as in Aargau 1815–1831 Bürgermeister, in German: in Germany, South Tyrol, in Switzerland. In Switzerland, the title was abolished mid-19th century. Oberbürgermeister is the most common version for a mayor in a big city in Germany; the Ober- prefix is used in many ranking systems for the next level up including military designations. The mayors of cities, which comprise one of Germany's 112 urban districts bear this title. Urban districts are comparable to independent cities in the English-speaking world; however the mayors of some cities, which do not comprise an urban district, but used to comprise one until the territorial reforms in the 1970s, bear the title Oberbürgermeister. Borgmester Borgarstjóri Borgermester Börgermester Burgomaestre Purkmistr Burgumaisu Borgomastro or Sindaco-Borgomastro: in few communes of Lombardy Burgemeester in Dutch: in Belgium a party-political post, though formally nominated by the regional government and answerable to it, the federal state and the province.
Mayor. In the Netherlands nominated by the municipal council but appointed by the crown. In theory above the parties, in practice a high-profile party-political post. Bourgmestre in Belgium and the Democratic Republic of the Congo Bürgermeister Burmistras, derived from German. Buergermeeschter Polgármester, derived from German. Burmistrz, a mayoral title, derived from German; the German form Oberbürgermeister is translated as Nadburmistrz. The German-derived terminology reflects the involvement of German settlers in the early history of many Polish towns. Borgmästare, kommunalborgmästare. Boargemaster Pormestari In the Netherlands and Belgium, the mayor is an appointed government position, whose main responsibility is chairing the executive and legislative councils of a municipality. In the Netherlands, mayors chair both the council of the municipal council, they are members of the council of mayor and aldermen and have their own portfolios, always including safety and public order. They have a representative role for the municipal government, both to its civilians and to other authorities on the local and national level.
A large majority of mayors are members of a political party. This can be the majority party in the municipal council. However, the mayors are expected to exercise their office in a non-partisan way; the mayor is appointed by the national government for a renewable six-year term. In the past, mayors for important cities were chosen after negotiations between the national parties; this appointment procedure has been criticised. The party D66 had a direct election of the mayor as one of the main objectives in its platform. In the early 2000s, proposals for change were discussed in the national parliament. However
North Rhine-Westphalia is a state of Germany. North Rhine-Westphalia is located in western Germany covering an area of 34,084 square kilometres. With a population of 17.9 million, it is the most populous state in Germany. It is the most densely populated German state apart from the city-states of Berlin and Hamburg, the fourth-largest by area. Düsseldorf is the state capital and Cologne is the largest city. North Rhine-Westphalia features four of Germany's 10 largest cities: Düsseldorf, Cologne and Essen, the Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan area, the largest in Germany and the third-largest on the European continent. North Rhine-Westphalia was established in 1946 after World War II from the Prussian provinces of Westphalia and the northern part of Rhine Province, the Free State of Lippe by the British military administration in Allied-occupied Germany. North Rhine-Westphalia became a state of the Federal Republic of Germany in 1949, the city of Bonn served as the federal capital until the reunification of Germany in 1990 and as the seat of government until 1999.
The first written account of the area was by its conqueror, Julius Caesar, the territories west of the Rhine were occupied by the Eburones and east of the Rhine he reported the Ubii and the Sugambri to their north. The Ubii and some other Germanic tribes such as the Cugerni were settled on the west side of the Rhine in the Roman province of Germania Inferior. Julius Caesar conquered the tribes on the left bank, Augustus established numerous fortified posts on the Rhine, but the Romans never succeeded in gaining a firm footing on the right bank, where the Sugambri neighboured several other tribes including the Tencteri and Usipetes. North of the Sigambri and the Rhine region were the Bructeri; as the power of the Roman empire declined, many of these tribes came to be seen collectively as Ripuarian Franks and they pushed forward along both banks of the Rhine, by the end of the fifth century had conquered all the lands, under Roman influence. By the eighth century, the Frankish dominion was established in western Germany and northern Gaul, but at the same time, to the north, Westphalia was being taken over by Saxons pushing south.
The Merovingian and Carolingian Franks built an empire which controlled first their Ripuarian kin, the Saxons. On the division of the Carolingian Empire at the Treaty of Verdun, the part of the province to the east of the river fell to East Francia, while that to the west remained with the kingdom of Lotharingia. By the time of Otto I, both banks of the Rhine had become part of the Holy Roman Empire, the Rhenish territory was divided between the duchies of Upper Lorraine on the Moselle and Lower Lorraine on the Meuse; the Ottonian dynasty had both Frankish ancestry. As the central power of the Holy Roman Emperor weakened, the Rhineland split into numerous small, separate vicissitudes and special chronicles; the old Lotharingian divisions became obsolete, although the name survives for example in Lorraine in France, throughout the Middle Ages and into modern times, the nobility of these areas sought to preserve the idea of a preeminent duke within Lotharingia, something claimed by the Dukes of Limburg, the Dukes of Brabant.
