The Deutsche Bundesbank is the central bank of the Federal Republic of Germany and as such part of the European System of Central Banks. Due to its strength and former size, the Bundesbank is the most influential member of the ESCB. Both the Bundesbank and the European Central Bank are located in Germany, it is sometimes referred to as "Buba" for Bundesbank. The Bundesbank was established in 1957 and succeeded the Bank deutscher Länder, which introduced the Deutsche Mark on 20 June 1948; until the euro was physically introduced in 2002, the Bundesbank was the central bank of the former Deutsche Mark. The Bundesbank was the first central bank to be given full independence, leading this form of central bank to be referred to as the Bundesbank model, as opposed, for instance, to the New Zealand model, which has a goal set by the government. Nowadays, the ECB uses the Bundesbank model, making the concept the foundation of the entire Euro system; the Bundesbank was respected for its control of inflation through the second half of the 20th century.
This made the German Mark one of the most respected currencies, the Bundesbank gained substantial indirect influence in many European countries. The history of the Bundesbank is inextricably linked with the history of the German currency after the Second World War. Following the total destruction after the war, the old Reichsmark was worthless, a currency reform was implemented in the western occupation zones including West Berlin: on 21 June 1948, the D-Mark, or Deutsche Mark, replaced the Reichsmark; the currency reform was based on laws enacted by the Allied military government. In preparation, the Western Powers established a new two-tier central bank system in the occupied zones, it comprised the central banks of the states of the West German occupation zones and the Bank deutscher Länder in Frankfurt am Main, created on 1 March 1948. The central banks of the Länder acted as central banks within their areas of jurisdiction; the Bank deutscher Länder, whose share capital was held by the central banks of the Länder, was responsible for issuing bank notes, co-ordinating policy and various central tasks including management of foreign exchange.
The supreme governing body of the two-tier central bank system was the Central Bank Council set up at the Bank deutscher Länder. It consisted of a president, the presidents of the central banks of the Länder and the president of the directorate of the Bank deutscher Länder. Amongst other things, the Central Bank Council determined policy on bank rate and minimum reserve policy, open-market policy guidelines and granting of credit. After the negative experience with a central bank subject to government orders, the principle of an independent central bank was established; the Bank deutscher Länder was independent of German political bodies from the start, including the federal German government, active from September 1949. It achieved independence from the Allies in 1951; the German "Basic Law", which had come into force on 23 May 1949, placed an obligation on the German federal legislature to establish a federal bank responsible for the issue of bank notes and currency. The legislature fulfilled this obligation by passing the Bundesbank Act of 26 July 1957, which abolished the two-tier structure of the central bank system.
The central banks of the Länder were now no longer independent note-issuing banks, but became regional headquarters of the Bundesbank retaining the title "state central bank". The Central Bank Council remained the supreme decision-making body of the Bundesbank, it was now made up of the presidents of the central banks of the Länder and a board of directors based in Frankfurt. The Central Bank Council decided on the currency and credit policy and laid down rules for management; as the central executive body of the Bundesbank, the Directorate was responsible for implementing the decisions of the Central Bank Council. The Directorate ran the bank and was, in particular, responsible for dealings with the federal government and its "special assets", for transactions with credit institutes operating in the Federal republic of Germany, for currency transactions, foreign commercial transactions, for open-market dealings; the Directorate was made up of the president and the vice-president of the Bundesbank and up to six additional members.
