click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Deutsche Reichsbahn

The Deutsche Reichsbahn known as the German National Railway, the German State Railway, German Reich Railway, the German Imperial Railway, was the German national railway system created after the end of World War I from the regional railways of the individual states of the German Empire. The Deutsche Reichsbahn has been described as "the largest enterprise in the capitalist world in the years between 1920 and 1932" its importance "arises from the fact that the Reichsbahn was at the center of events in a period of great turmoil in German history"; the company was founded on 1 April 1920 as the Deutsche Reichseisenbahnen when the Weimar Republic, which still used the nation-state term of the previous monarchy, Deutsches Reich, took national control of the German railways, run by the German states. In 1924 it was reorganised under the aegis of the Deutsche Reichsbahn-Gesellschaft, a nominally private railway company, 100% owned by the German state. In 1937 the railway was reorganised again as a state authority and given the name Deutsche Reichsbahn.

After the Anschluss in 1938 the DR took over the Bundesbahn Österreich. The East and West German states were founded in 1949. East Germany took over the control of the DR on its territory and continued to use the traditional name Deutsche Reichsbahn, while the railway in West Germany became the Deutsche Bundesbahn; the Austrian Österreichische Bundesbahnen was founded in 1945, was given its present name in 1947. In January 1994, following German reunification, the East German Deutsche Reichsbahn merged with the West German Deutsche Bundesbahn to form Germany's new national carrier, Deutsche Bahn AG, technically no longer a government agency but still a 100% state-owned joint stock company; the first railways to be owned by the German Empire, founded in 1871, were the Imperial Railways in Alsace-Lorraine, whose Imperial General Division of Railways in Alsace-Lorraine had its headquarters in Straßburg. It was formed after France had ceded the territory of Alsace-Lorraine in 1871 to the German Empire and the newly created Third French Republic had formally purchased the French Eastern Railway Company and sold it again to the German Empire.

After the end of the First World War this national "imperial railway" was taken back by France. In the remaining German states, by contrast, the existing state railways continued to be subject to their respective sovereigns, despite the fact that Otto von Bismarck had tried in vain to purchase the main railway lines for the Empire. A similar attempt failed in 1875 as a result of opposition from the middle powers when Albert von Maybach presented a draft Reich Railway Act to the Bundesrat. In the wake of the stipulations of the Weimar Constitution of 11 August 1919, the state treaty on the foundation of the Deutsche Reichseisenbahnen came into force on 1 April 1920; this resulted in the merger of the existing state railways of Prussia, Saxony, Württemberg, Baden and Oldenburg under the newly formed German Reich. The state railways that merged were the: Baden state railways Mecklenburg state railways Oldenburg state railways Bavarian state railways Saxon state railways Württemberg state railways Prussian-Hessian state railwaysInitially called the Reichseisenbahnen or Deutsche Reichseisenbahnen, the Reich Minister of Transport, Wilhelm Groener gave them the name "Deutsche Reichsbahn" in his decree of 27 June 1921.

In 1922 the old railway divisions were renamed as Reich railway divisions. Among the provisions of the 1924 Dawes Plan was a plan to utilize the state railway for the payment of war reparations. Following the plan's publication, on 12 February 1924, the Reich government announced the creation of the Deutsche Reichsbahn as a state enterprise under the Reich Ministry of Transport; as this was not enough to satisfy the reparations creditors, on 30 August 1924 a law was enacted providing for the establishment of a state-owned Deutsche Reichsbahn-Gesellschaft as a public holding company to operate the national railways. The aim was to earn profits which, under the Dawes Plan, were to be used to contribute to Germany's war reparations. At the same time as the Reichsbahn law was enacted, the company was handed a bill of eleven billion Goldmarks to be paid to the Allied powers, while its original capital was valued at fifteen billion Goldmarks; these terms were amended in the Young Plan. The Great Depression and the regular payment of war reparations put a considerable strain on the Reichsbahn.

