Criminal law is the body of law that relates to crime. It proscribes conduct perceived as threatening, harmful, or otherwise endangering to the property, health and moral welfare of people inclusive of one's self. Most criminal law is established by statute, to say that the laws are enacted by a legislature. Criminal law includes the rehabilitation of people who violate such laws. Criminal law varies according to jurisdiction, differs from civil law, where emphasis is more on dispute resolution and victim compensation, rather than on punishment or rehabilitation. Criminal procedure is a formalized official activity that authenticates the fact of commission of a crime and authorizes punitive or rehabilitative treatment of the offender; the first civilizations did not distinguish between civil law and criminal law. The first written codes of law were designed by the Sumerians. Around 2100–2050 BC Ur-Nammu, the Neo-Sumerian king of Ur, enacted the oldest written legal code whose text has been discovered: the Code of Ur-Nammu although an earlier code of Urukagina of Lagash is known to have existed.
Another important early code was the Code of Hammurabi. Only fragments of the early criminal laws of Ancient Greece have survived, e.g. those of Solon and Draco. In Roman law, Gaius's Commentaries on the Twelve Tables conflated the civil and criminal aspects, treating theft as a tort. Assault and violent robbery were analogized to trespass as to property. Breach of such laws created an obligation of law or vinculum juris discharged by payment of monetary compensation or damages; the criminal law of imperial Rome is collected in Books 47–48 of the Digest. After the revival of Roman law in the 12th century, sixth-century Roman classifications and jurisprudence provided the foundations of the distinction between criminal and civil law in European law from until the present time; the first signs of the modern distinction between crimes and civil matters emerged during the Norman Invasion of England. The special notion of criminal penalty, at least concerning Europe, arose in Spanish Late Scholasticism, when the theological notion of God's penalty, inflicted for a guilty mind, became transfused into canon law first and to secular criminal law.
The development of the state dispensing justice in a court emerged in the eighteenth century when European countries began maintaining police services. From this point, criminal law formalized the mechanisms for enforcement, which allowed for its development as a discernible entity. Criminal law is distinctive for the uniquely serious, potential consequences or sanctions for failure to abide by its rules; every crime is composed of criminal elements. Capital punishment may be imposed in some jurisdictions for the most serious crimes. Physical or corporal punishment may be imposed such as whipping or caning, although these punishments are prohibited in much of the world. Individuals may be incarcerated in prison or jail in a variety of conditions depending on the jurisdiction. Confinement may be solitary. Length of incarceration may vary from a day to life. Government supervision may be imposed, including house arrest, convicts may be required to conform to particularized guidelines as part of a parole or probation regimen.
Fines may be imposed, seizing money or property from a person convicted of a crime. Five objectives are accepted for enforcement of the criminal law by punishments: retribution, incapacitation and restoration. Jurisdictions differ on the value to be placed on each. Retribution – Criminals ought to Be Punished in some way; this is the most seen goal. Criminals have taken improper advantage, or inflicted unfair detriment, upon others and the criminal law will put criminals at some unpleasant disadvantage to "balance the scales." People submit to the law to receive the right not to be murdered and if people contravene these laws, they surrender the rights granted to them by the law. Thus, one who murders may be executed himself. A related theory includes the idea of "righting the balance." Deterrence – Individual deterrence is aimed toward the specific offender. The aim is to impose a sufficient penalty to discourage the offender from criminal behavior. General deterrence aims at society at large. By imposing a penalty on those who commit offenses, other individuals are discouraged from committing those offenses.
Incapacitation – Designed to keep criminals away from society so that the public is protected from their misconduct. This is achieved through prison sentences today; the death penalty or banishment have served the same purpose. Rehabilitation – Aims at transforming an offender into a valuable member of society, its primary goal is to prevent further offense by convincing the offender that their conduct was wrong. Restoration – This is a victim-oriented theory of punishment; the goal is to repair, through state authority, any injury inflicted upon the victim by the offender. For example, one who embezzles will be required to repay the amount improperly acquired. Restoration is combined with other main goals of criminal justice and is related to concepts in the civil law, i.e. returning the victim to his or her original position before the injury. Many laws are enforced by threat of criminal punishment, the range of the punishment varies with the jurisdiction; the scope of criminal law is too vast to catalog intelligently.
