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Detonator

A detonator a blasting cap, is a device used to trigger an explosive device. Detonators can be chemically, mechanically, or electrically initiated, the latter two being the most common; the commercial use of explosives uses electrical detonators or the capped fuse, a length of safety fuse to which an ordinary detonator has been joined. Many detonators' primary explosive is a material called ASA compound; this compound is formed from lead azide, lead styphnate and aluminium and is pressed into place above the base charge TNT or tetryl in military detonators and PETN in commercial detonators. Other materials such as DDNP are used as the primary charge to reduce the amount of lead emitted into the atmosphere by mining and quarrying operations. Old detonators used mercury fulminate as the primary mixed with potassium chlorate to yield better performance. A blasting cap is a small sensitive primary explosive device used to detonate a larger, more powerful and less sensitive secondary explosive such as TNT, dynamite, or plastic explosive.

Blasting caps come in a variety of types, including non-electric caps, electric caps, fuse caps. They are used in commercial mining and demolition. Electric types are set off by a short burst of current sent by a blasting machine via a long wire to the cap to ensure safety. Traditional fuse caps have a fuse, ignited by a flame source, such as a match or a lighter; the need for detonators such as blasting caps came from the development of safer explosives. Different explosives require different amounts of energy to detonate. Most commercial explosives are formulated with a high activation energy, to make them stable and safe to handle so they will not explode if accidentally dropped, mishandled, or exposed to fire; these are called secondary explosives. However they are correspondingly difficult to detonate intentionally, require a small initiating explosion; this is provided by a detonator. A detonator contains an easy-to-ignite primary explosive that provides the initial activation energy to start the detonation in the main charge.

Explosives used in detonators include mercury fulminate, lead azide, lead styphnate, DDNP. Blasting caps and some detonators are stored separately and not inserted into the main explosive charge until just before use, keeping the main charge safe. Early blasting caps used silver fulminate, but it has been replaced with cheaper and safer primary explosives. Silver azide is still used sometimes, but rarely due to its high price. Detonators are hazardous for untrained personnel to handle, they are sometimes not recognized as explosives due to their appearance, leading to injuries. Ordinary detonators take the form of ignition-based explosives. While they are used in commercial operations, ordinary detonators are still used in military operations; this form of detonator is most initiated using a safety fuse, used in non time-critical detonations e.g. conventional munitions disposal. Well known detonators are lead azide, silver azide and mercury fulminate. There are three categories of electrical detonators: instantaneous electrical detonators, short period delay detonators and long period delay detonators.

SPDs are measured in milliseconds and LPDs are measured in seconds. In situations where nanosecond accuracy is required in the implosion charges in nuclear weapons, exploding-bridgewire detonators are employed; the initial shock wave is created by vaporizing a length of a thin wire by an electric discharge. A new development is a slapper detonator, which uses thin plates accelerated by an electrically exploded wire or foil to deliver the initial shock, it is in use in some modern weapons systems. A variant of this concept is used in mining operations, when the foil is exploded by a laser pulse delivered to the foil by optical fiber. A non-electric detonator is a shock tube detonator designed to initiate explosions for the purpose of demolition of buildings and for use in the blasting of rock in mines and quarries. Instead of electric wires, a hollow plastic tube delivers the firing impulse to the detonator, making it immune to most of the hazards associated with stray electric current, it consists of a small diameter, three-layer plastic tube coated on the innermost wall with a reactive explosive compound, when ignited, propagates a low energy signal, similar to a dust explosion.

The reaction travels at 6,500 ft/s along the length of the tubing with minimal disturbance outside of the tube. Non-electric detonators were invented by the Swedish company Nitro Nobel in the 1960s and 1970s, launched to the demolitions market in 1973. In civil mining, electronic detonators have a better precision for delays. Electronic detonators are designed to provide the precise control necessary to produce accurate and consistent blasting results in a variety of blasting applications in the mining and construction industries. Electronic detonators may be programmed in millisecond or sub-millisecond increments using a dedicated programming device. Wireless electronic detonators are beginning to be available in the civil mining market. Encrypted radio signals are used to communicate the blast signal to each detonator at the correct time. While expensive, wireless detonators can enable new mining techniques as multiple blasts can be loaded at once and fired in sequence without putting humans in harm's way.