Not until the Lausanne Conference of 1932 was the Reichsbahn released from its financial obligations. In total, about 3.87 billion Goldmarks was paid in reparations to the Allied powers. During the DRG period the following milestones occurred: 1 October 1930: the DRG took over the Bremen Port Railway 27 June 1933: the DRG's sister company the Reichsautobahn was founded 1 March 1935: the railways of the Saar were incorporatedThe beginning of the DRG was characterised by the acquisition of new rolling stock built to standard types, s

Landskron Castle (Carinthia)

Landskron Castle is a medieval hill castle northeast of Villach in the state of Carinthia, Austria. Dating to the early 14th century, the castle ruins are located on a rock cone of the Ossiach Tauern range, at an elevation of 658 metres above sea level. Today Landskron Castle, its falconry centre conducting regular flying demonstrations, the nearby macaque enclosure are major tourist destinations. Settled since the Hallstatt era, the estates around Lake Ossiach were first mentioned in an 878 deed issued by the East Frankish king Carloman of Bavaria, who granted them to the monastery of Altötting he had established shortly before. About 1024 the area was among the Carinthian possessions of one Count Ozi of the Chiemgau a scion of the Otakar dynasty, who founded Ossiach Abbey nearby. A castle existed, when in 1330 the estates were acquired by the Counts of Ortenburg. Landskron itself was first mentioned in 1351, when the Habsburg duke Albert II of Austria Carinthian duke since 1335, purchased the fortress and had it rebuilt as an important stronghold within the Carinthian possessions of the Bamberg prince-bishops.

The Habsburg rulers temporarily gave it in pawn to Count Hermann II of Celje, heir of the Ortenburg dynasty in 1418, the Lords of Stubenberg. In 1511 Emperor Maximilian bestowed the estate to the Knightly Order of Saint George at Millstatt, while the fortress decayed. In 1542 Emperor Ferdinand I sold Landskron Castle to the Ortenburg castellan Christoph Khevenhüller, who made the castle his main residence and had it rebuilt in a lavish Renaissance style. In 1552 Khevenhüller received the visit of Emperor Charles V, who, on the run from the Protestant troops of Elector Maurice of Saxony, had fled to Carinthia; the Khevenhüllers, themselves Protestant, were stripped of Landskron Castle during the Thirty Years' War, by order of Emperor Ferdinand II in 1628. In 1639 the castle passed to the Dietrichstein comital dynasty. After the 1648 Peace of Westphalia the Khevenhüllers claimed it back and began a decades-long lawsuit, though without any success. While the Dietrichstein owners resided at their Nikolsburg estates in Moravia, the castle decayed.

In 1812 a blaze caused by lightning devastated Landskron, not rebuilt and fell into ruins. From 1953 onwards, its remains were conserved and a restaurant was opened within its walls. List of castles in Austria This article was translated from the German Wikipedia. Castle website

Daily Hive

Daily Hive known as Vancity Buzz, is an online newspaper in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. It began digital publishing in 2008 and became Western Canada's largest online-only publication by 2016; the site began its publishing in 2008 under the name Vancity Buzz and was founded by Manny Bahia, Karm Sumal and Farhan Mohamed. The name was changed to Daily Hive in 2016. Concurrently with its rebranding as Daily Hive, the publication expanded to Montreal. In November 2017 Daily Hive deleted many of their posts on their official Instagram account as a form of viral marketing, inspired by Taylor Swift's similar publicity stunt earlier in the year, they posted images of the word "Nude". This stunt gained them more followers than before; that same month Vancouver Magazine ranked Bahia and Mohamed together as among the 50 most powerful people in Vancouver, stating that Daily Hive was an influence on many millennials. In February 2019, Daily Hive acquired Torontoist, a long-running web publication that offered similar coverage of Toronto.

Established in 2004 as part of the Gothamist network of city-specific news websites, Torontoist was a property of St. Joseph Media from 2011 until its acquisition by Daily Hive, it no longer publishes original content as a separate entity from Daily Hive. Prior to its rebranding, Daily Hive was the subject of numerous controversies. Notable accusations included unethical journalism practices and fearmongering. Colony Digital – Digital marketing agency DH News – News Dished – Food Grow – Cannabis ID Agency – Influencer agency Listed – Events Mapped – Travel Offside – Sports Urbanized – Real estate List of newspapers in Canada List of Canadian newspapers by circulation Official website

National Institute of Biomedical Genomics

National Institute of Biomedical Genomics is a national level research institute for genomic medicine. It is located at Kalyani West Bengal—50 km from Kolkata, it has been established as an autonomous institution under the Department of Biotechnology, Government of India. This is the first institution in India explicitly devoted to research, training and service and capacity-building in biomedical genomics; the Institute operates from a campus constructed on a 30-acre plot of land near Bidhanpally, Kalyani. Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Kolkata Indian Statistical Institute Bose Institute Indian Institute of Chemical Biology Official website