The following are some of the more typical aspects of criminal law. The criminal law prohibits undesirable acts. Thus, proof of a crime requires proof of some act. Scholars label this the requir
Los Angeles the City of Los Angeles and known by its initials L. A. is the most populous city in California, the second most populous city in the United States, after New York City, the third most populous city in North America. With an estimated population of four million, Los Angeles is the cultural and commercial center of Southern California; the city is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic diversity and the entertainment industry, its sprawling metropolis. Los Angeles is the largest city on the West Coast of North America. Los Angeles is in a large basin bounded by the Pacific Ocean on one side and by mountains as high as 10,000 feet on the other; the city proper, which covers about 469 square miles, is the seat of Los Angeles County, the most populated county in the country. Los Angeles is the principal city of the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the second largest in the United States after that of New York City, with a population of 13.1 million. It is part of the Los Angeles-Long Beach combined statistical area the nation's second most populous area with a 2015 estimated population of 18.7 million.
Los Angeles is one of the most substantial economic engines within the United States, with a diverse economy in a broad range of professional and cultural fields. Los Angeles is famous as the home of Hollywood, a major center of the world entertainment industry. A global city, it has been ranked 6th in the Global Cities Index and 9th in the Global Economic Power Index; the Los Angeles metropolitan area has a gross metropolitan product of $1.044 trillion, making it the third-largest in the world, after the Tokyo and New York metropolitan areas. Los Angeles hosted the 1932 and 1984 Summer Olympics and will host the event for a third time in 2028; the city hosted the Miss Universe pageant twice, in 1990 and 2006, was one of 9 American cities to host the 1994 FIFA men's soccer World Cup and one of 8 to host the 1999 FIFA women's soccer World Cup, hosting the final match for both tournaments. Home to the Chumash and Tongva, Los Angeles was claimed by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo for Spain in 1542 along with the rest of what would become Alta California.
The city was founded on September 4, 1781, by Spanish governor Felipe de Neve. It became a part of Mexico in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence. In 1848, at the end of the Mexican–American War, Los Angeles and the rest of California were purchased as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, becoming part of the United States. Los Angeles was incorporated as a municipality on April 4, 1850, five months before California achieved statehood; the discovery of oil in the 1890s brought rapid growth to the city. The completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, delivering water from Eastern California assured the city's continued rapid growth; the Los Angeles coastal area was settled by the Chumash tribes. A Gabrieleño settlement in the area was called iyáangẚ, meaning "poison oak place". Maritime explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area of southern California for the Spanish Empire in 1542 while on an official military exploring expedition moving north along the Pacific coast from earlier colonizing bases of New Spain in Central and South America.
Gaspar de Portolà and Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí, reached the present site of Los Angeles on August 2, 1769. In 1771, Franciscan friar Junípero Serra directed the building of the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, the first mission in the area. On September 4, 1781, a group of forty-four settlers known as "Los Pobladores" founded the pueblo they called El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles,'The Town of Our Lady the Queen of the Angels'; the present-day city has the largest Roman Catholic Archdiocese in the United States. Two-thirds of the Mexican or settlers were mestizo or mulatto, a mixture of African and European ancestry; the settlement remained a small ranch town for decades, but by 1820, the population had increased to about 650 residents. Today, the pueblo is commemorated in the historic district of Los Angeles Pueblo Plaza and Olvera Street, the oldest part of Los Angeles. New Spain achieved its independence from the Spanish Empire in 1821, the pueblo continued as a part of Mexico.