Such struggles as the War of the Limburg Succession therefore continued to create military and political links between what is now Rhineland-Westphalia and neighbouring Belgium and the Netherlands. In spite of its dismembered condition and the sufferings it underwent at the hands of its French neighbours in various periods of warfare, the Rhenish territory prospered and stood in the foremost rank of German culture and progress. Aachen was the place of coronation of the German emperors, the ecclesiastical principalities of the Rhine bulked in German history. Prussia first set foot on the Rhine in 1609 by the occupation of the Duchy of Cleves and about a century Upper Guelders and Moers became Prussian. At the peace of Basel in 1795, the whole of the left bank of the Rhine was resigned to France, in 1806, the Rhenish princes all joined the Confederation of the Rhine. After the Congress of Vienna, Prussia was awarded the entire Rhineland, which included the Grand Duchy of Berg, the ecclesiastic electorates of Trier and Cologne, the free cities of Aachen and Cologne, nearly a hundred small lordships and abbeys.
The Prussian Rhine province was formed in 1822 and Prussia had the tact to leave them in undisturbed possession of the liberal institutions to which they had become accustomed under the republican rule of the French. In 1920, the districts of Eupen and Malmedy were transferred to Belgium. Around AD 1, numerous incursions occurred through Westphalia and even some permanent Roman or Romanized settlements; the Battle of Teutoburg Forest took place near Osnabrück and some of the Germanic tribes who fought at this battle came from the area of Westphalia. Charlemagne is thought to have spent considerable time in nearby parts, his Saxon Wars partly took place in what is thought of as Westphalia today. Popular legends link his adversary Widukind to places near Detmold, Lemgo, Osnabrück, other places in Westphalia. Widukind was buried in Enger, a subject of a legend. Along with Eastphalia and Engern, Westphalia was a district of the Duchy of Saxony. In 1180, Westphalia was elevated to the rank of a duchy by Emperor Barbarossa.
The Duchy of Westphalia comprised only a small area
Battle of the Teutoburg Forest
The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest, described as the Varian Disaster by Roman historians, took place in the Teutoburg Forest in 9 CE, when an alliance of Germanic tribes ambushed and decisively destroyed three Roman legions and their auxiliaries, led by Publius Quinctilius Varus. The alliance was led by a Germanic officer of Varus's auxilia. Arminius had acquired Roman citizenship and had received a Roman military education, which enabled him to deceive the Roman commander methodically and anticipate the Roman army's tactical responses. Despite several successful campaigns and raids by the Romans in the years after the battle, they never again attempted to conquer the Germanic territories east of the Rhine river; the victory of the Germanic tribes against Rome's legions in the Teutoburg Forest would have far-reaching effects on the subsequent history of both the ancient Germanic peoples and the Roman Empire. Contemporary and modern historians have regarded Arminius' victory over Varus as "Rome's greatest defeat", making it one of the rarest things in history, a decisive battle, as "a turning-point in world history".
In 4 CE the Roman general Tiberius entered Germania and subjugated the Cananefates in Germania Inferior, the Chatti near the upper Weser River and the Bructeri south of the Teutoburg Forest. After these conquests he led his army across the Weser. In early 6 CE Legatus Gaius Sentius Saturninus and Consul Legatus Marcus Aemilius Lepidus led a massive army of 65,000 heavy infantry legionaries, 10,000–20,000 cavalrymen, archers, 10,000–20,000 civilians in an offensive operation against Maroboduus, the king of the Marcomanni, who were a tribe of the Suebi. Following their defeat at the hands of Drusus I in 9 BCE the Marcomanni had fled into the territory of the Boii, from which they formed an alliance with the Hermunduri, Semnones, Zumi, Mugilones and Langobards. In 6 CE, leadership of the Roman force was turned over to Publius Quinctilius Varus, a nobleman and experienced administrative official from a patrician family, related to the Imperial family, he was assigned to consolidate the new province of Germania in the autumn of that year.