A number 8 test blasting cap is one containing 2 grams of a mixture of 80 percent mercury fulminate and 20 percent potassium chlorate, or a blasting cap of equivalent strength. An equivalent

Listen Closely

Listen Closely is the second album of Christian rock band Smalltown Poets. It was released in 1998. "Call Me Christian" – 3:36 "Anything Genuine" – 3:05 "There Is Only You" – 3:47 "Gloria" – 3:10 "48 States" – 3:46 "Long Long Way" – 4:04 "The Gospel Is Peace" – 4:29 "Hold It up to the Light" – 4:15 "New Man" – 4:58 "Quasar" – 3:19 "Garland of Grace" – 3:49 "One of These Days" – 2:16 Michael Johnstonvocals, guitars Miguel DeJesús – bass guitar Kevin Breuner – lead guitar Danny Stephens – keyboards, vocals Byron Goggin – drums, percussion

17 August 2010 Baghdad bombings

The 17 August 2010 Baghdad bombings were two attacks in Baghdad, Iraq. The first attack in the morning was when a suicide bomber detonated his explosives outside the Iraqi Army division headquarters on potential recruits to the army, some of whom had queued for hours prior to the bombings, that killed over 60 and wounded more than 100; the second attack took place in the evening when a fuel truck exploded in a Shia neighbourhood, killing 8 and wounding 44. Islamic State of Iraq claimed the first of the two attacks; the bombing came amid uncertainty over the future government in Iraq following the 2010 Iraqi parliamentary election. One day before the attack former Iraqi Interim Prime Minister Iyad Allawi pulled out of coalition talks with Prime Minister Nuri al-Maliki following claims that al-Maliki was pushing for a sectarian division of government. Security forces have been targets of attack in the months prior to this bombing; the United States began to reduce its troop strength in Iraq, from just under 60,000 at the time of this bombing, to about 50,000 by 31 August, scheduled to be the formal end of combat operations.

The bombing was the first major attack of the year's Ramadan, the most venerated month in the Islamic calendar. Unemployed people had queued for hours outside an Army recruiting centre when a suicide bomber approached and detonated his explosives; the recruiting location is near the Bab al-Muadhan by the Tigris River and the former Iraqi Ministry of Defense building in downtown Baghdad. An interior ministry official said the majority of the victims were army recruits but there were some soldiers who were protecting the recruitment centre among the casualties; the casualties among these soldiers were at least three dead and eight wounded, with the overall total killed at over 60. On the same day another attack occurred at 21:30 in the majority Shia neighbourhood of Hay Ur. A bomb attached to a fuel truck loaded with kerosene exploded, killing eight people and wounding 44 more. Iraqi spokesman Gen. Al-Moussawi blamed al-Qaeda in Iraq for the bombings. Islamic State of Iraq, which includes al-Qaida in Iraq, within three days claimed the first of the two attacks, saying it targeted “a group of Shias and apostates who sold their faith for money and to be a tool in the war on Iraqi Sunnis”, boasting that its operative passed through checkpoints before detonating his explosives belt in a crowd of officers and recruits outside army headquarters.

A White House spokesman said "There are still people who want to derail the advances that the Iraqi people have made toward democracy. But they are on track, and we're confident. The fact that there is a lot of competition for, going to be running that country is a good thing." List of terrorist incidents, 2010

Indi StivĂ­n

Indi Stivín is a Czech classical double bass player. He won many international competitions, he plays double bass as a solo instrument. He made his solo debut performance at age 12 with Domenico Dragonetti's Concerto for Double bass and orchestra in A major. Three years he became the youngest Laureate of the International Instrumental Competition Markneukirchen in Germany, he studies with Dalibor Tkadlčík, the Prague State Opera's Principal double bassist and prof. Ján Krigovský from the Academy of Arts in Banská Bystrica, Slovakia. At BassFest 2015 in Banská Bystrica his teacher was Gary Karr. In addition to the double bass he plays violin, which he is studying at the Prague Conservatory in the class of Jaroslav Foltýn. In 2018, he performed a solo recital at the Prague Spring Festival, he devotes himself to composing and is the author of the Double bass concerto "Bohemia". He is an admirer of Czech classical doublebassist František Pošta, to whom he dedicated his composition "A Tribute to František Pošta".