During Mexican rule, Governor Pío Pico made Los Angeles Alta California's regional capital. Mexican rule ended during the Mexican–American War: Americans took control from the Californios after a series of battles, culminating with the signing of the Treaty of Cahuenga on January 13, 1847. Railroads arrived with the completion of the transcontinental Southern Pacific line to Los Angeles in 1876 and the Santa Fe Railroad in 1885. Petroleum was discovered in the city and surrounding area in 1892, by 1923, the discoveries had helped California become the country's largest oil producer, accounting for about one-quarter of the world's petroleum output. By 1900, the population had grown to more than 102,000; the completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, under the supervision of William Mulholland, assured the continued growth of the city. Due to clauses in the city's charter that prevented the City of Los Angeles from selling or providing water from the aqueduct to any area outside its borders, many adjacent city and communities became compelled to annex themselves into Los Angeles.
Los Angeles created the first municipal zoning ordinance in the United States. On September 14, 1908, the Los Angeles City Council promulgated residential and industrial land use zones; the new ordinance established three residential zones of a single type, where industrial uses were
Detroit Free Press
The Detroit Free Press is the largest daily newspaper in Detroit, Michigan, US. The Sunday edition is titled the Sunday Free Press, it is sometimes referred to as the "Freep". It serves Wayne, Macomb, Livingston and Monroe counties; the Free Press is the largest city newspaper owned by Gannett, which publishes USA Today. The Free Press has received four Emmy Awards, its motto is "On Guard for 188 Years". In 2018, the Detroit Free Press received two Salute to Excellence awards from the National Association of Black Journalists; the newspaper was launched by John R. Williams and his uncle, Joseph Campau, was first published as the Democratic Free Press and Michigan Intelligencer on May 5, 1831, it was renamed to Detroit Daily Free Press in 1835. Williams printed the first issues on a Washington press he purchased from the discontinued Oakland Chronicle of Pontiac, it was hauled from Pontiac in a wagon over rough roads to a building at Bates and Woodbridge streets in Detroit. The hand-operated press could produce 250 pages per hour.
The first issues were 14 with five columns of type. Sheldon McKnight became the first publisher with John Pitts Sheldon as editor. In the 1850s, the paper was developed into a leading Democratic publication under the ownership of Wilbur F. Storey. Storey left for the Chicago Times in 1861. In the 1870s ownership passed to William E. Quinby, who continued its Democratic leanings and established a London, England edition. In 1940, the Knight Newspapers purchased the Free Press. During the following 47 years the Free Press competed with The Detroit News in the southeastern Michigan market; the Free Press was delivered and sold as a morning paper while the News was sold and delivered as an evening newspaper. In 1987, the paper entered into a one hundred-year joint operating agreement with its rival, combining business operations while maintaining separate editorial staffs; the combined company is called the Detroit Media Partnership. The two papers began to publish joint Saturday and Sunday editions, though the editorial content of each remained separate.
At the time, the Detroit Free Press was the tenth highest circulation paper in the United States, the combined Detroit News and Free Press was the country's fourth largest Sunday paper. On July 13, 1995, Newspaper Guild-represented employees of the Free Press and News and the pressmen and Teamsters working for the "Detroit Newspapers" distribution arm went on strike. By October, about 40% of the editorial staffers had crossed the picket line, many trickled back over the next months while others stayed out for the two and a half years of the strike; the strike was resolved in court three years and the unions remain active at the paper, representing a majority of the employees under their jurisdiction. In 1998, the Free Press vacated its former headquarters in downtown Detroit and moved to offices into the News building. On August 3, 2005, Knight Ridder sold the Free Press to the Gannett Company, which had owned and operated The Detroit News. Gannett, in turn sold The News, to MediaNews Group.