Caitlin's Way

Caitlin's Way is a live action teen drama series that aired on Nickelodeon from 2000 to 2002. The show was co-created by Thomas W. Lynch. Caitlin's Way focuses on a troubled girl who lives on the streets of Philadelphia. After being arrested, Caitlin is given the option of going to a youth detention center or moving in with her mother Katherine's cousin in Montana during her meeting with a judge, she chooses the latter. Caitlin, still distraught about her mother Katherine's unexpected death when Caitlin was eight, seeks a loving family and a permanent home; the ranch was near High River in southeastern Alberta, Canada. There were scenes shot in town, in Calgary where the C-Train was seen in the background. In addition to airing on Nickelodeon, the show was telecast in Canada on YTV. Nickelodeon cancelled the show after ratings fell and the show changed direction. New episodes were shown throughout early 2002, it aired on CH and on The N. Although it is a Nickelodeon series, Disney Channel aired it in the UK and Ireland, the Middle East.

Caitlin Seeger Played by Lindsay FeltonCaitlin Seeger is a 14-year-old girl, in and out of foster homes since age eight, when her mother Katherine died. Her father had left. Caitlin, still angry about her mother's death, hides her grief in her tough-girl persona and gets into trouble frequently, she loves photography and is seen with her camera which once belonged to her mother. Her dream is to become a professional photographer. After getting in trouble and expelled from her Catholic school, Caitlin is given the option of going to a juvenile detention facility or going to live with her mother Katherine's cousin Dori Lowe, her husband Jim and their son Griffen in Montana by the judge that she meets with. Caitlin agrees to go to Montana. While there, she rescues a stallion from wranglers whom she names Bandit; as time goes by, the Lowes and Caitlin learn to accept each other and Caitlin gets what she's always wanted for a long time: a loving family and a permanent home. She loves to read and her best subject in school is English.

The locket that Caitlin wears 24/7 is the same locket that her mother used to wear and she is seen listening to her mini CD player. Caitlin used to play soccer and she associates the sport with her mom because the last time Caitlin played soccer with her best friend was the day that her mom Katherine died. Caitlin's favorite color is black. Dori Lowe Played by Cynthia BelliveauDori Lowe is Jim's wife, Griffin's mom, the cousin of Caitlin's mother Katherine, a veterinarian, she suggests. Dori told Caitlin once that she and her mother never had much contact, why they did not know about her until recently, she has a home office and works with most of the animals there are in High River. As a loving mother, Dori tries to warm up to Caitlin by acting like her mother figure, which has at times Caitlin resents since she doesn't want anybody taking her mom's place and causes her to push Dori away at times and has hurt her feelings with things she has said about her. Caitlin learned the truth about her mother's death from Dori who tells her she died from an Aneurysm that killed her instantly.

Caitlin breaks down over hearing this and Dori says she assumed that Caitlin knew. Caitlin admits to her that nobody had told her; the two become closer throughout the show and Caitlin accepts Dori as her new mother figure after Dori explains that she wants to be a mother to Caitlin, but not be one that replaces her own mother. In high school, Dori was on the girls' soccer team but wasn't good so she Dori had to work hard to stay on the team. Jim Lowe Played by Ken TremblettJim Lowe is Dori's husband, Griffin's father, the local sheriff. Caitlin sees him as the only strong father figure she has had in her entire life since her own father left her. Jim is a loving husband, always willing to help his family out whenever they need him; when Caitlin first comes to live with them, the two of them feel awkward around each other, but they come past that. Jim does whatever he can to help her. Griffen Lowe Played by Jeremy FoleyGriffen Lowe is the 14-year-old son of Jim and Dori and Caitlin's second cousin.

He is a smart kid, always earning straight A's. Griffen's hobbies include computers, riding his bike, playing the guitar, singing in a band with his best friends Brett and Eric called Bad Hygiene; when he first learned that Caitlin would come to live with them, he wasn't too happy about it. The two of them get into fights and Griffen will make cruel remarks about her past to anger Caitlin. Despite all the arguing, they form a brother and sister like relationship and become each other's best friends, they will always help each other out, no matter what the situation is or how much trouble they get into. He is the voice of reason for Caitlin and he's always there to give advice to her and has admitted to her that he never likes it when she is sad, but is always there to comfort her. Bandit Bandit is a wild Buckskin stallion whom Caitlin helps rescue from wranglers who soon rescues her from a rabid wolf and the two soon bond, he belongs to Caitlin as of "Stray Part 3." Dori allows her to keep him.