The central banks of the Länder carried out business falling in their areas independently. The Bundesbank Act explicitly made them responsible for dealings with public bodies and credit institutes; the central Banks of the Länder controlled the subsidiary bodies, now called branches. Overall management of each Land central bank was in the hands of its executive board, which as a rule consisted of the president and the vice-president of the bank. In the wake of the Fall of the Berlin Wall, the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic signed a treaty on 18 May 1990, that created an economic and currency union between the two German nations; the Bundesbank was made responsible for money and currency policy within the whole of the currency union. A "Provisional Administration Body" was set up for the purpose of implementing the treaty, this body continued to operate beyond the official date of reunification until 31 October 1990. T
Anna Kéthly was a Hungarian social democratic politician. Her fellow party member Vilmos Böhm called her the "Joan of Arc of Hungarian politics", she was one of nine children born into a poor family in Hungary. At the age of fifteen she started working in a garment factory but soon found more appealing work in the editorial office of a women's magazine and this gave her the chance to further her education. In 1917, she became an active Party member. In 1919, Kéthly was elected onto a committee of the Party. In subsequent years she was a frequent contributor to the Party's newspaper Népszava. In 1922 Kéthly was elected to Parliament as a member of the Social Democratic Party, represented her Party in parliament without a break until the German invasion of Hungary in March 1944. After the German invasion, Kéthly left Budapest and lived in the country with false papers under an assumed identity. After the Second World War, Kéthly again became politically active and helped to reorganize the Hungarian Social Democratic Party and she was elected to the Party's Political Committee.
In April 1945, she was elected a member of the Provisional National Assembly and in the general elections in November of same year, she was re-elected to parliament, this time as head of the Social Democratic faction, was made Deputy Speaker of Parliament. Kéthly made frequent contributions of articles to Socialist papers and was active in maintaining contact with international socialist Parties in the West. In post-war Hungary, she was a leading opponent of her Party's merger with the Hungarian Communist Party and in the internal power-struggle that ensued, in March 1948, she was dismissed from the Party and soon after she lost her seat in Parliament and placed under house arrest for two years. In June 1950, Kéthly, together with several other members of the Social Democratic Party, was arrested by the Communists, who had in the meantime gained control of Hungary. In January 1954, after more than three years in prison, she was charged with spying and activities directed against the state and sentenced to life imprisonment.
Following international pressure from Western socialist parties she was granted a pardon and released, but kept under permanent'observation'. On 31 October 1956, following the revival of the Hungarian Social Democratic Party during the Revolution, she became president of the Party. On 1 November she attended the Socialist International Meeting in Austria; the following day, 2 November The Hungarian Government appointed her a delegate to the United Nations General Assembly. On 3 November her Party nominated Kéthly for a ministerial position in the new coalition government of Imre Nagy but at dawn the following day, 4 November 1956, the Soviet Union invaded Hungary and she was advised to fly to New York City and appeal to the U. N. General Assembly on behalf of Hungary, she settled in London, United Kingdom, where she carried on writing and editing Socialist publications. In 1962 the Hungarian Supreme Court reviewed Kéthly's 1954 pardon and, in absentia, imposed on her a three-year prison sentence for anti-state activities.
Anna Kéthly died on 7 September 1976, in Belgium. In October, 1990, her ashes were laid to rest. A full rehabilitation of Anna Kéthly took place on 7 July 1994, when the Hungarian Supreme Court annulled the 1962 verdict against her. A movie about her life, Utolsó jelentés Annáról premiered in late 2009, it was directed by Márta Mészáros. Enikő Eszenyi plays Kéthly. United Nations Report of the Special Committee on the Problem of Hungary, General Assembly, Official Records, 11th session, Supplement No. 18 A/3592), New York. 1957 Anna Kéthly Foundation Official website of theSocial Democratic Party Official website of the Hungarian Social Democratic Party
The Coexistence Trust is an organisation founded in 2005 by Lord Janner of Braunstone and Prince Hassan of Jordan. The body was named The Political Council for Coexistence. A network of senior Muslim and Jewish political leaders worldwide with its headquarters in London, UK, the Trust provides a bridge across the political spectrum to combat Islamophobia and Anti-Semitism wherever it may be found in the world; the Trust uses its level of access to intervene at the highest levels of government whenever and wherever there are racist attacks against Muslims or Jews. The Trust believes that with political authority comes the responsibility to be sensitive to the role of religion in public life. Therefore, the Trust arranges private meetings between leaders from the spheres of religion and politics to discuss contemporary issues. In addition to its membership, The Trust has a distinguished group of patrons; these are among eminent personalities from the Abrahamic faiths. The Coexistence Trust’s mission is to strengthen mutual understanding between Jewish and Muslim communities worldwide and to provide an enlightened centrist platform for Muslim and Jewish political leaders to combat Islamophobia and Anti-Semitism at senior levels.