The Free Press resumed publication of its own Sunday edition, May 7, 2006, without any content from The News. A quirk in the operating agreement, allows The News to continue printing its editorial page in the Sunday Free Press. On December 16, 2008, Detroit Media Partnership announced a plan to limit weekday home delivery for both dailies to Thursday and Friday only. On other weekdays the paper sold at newsstands would be smaller, about 32 pages, redesigned; this arrangement went into effect March 30, 2009. The Free Press entered a news partnership with CBS owned-and-operated station WWJ-TV channel 62 in March 2009 to produce a morning news show called First Forecast Mornings. Prior to the partnership, WWJ aired no local newscast at all. In February 2014, the DMP announced its offices along with those of the Free Press and The Detroit News would occupy six floors in both the old and new sections of the former Federal Reserve building at 160 West Fort Street; the partnership expected to place signs on the exterior similar to those on the former offices.
The move took place October 24–27, 2014. The Detroit Almanac: 300 Years of Life in the Motor City. Peter Gavrilovich and Bill McGraw, editors. ISBN 0-937247-34-0 Media in Detroit Official website Official mobile website Gannett subsidiary profile of the Detroit Free Press The Detroit Free Press Building Detroit Newspaper Partnership
Detention is the process whereby a state or private citizen lawfully holds a person by removing his or her freedom or liberty at that time. This can be due to criminal charges preferred against the individual pursuant to a prosecution or to protect a person or property. Being detained does not always result in being taken to a particular area, either for interrogation or as punishment for a crime; the term can be used in reference to the holding of property for the same reasons. The process of detainment may not have been preceded or followed with an arrest. Detainee is a term used by certain governments and their armed forces to refer to individuals held in custody, such as those it does not classify and treat as either prisoners of war or suspects in criminal cases, it is used to refer to "any person captured or otherwise detained by an armed force." More it means "someone held in custody." The prisoners in Guantánamo Bay are referred to as "detainees". Article 9 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights provides that "o one shall be subjected to arbitrary arrest, detention or exile."
In wars between nations, treatment of detainees is governed by the provisions of the Fourth Geneva Convention. Any form of imprisonment where a person's freedom of liberty is removed can be classed as detention, although the term is associated with persons who are being held without warrant or charge before any have been raised. Being detained for the purposes of a drugs search is tantamount to a temporary arrest, as it is not yet known whether charges can be brought against an individual, pending the outcome of the search; the term'detained' refers to the immediacy when someone has their liberty deprived before an arrest or pre-arrest procedure has yet been followed. For example, a shoplifter being pursued and restrained, but not yet informed he/she is under arrest or read his rights would be classed as'detained'; the detention of suspects is the process of keeping a person, arrested in a police-cell, remand prison or other detention centre before trial or sentencing. The length of detention of suspected terrorists, with the justification of taking an action that would aid counter-terrorism, varies according to country or situation, as well as the laws which regulate it.
The Terrorism Act 2006 in the United Kingdom lengthened the 14-day limit for detention without an arrest warrant or an indictment from the Terrorism Act 2000 to 28 days. A controversial Government proposal for an extension to 90 days was rejected by the House of Commons. English criminal law requires the detainer/arrestor to have reasonable grounds to suspect when detaining someone. Indefinite detention of an individual occurs in wartime under the laws of war; this has been applied notably by the United States after 2001 attacks. Before the Combatant Status Review Tribunals, created for reviewing the status of the Guantanamo detainees, the United States has argued that it is engaged in a recognizable armed conflict to which the laws of war apply, that it therefore may hold captured al Qaeda and Taliban operatives throughout the duration of that conflict, without granting them a criminal trial; the U. S. military regulates treatment of detainees in the manual Military Police: Enemy Prisoners of War, Retained Personnel, Civilian Internees and Other Detainees, last revised in 1997.