Tiberius was forced to turn his attention to the Bellum Batonianum known as the Great Illyrian Revolt, which broke out in the province of Illyricum. Led by Bato the Daesitiate, Bato the Breucian, Pinnes of Pannonia, elements of the Marcomanni, it lasted nearly four years. Tiberius was forced to stop his campaign against Maroboduus and recognise him as king so that he could send his eight legions to crush the rebellion in the Balkans. Nearly half of all Roman legions in existence were sent to the Balkans to end the revolt, itself triggered by constant neglect, endemic food shortages, high taxes, harsh behavior on the part of the Roman tax collectors; this campaign, led by Tiberius and Quaestor Legatus Germanicus under Emperor Augustus, was one of the most difficult, most crucial, in the history of the Roman Empire. Due to this massive redeployment of available legions, when Varus was named Legatus Augusti pro praetore in Germania, only three legions were available to him. Varus' name and deeds were well known beyond the empire because of his ruthlessness and crucifixion of insurgents.
While he was feared by the people, he was respected by the Roman senate. On the Rhine, he was in command of the XVII, XVIII, XIX legions; these had been led by General Gaius Sentius Saturninus, sent back to Rome after being awarded an ornamenta triumphalia. The other two legions in the winter-quarters of the army at castrum Moguntiacum were led by Varus' nephew, Lucius Nonius Asprenas and Lucius Arruntius. Following the attacks of Drusus I in 11–9 BCE, Varus' opponent, along with his brother Flavus, had been sent to Rome as tribute by their father, Segimerus the Conqueror, chieftain of the noblest house in the tribe of the Cherusci. Arminius spent his youth in Rome as a hostage, where he had received a military education, been given the rank of Equestrian. During Arminius' absence, Segimerus was declared a coward by the other Germanic chieftains, because he had submitted to Roman rule, a crime punishable by death under Germanic law. Between 11 BCE and 4 CE, the hostility and suspicion between the Germanic tribes deepened.
Trade and political accords between the warlords deteriorated. Tacitus wrote that the Chatti were hostile, subjugated the Cherusci, but were themselves "pacified" between 4 and 6 CE. Velleius Paterculus reports that in the years 1–4 CE, there was unrest in Germania. After his return from Rome, Arminius became a trusted advisor to Varus, but in secret he forged an alliance of Germanic tribes that had traditionally been enemies; these included the Cherusci, Chatti, Chauci and remaining elements of the Suebi, defeated by Caesar in the Battle of Vosges. These five were some of the fifty Germanic tribes at the time. Using the collective outrage over Varus' tyrannous insolence and wanton cruelty to the conquered, Arminius was able to unite the disorganized tribes who had submitted in sullen hatred to the Roman dominion, maintain said alliance until the most opportune moment to strike. Between 6 and 9 CE, the Romans were forced to move eight of eleven legions present in Germania east of the Rhine river to crush a rebellion in the Balkans, leaving Varus with only three legions to face the Germans.
Blomberg, North Rhine-Westphalia
Blomberg is a town in the Lippe district of North Rhine-Westphalia, with c. 15,300 inhabitants Blomberg is 45 km south east of Bielefeld, 20 km east of Detmold and 17 km south west towards Bad Pyrmont. The district is located in the southern foothills of the Lippe mountain range and in the area of Blomberger and Schwalenberger Heights; the core city is located in the center of the so-called Blomberger basin, which lies about 150 m above sea level and separates itself from the surrounding area. The hem of the basin to the north and east are the 400 m high wooded ridges of Barntruper and Blomberger Stadtwald with the Dicker and Winterberg. To the west are the Hörntruper Berg, the Meierberg, the Mossenberg and the Püllenberg, while the border in the south of Nessenberg and Steinberg is formed; the drainage of the eastern part of the Blomberger basin is made by the Diestel, a left tributary of the Emmer. Between the districts Istrup and Großenmarpe a watershed has formed. For this reason, the western part of the Blomberg basin is drained via the Marpe and its tributaries towards Bega / Werre.
The lowest point of the municipality is at 139 m, the highest is the summit of the winter mountain at 429 m. The municipality is located on the southern flank of the Pyrmont-Piesberger axis, there are exclusively rocks of the Middle and Upper Keupers open-minded; the rock strata, which were once stored horizontally in the Middle Ages, were raised in the Tertiary around 30 million years ago and formed the Blomberger Sattel. By erosion in the center of the saddle the older gray and red marl of the Middle Keuper were uncovered, called Gipskeuper because of switched-on layers of gypsum; the result was the recognizable pelvic structure, this phenomenon is called relief reversal. The reed sandstone forms a first striking terrain level; the city itself is located on the western edge of this steep step. The reed sandstone was obtained in small quarries as quarry stone for construction purposes; the marls of the so-called Red Wall are susceptible to weathering, only the following harder stone marls give rise to another stage in the terrain.