Caitlin decides to name him Bandit, after a horse, in a story her mother used to read t

Dr. (Namie Amuro song)

"Dr." is a song by Japanese recording artist Namie Amuro, taken as the only A-side single from her ninth studio album Past<Future. The track was written, composed and produced by long-time collaborator Nao'ymt, recorded at Azabu-O Studios in Minato, Tokyo. Musically, "Dr." is a dance number, influenced by modern club music, samples an orchestral section from the musical piece "Boléro", composed by French conductor Maurice Ravel. Lyrically, it is a love song; the single premiered on March 18, 2009 with Amuro's recording "Wild". Critical responses of "Dr." were divided. Commercially, it was a success in Japan, peaking at number one on the Oricon Singles Chart. Additionally, the track by itself reached number 39 on the Japan Hot 100 chart, provided by Billboard; the song was certified in two different categories by the Recording Industry Association of Japan for equal sales of 100,000 copies. An accompanying music video for the single was directed by Junpei Mizusaki from Kamikaze Douga, alongside assistant directors Shuichi Sato Yasuhiko Shimizu.

Served as an anime-styled visual, it depicts Amuro as a fictional heroine trying to restore vegetation and life back to a post-apocalyptic landscape, straight after a warzone. She has performed "Dr." on her Best Fiction tour, the Past<Future Tour, its most recent appearance on her Livegenic Tour in 2015. Additionally, a re-worked version was created for her final greatest hits album Finally. After releasing her third greatest hits album Best Fiction, Amuro conducted a concert tour throughout Japan and different parts of Asia to support its material. While on tour, the singer revealed two new tracks: "Wild" and "Dr.", subsequently added them to the setlist. In early January 2009, Amuro appeared on a Vidal Sassoon commercial that promoted its Japanese products, a snippet of "Dr." was televised. "Dr." was written, composed and produced by long-time collaborator Nao'ymt, recorded at Azabu-O Studios in Minato, Tokyo during the end of 2008. Amuro felt. Additionally, several publications reported the track to be a mixture of "opera, techno and R&B" music, something influenced throughout the parent album.

The singer's record label, Avex Trax, confirmed that "Wild" and "Dr." would be released as a double A-side single. The single premiered on March 18, 2009 with Amuro's recording "Wild", it was distributed in two physical formats in Hong Kong. The recorded versions were published for digital consumption on March 25, 2009; the cover art was photographed by Shoji Uchida, featuring Amuro in a black hooded vest, with chains tangled around her wrists. Musically, "Dr." is a mid-tempo dance number, influenced by modern club music, samples an orchestral section from the musical piece "Boléro" through its pre-chorus sections, composed by French conductor Maurice Ravel. According to Tetsuo Hiraga from Hot Express, he compared the "dance" sound to many contemporary artists in the Western market; the song opens with a "futuristic" generic robotic vocal stating "Access... please press enter after input your wish," and features the sound of a heartbeat in the background to carry the songs pace. The Ravel sample includes various orchestral arrangements for 11 seconds in each pre-chorus, leads straight back to the songs original dance sound.

Bradley Stern from MuuMuse noted the tracks "mash" of several song styles, pointed out R&B and opera being some of them. Online catalogue Selective Hearing described it as "all-over-the-place", said that the pre-chorus "breaks off into some sort of weird stacatto, marching band type stuff...". Lyrically, it is a love song that talks about "erasing the wounds from the past", embracing the future as lovers. Additionally, the song uses the titular term to metaphorically describe Amuro's lover. "Dr." received mixed reviews from most music critics. On a positive note, Japanese magazine CD Journal commended the tracks arrangement, Amuro's vocal deliveries, its status as being a single; as part of the album, the magazine complimented the tracks lyrical content and Nao'ymt's "futuristic" production. An editorial review from Billboard Japan describe the song as "gorgeous", where as Takuro Ueno from Rolling Stone Japan called it "fantastic" and highlighted it as one of the album highlights. Tetsuo Hiraga from Hot Express lauded the track, describing it as her own "Bohemian Rhapsody".

He complimented the tracks sense of prosperous, in terms of genre development with her future music. Western website Selective Hearing gave it an average remark, labelling it "alright"; the blog complimented the tracks "nice start", until they criticized the "strange" orchestral sample and felt it "wrecked the flow of the song". Additionally, they concluded, "If that part were taken out or revised I would have thought better of it." MuuMuse editor Bradley Stern was critical towards the tracks leaked demo, saying "it appears to be one, massive hot mess of song." However, as part of Past < Future, he felt. Commercially, "Dr." was a success in Japan. Charting with "Wild", the single debuted at number one on the Oricon Singles Chart, selling 75,456 copies in its first week; this resulted in being her eleventh overall number-one single, her second consecutive number-one, her first single to debut atop o