The term "unlawful combatant" came into public awareness during and after the War in Afghanistan, as the U. S. detained members of the Taliban and al-Qaeda captured in that war, determined them to be unlawful combatants. This had generated considerable debate around the globe; the U. S. government refers to these captured enemy combatants as "detainees" because they did not qualify as prisoners of war under the definition found in the Geneva Conventions. Under the Obama administration the term enemy combatants was removed from the lexicon and further defined under the 2010 Defense Omnibus Bill: Section 948b. Military commissions generally: Purpose-This chapter establishes procedures governing the use of military commissions to try alien unprivileged enemy belligerents for violations of the law of war and other offenses triable by military commission. Article 9, part 1a of Wetboek van Strafrecht states. Two of them are two kinds of detentions, which are called gevangenisstraf and hechtenis, where the first is a heavier punishment than the second.
The two other kinds of punishment is fines. Prisons are designed in several ways and there are 5 levels of regimes. Nieuw Vosseveld is a long stay prison with the heaviest regime for the most dangerous criminals; the prison is meant for criminals and longer. Arbitrary arrest and detention Correctional medicine Civil liberties Defence Regulation 18B Detention of suspects Human rights Legal awareness Illegal combatant Immigration detention Older prisoners Prison reform Prisoner Quasi-criminal Restorative justice Security certificate Summary jurisdiction Extrajudicial detention Human Rights Watch on Detainees ACLU on Detainees Penitentiaire Inrichtingen in Vught Dienst Justitiële Inrichtingen
Detroit Public Safety Headquarters
The Detroit Public Safety Headquarters located at 1301 Third Street in Detroit, Michigan is a law enforcement and fire department complex which houses the headquarters for the Detroit Police Department, Detroit Fire Department, Detroit Emergency Medical Service as well as a forensics laboratory for the Michigan State Police. After the City of Detroit acquired the building its physical address was re-designated from John C. Lodge Freeway to its present address on Third Street and Michigan Avenue to disassociate itself from the building's prior occupants, the U. S. Internal Revenue Service who were the original owners and the MGM Grand Detroit Casino who purchased the building from the IRS; the idea of consolidating Detroit's public safety was not a new idea, in fact had been discussed extensively as far back as Mayor Dennis Archer's administration but it wasn't until recent years that the city began to realize that 1300 Beaubien, where the Detroit Police had been headquartered since 1923, was beginning to show signs of aging and serious structural problems as well as an infestation of rodents and insects throughout the building.
The City's Fire Department on West Larned was in better condition than the police headquarters, but was starting to lack sufficient space to house the department's offices and communications center. As a result, both the police and fire departments had to go outside of city owned buildings for office space which began to cause a serious financial strain on the city bank accounts. Beginning with Mayor Kwame Kilpatrick's administration the city began kicking around the idea of consolidating the city's police and fire departments into one complex, however plans were temporarily halted following the sudden but not unexpected resignation of Kilpatrick because of his arrest on charges of federal corruption. Following Kwame Kilpatrick's departure from the Mayor's office a special election was held in May 2009 and former Detroit Pistons and Basketball Hall of Famer Dave Bing was elected the new Mayor of Detroit. One year on June 11, 2010 it was announced that the city had agreed to purchase the 600,000 square foot former MGM Grand Detroit temporary casino at 1300 John C. Lodge Freeway for $6.32 million, that it would undergo a $60 million renovation funded through the Detroit Building Authority.
The plans were temporarily halted again when the Detroit City Council rejected the Mayor's plan 6 to 3 to purchase the former casino After negotiations the City Council voted 5 to 4 for the purchase of the property. On June 28, 2013 one year and seven days the Detroit Public Safety Headquarters opened with Mayor Bing, City Council members, the Wayne County Executive and other dignitaries attending a ribbon cutting ceremony official opening the complex. Police Chief James Craig and Fire Chief Craig Dougherty stated that both of their departments have begun the move to the new DPHS. Mayor Bing added that when both the Police and Fire Departments complete their moves that 1300 Beaubien and 250 West Larned would be put up for sale by the city. Detroit Police Department Detroit Fire Department
Corporal is a military rank in use in some form by many militaries and by some police forces or other uniformed organizations. Within NATO, each member nation's corresponding military rank of corporal is combined under the NATO-standard rank scale code OR-3 or OR-4. However, there are differences in how each nation employs corporals; some militaries may instead have a Junior Sergeant. In some militaries, the rank of corporal nominally corresponds to commanding a section or squad of soldiers. However, in the United States Army, the rank of corporal is considered a "lateral promotion" from E-4 Specialist and only occurs when the soldier has been selected by a promotion board to become an E-5 Sergeant and is serving in an E-5 billet such as a fireteam leader in a rifle squad; the lateral promotion is used to make the soldier a non-commissioned officer without changing the soldier's pay. As the Table of Organization & Equipment rank of a fire team leader is sergeant and that of squad leader is staff sergeant.