The outermost edge of the basin structure consists of harder rock layers of the Upper Keuper Rätkeuper. In the Tertiary it came in the inner basin edges consisting of gypsum Keuper to the dissolution of plaster layers. Through this process called subrosion, formed hollows; these were backfilled with the weathering marls from the immediate area. Because of their high clay content, these sediments formed the raw material basis for some brickworks. In the basin itself, loess has deposited in the course of the last ice age and weathered to loess clay; the amount of deposits is up to 150 cm and is responsible for the good to good quality of arable land. The old Kleinstadt, classified district, covers an area of 99.12 km². The municipality has a maximum extent in east-west direction of about 12½ km and in north-south direction of about 15½ km; the vast majority of the land is used by agriculture, in the area of wet creek lowlands as grassland and pastures. The forest on the surrounding mountains consists of three quarters of deciduous trees beech, while on the Rätkeuper spruce cultures thrive.
In comparison to the NRW state average of 49.4%, the agricultural area in Blomberg is 60%, while the forest area is 25.4% and 26.5%. Extensive areas of the Blomberg urban area are good to good for the use of geothermal heat sources using geothermal probes and heat generated by heat pump. In the central and southern urban area, the suitability is rather mediocre, in some cases poor; the neighbouring committees are Bad Pyrmont, Lügde, Schieder-Schwalenberg, Horn-Bad Meinberg, Lemgo, Dörentrup and Barntrup. The Blomberg city area belongs to the maritime climate area of northwest Germany; the winters are mild under Atlantic influence, the summers moderately warm and the rainfall evenly distributed. The average annual temperature is around 9 °C. Monthly average varies from around 0 °C in January to 17 °C in July / August; the annual rainfall is around 900 mm. The average annual solar radiation is 955 kilowatt hours per square meter. Wilfried Paulsen was born on Gut Nassengrund near Blomberg, he was a potato breeder and in the last decades of the 19th century he was the market leader for potatoes in Germany Louis Paulsen, the younger brother of Wilfried, was one of the strongest German chess players of the 19th century Hermann Vöchting was a well-known botanist and longtime director of the Botanical Institute of University of Tübingen.
Gerhard Schröder, born 1944 in the blomberg village Mossenberg-Wöhren, is a German politician. He was the seventh Federal Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany from 1998 to 2005, from 1990 to 1998 Minister President of Lower Saxony. Http://www.blomberg-lippe.de/ Official website]
Continental Reformed church
A Continental Reformed church is a Reformed church that has its origin in the European continent. Prominent subgroups are the Dutch Reformed, the Swiss Reformed, the French Reformed, the Hungarian Reformed, the Waldensian Church in Italy; the term is used to distinguish these churches from Presbyterian, Congregational or other Calvinist churches, which can trace their origin to the British Isles or elsewhere in the world. Continental Reformed churches are descended from the Protestant Reformation in respective European countries. Notably, their theology is derived from the Swiss Reformation, as Switzerland was a base for the most influential Reformed theologians of the era, it was inaugurated by Huldrych Zwingli. Swiss Reformation was more articulated by Martin Bucer, Heinrich Bullinger and John Calvin. In the sixteenth century, the movement spread to most of continental Europe, sometimes aligning and secured by monarchs and other nobles, like in Switzerland and France; the first Reformed churches were established in Europe after 1519 and were part of the Protestant Reformation.
Reformed doctrine is expressed in various confessions. A few confessions are shared by many denominations. Different denominations use different confessions based on historical reasons; the following is a chronological list of confession and theological doctrines of the Reformed churches: First Helvetic Confession Consensus Tigurinus French Confession Scots Confession Three forms of Unity Heidelberg Catechism Belgic Confession Canons of Dordrecht Second Helvetic Confession Helvetic Consensus Second London Baptist Confession Barmen Declaration In contrast to the episcopal polity of the Anglican and many Lutheran and Methodist churches, continental Reformed churches are ruled by assemblies of "elders" or ordained officers. This is called Synodal government by the continental Reformed, but is the same as presbyterian polity, with the elders forming the consistory, the regional governing body known as the classis, the highest court of appeal being the general synod; the Reformed Church in Hungary, its sister church in Romania, the Hungarian Reformed Church in America, the Polish Reformed Church are the only continental Reformed churches to have retained the office of bishop.
Many churches in the Reformed tradition spread either by European immigration, or European and North American missionary work. A comprehensive list of Continental Reformed churches can be found here. Category:Reformed church seminaries and theological colleges Community of Protestant Churches in Europe Congregationalist polity World Alliance of Reformed Churches World Communion of Reformed Churches North American Presbyterian and Reformed Council List of Reformed denominations World Communion of Reformed Churches Reformed Ecumenical Council Reformed Online - Comprehensive resource International Conference of Reformed Churches - 25 Reformed member churches from 14 countries Association Of Reformed Charismatic Churches