Stivín is a grandson of Czech multiinstrumentalist Jiří Stivín. As a finalist of the Eurovision Young Musicians 2018 competition in Edinburgh, Scotland he performed his "Bohemian Suite" together with the BBC Scottish Symphony Orchestra, conducted by Chief Conductor Thomas Dausgaard, his final performance from Usher Hall was broadcast across Europe. Laureate of the International Instrumental Competition Markneukirchen Victor Dijon de Monteton Award Winner of the International Competition of Double bass Personalities multiple winner of "Carl Ditters von Dittersdorf" International Double bass Competition multiple winner of "Franz Simandl" International Double bass Competition Winner of the "International Interpretation Competition PRO BOHEMIA" Winner of the International Double bass Competition "Frantisek Cerny and Jan Geissel" Laureate of the "Anton Rubinstein International Competition" Winner of "Young Soloist" of the South Czech Philharmonic Winner of the National Competition of Music Schools Media related to Indi Stivín at Wikimedia Commons Official website

Carrie Steele Logan

Carrie Steele Logan was an American philanthropist, founder of the oldest black orphanage in the United States. Carrie Steele was born into slavery in Georgia in about 1829, she was orphaned as a small child. Steele sold handmade cakes when she first moved to Atlanta. Working there, she saw many displaced children and without adults to care for them, she started looking after some of the orphans herself, but soon realized a larger, more sustainable response was needed. "It is appointed to me in my old age to accomplish what I believe to be a great and glorious work," she wrote, "and one that shall live long after my poor frail body has dropped into the dust whence it came." With her own money, a charter from the state of Georgia, donations from the city's growing black middle class, she opened an orphanage for black children in Atlanta in 1889. It is considered the oldest such institution in the United States. By 1892, the orphanage had a new three-story building, to educate up to fifty children.

Steele wrote an autobiography. In 1843, Carrie Steele had a son, James Robert Steele, a barber, she married Josiah Logan, a minister, in 1890. She died in November 1900, aged 71 years, her memorial service was "One of the largest funerals I have seen," according to H. R. Butler, an eyewitness, who counted at least 3000 attendees. "All the orphan children were out. Nearly every minister in the city was present." Her gravestone in Atlanta's Historic Oakland Cemetery is inscribed "Mother of Orphans/She hath done what she could."Steele's orphanage is still in operation, now named the Carrie Steele-Pitts Home, on a large campus outside the city. In 1998, Carrie Steele Logan was named as a Georgia Woman of Achievement. There is a bronze bas relief sculpture of Logan on Auburn Avenue in Atlanta. Carrie Steele Logan's gravesite on Find a Grave

Carlo Giuseppe Testore

Carlo Giuseppe Testore was an Italian luthier, who worked in his life in Milan. Testore was born in Novara. A student of Giovanni Grancino, he went to Milan in 1687 and set up his workshop at the Sign of the Eagle in the Contrada Larga in Milan, his two sons, Carlo Antonio Testore and Paolo Antonio Testore, students of their father worked as luthiers in Milan. Giovanni, son of Carlo, -aro, son of Paolo, continued the workshop in Milan during the 1760s. Carlo Giuseppe Testore is valued for his double basses. Russian violist Yuri Bashmet plays a Paolo Antonio Testore instrument. National Arts Centre Orchestra's principal cellist Amanda Forsyth uses a Testore cello, manufactured in 1699, as does solo cellist Jacob Shaw with a cello of unknown date, belonging to the Royal Danish Academy of Music collection. Clifford Spohr, principal emeritus of the Dallas Symphony Orchestra double bass section owns and uses a double bass made by Carlo Giuseppe Testore.