In the United States Marine Corps, corporal is the Table of Organization rank for a rifle fire team leader, machine gun team leader, light mortar squad leader, assault weapon squad leader, as well as gunner on most larger crew served weapons, armored vehicles, the two assistant gunners on a howitzer. In most countries that derive their military structure from the British military system, corporal is a more senior rank than that of private. However, in several other countries, such as Canada and Norway, corporal is a junior rank, indicating a more experienced soldier than a private, on a higher pay scale, but having no particular command appointment corresponding to the rank, similar to specialist in the U. S. Army; the word is derived from the medieval Italian phrase capo corporale. It may be derived from an appointment as an officer's bodyguard being an adjective pertaining to the word "body". All three branches of the Armed Forces of the Argentine Republic use two or three ranks of corporal, or cabo.
Corporals in the Argentine military are considered suboficiales subalternos, superior only to all ranks of Volunteers and Seamen. In the Argentine Army, there are two ranks of corporal and senior: Cabo and cabo primero. While the Argentine Navy has three corporal ranks, from junior to senior: Cabo segundo, Cabo primero and cabo principal, equal to the army rank of sargento; the Air Force has the same number of corporal ranks as the navy, keeps the same titles, with the exception of cabo instead of the navy's cabo segundo. The rank is used by the Argentine National Gendarmerie and the Argentine Federal Police, which use the rank in the same manner as the Army, as well as the Argentine Naval Prefecture. Corporal is the second lowest of the non-commissioned officer ranks in the Australian Army, falling between lance-corporal and sergeant. A corporal is appointed as a section commander, is in charge of 7-14 soldiers of private rank, they are assisted by a second-in-command a lance-corporal or senior private.
A Corporal within Artillery is known as a bombardier. Corporal is a rank of the Royal Australian Air Force, being equal to both the Australian Army and Royal Air Force rank of corporal; the branches of the Belgian Armed Forces use three ranks of corporal: corporal, master corporal and 1st master corporal. Corporal is equivalent to NATO Rank Code OR-3, whereas master corporal and 1st master corporal are equivalent to OR-4; the rank below corporal is 1st private and the rank directly above 1st master corporal is sergeant. Units with a cavalry, artily or Logistic Corps tradition replace Corporal by “Brigadier”; the equivalent of these ranks in the Naval Component are quartermaster, chief quartermaster and 1st chief quartermaster. Corporal is the first NCO rank of the Army, Air Force and states military police forces. Soldiers who complete the corporal course may be promoted to the rank of corporal should they excel in the course. A corporal in the Brazilian Army will lead the smallest fractions of units as machine gun squads and infantry squads.
Corporal is an Air Force non-commissioned member rank of the Canadian Forces. Its Naval equivalent is leading seaman, it is senior to the rank of private and its naval equivalent able seaman, junior to master corporal and its equivalent master seaman. It is part of the cadre of junior non-commissioned officers, one of the junior ranks. In French, the rank is caporal; the rank insignia of a corporal is a two-bar chevron, point down, worn in gold thread on both upper sleeves of the service dress jacket. On army ceremonial uniforms, it is rendered in gold braid, on either both sleeves, or just the right, depending on unit custom. Corporal is the first non-commissioned officer r