It envisions a world in which the dialogue between Muslim and Jewish leaders is collaborative, open and focused on the benefit of society as a whole. Prince Hassan bin Talal 2005 - 2008: Baron Janner of Braunstone. 2008–2013: Baron Mitchell. Alan Senitt Samuel Klein Baron Janner of Braunstone coexistence-trust-starts-work-lse article5073757.ece
Kigali is the capital and largest city of Rwanda. It is near the nation's geographic centre; the city has been Rwanda's economic and transport hub since it became the capital following independence in 1962. The city hosts offices of the President of Rwanda and government ministries; the city is within the province of Kigali City, enlarged in January 2006, as part of local government reorganisation in the country. Kigali's city limits cover the whole province; the city's urban area covers about 70% of the municipal boundaries. The earliest inhabitants of what is now Rwanda were the Twa, a group of aboriginal pygmy hunter-gatherers who settled the area between 8000 and 3000 BC and remain in the country today, they were followed between 700 BC and AD 1500 by a number of Bantu groups, including the Hutu and Tutsi, who began clearing forests for agriculture. According to oral history the Kingdom of Rwanda was founded in the 14th century on the shores of Lake Muhazi, around 40 kilometres east of modern Kigali.
At that time Rwanda was a small state in a loose confederation with larger and more powerful neighbours and Gisaka. By playing these neighbours against each other, the early kingdom flourished in the area, expanding westwards towards Lake Kivu and taking the Kigali area in the process. In the late 16th or early 17th centuries, the kingdom of Rwanda was invaded by the Banyoro and the kings forced to flee westward, leaving Kigali and eastern Rwanda in the hands of Bugesera and Gisaka; the formation in the 17th century of a new Rwandan dynasty by mwami Ruganzu Ndori, followed by eastward invasions and the conquest of Bugesera, marked the beginning of the Rwandan kingdom's dominance in the area. The capital of the kingdom was in the south of the country; the city of Kigali was founded in 1907 by explorer Richard Kandt. Rwanda and neighbouring Burundi had been assigned to Germany by the Berlin Conference of 1884, Germany established a presence in the country in 1897 with the formation of an alliance with the king, Yuhi V Musinga.
Kandt arrived in 1899, searching for the source of the Nile. When Germany decided in 1907 to separate the administration of Rwanda from that of Burundi, Kandt was appointed as the country's first Resident, he chose to make his headquarters in Kigali due to its central location in the country, because the area afforded good views and security. Kandt built himself a house in Nyarugenge, the first European-style house in the city, which remains in use today as the Kandt House Museum of Natural History. Despite a German ordinance written in 1905, which prohibited "non-indigenous natives" from entering Rwanda, Kandt began permitting the entry of Indian traders in 1908, which allowed commercial activity to begin in Rwanda in 1908; the first businesses were established in Kigali that year by Greek and Indian merchants, with assistance from Baganda and Swahili people. Items traded beads. However, commercial activity was limited and there were only around 30 firms in the city by 1914. Kandt opened government-run schools in Kigali, which began educating Tutsi students.
Belgian forces took control of Rwanda and Burundi in 1916, during World War I, were granted sovereignty by a League of Nations mandate in 1919. In early 1917, Belgium attempted to assert direct rule on the colony, placing King Musinga under arrest and sidelining Rwandans in the judiciary. In this period, Kigali was one of two provincial capitals, alongside Gisenyi; the difficulty of governing the complex Rwandan society, a crippling famine, led the Belgians to re-establish the German-style indirect rule at the end of 1917. Musinga was restored to his throne at Nyanza, with Kigali remaining home to the colonial administration; this arrangement persisted until the mid-1920s, but from 1924 the Belgians began once more to sideline the monarchy, this time permanently. Belgium took over appointment of officials and expansion of control. Kigali remained small through the remainder of the colonial era, as much of the administration took place in Ruanda-Urundi's capital Usumbura, now known as Bujumbura in Burundi.
Usumbura's population exceeded 50,000 during the 1950s, was the colony's only European-style city, while Kigali's population remained at around 6,000 until independence in 1962. Kigali become the capital upon Rwandan independence in 1962; the traditional capital was the seat of the mwami in Nyanza, while the colonial seat of power was in Butare known as Astrida. Butare was the leading contender to be the capital of the new independent nation, but Kigali was chosen because of its more central location; the city grew during the following decades, but retained a small-town feel, with just 25,000 people and five paved roads by the early 1970s. On 6 July 1973 there was a bloodless military coup, in which minister of defence Juvénal Habyarimana overthrew ruling president Gregoire Kayibanda. Businesses closed for a few days, troops patrolled across the city, but life had returned to normal and the army had left the streets by 11 July. In April 1994 President Habyarimana was assassinated, when his plane was shot down near Kigali Airport.
This was the catalyst for the Rwandan genocide, in which 500,000–1,000,000 Tutsi and politically moderate Hutu were killed in well-planned attacks on the orders of the interim government. Opposition politicians based in Kigali were killed on the first day of the genocide, the city became the setting for fierce fighting between the army and the Tutsi-dominated Rwandan Patriotic Front. On 8 April, Rwandan government forces attacked th
The MV Hayat N was a Turkish roro ferry that sank on September 15, 2008 23:30 local time in the Sea of Marmara off Bandırma in Balıkesir Province, Turkey. Owned by Istanbul Lines, she was operated by Marmara N Denizcilik between the Marmara Sea ports Bandırma, Ambarlı and Haydarpaşa; the vessel sank around 15 minutes after leaving Bandırma en route to Istanbul Province. It was carrying 28 crew with 73 trucks and two cars. One person was killed and five were missing. 89 of the survivors were rescued by fishing boats. 25 were admitted to hospitals. The cause of the sinking is thought to be. Rescue operations, started to search for the missing persons, were terminated on September 19 without any success. Divers found the wreckage 450 m off the port's north breakwater at a depth of 24 m. Most of the 73 trucks were scattered 200 m around the shipwreck; as reported on October 1, the corpse of one of the missing passengers landed ashore around 500 m from the place, where the vessel sunk. The body of another missing person was brought to surface by divers on October 5.
Old Freak Street, or Freak Street is a small street located at the south of Kathmandu Durbar Square. Presently known as Old Freak Street, this ancient street was named Freak Street referring to the hippie trail of the 1960s and 1970s. Freak Street was the epicenter during the Hippie trail from the early 1960s to late 1970s. During that time the main attraction drawing tourists to Freak Street was the government-run hashish shops. Hippies from different parts of the world traveled to Freak Street in search of legal cannabis. Direct bus services to Freak Street were available from the airport and borders targeting the hippies looking for legal smokes. Freak Street was a hippie nirvana, since marijuana and hashish were legal and sold in government licensed shops. A young restless population in the west, seeking to distant itself from political and social frustration, had firsthand contact with the fascinating culture and architecture, unique life style that attracted hippies to Freak Street, but in the early 1970s the government of Nepal started a round-up of hippies on Freak Street and they were physically deported to India, an action propelled by a directive from the government of United States of America.
The government imposed a strict regulation for tourists regarding the dress codes and physical appearances. After imposing such regulations by government the hippies felt vulnerable and the hippie movement of Nepal died out in the late 1970s, it was under this directive that the Nepali government came to ban the production and sale of hashish and marijuana in Nepal. The hippie tourism was replaced with the more conventional businesses of trekking and cultural tourism. Old Freak Street’s history and prime position in the heart of Kathmandu still makes it a popular destination among the locals. Once labeled as being a place to find enlightenment, a lot of things have transformed since the deportation of the hippies in the early 1970s; this ancient street, named as Freak Street, after the hippies, presently the name Freak Street has been converted into Old Freak Street since the place is not anymore like it used to be back in the 1960s. This place is now other social variants of the 1960s. Cheap guest houses, trekking agencies, shopping centres, souvenir shops, restaurants are the businesses the local entrepreneurs have adapted after banning of the cannabis in Nepal.