Klaus Ludwig is a German racing driver. He known as König Ludwig for his success in touring cars and in sports car racing. In the 1970s, Ludwig drove for Ford in the Deutsche Rennsport Meisterschaft, winning in 1979 with a Kremer Racing-Porsche 935. With this car, based on the 15-year-old Porsche 911 road car design, he won the 24 Hours of Le Mans overall in the wet, an unprecedented win against the faster pure sports car racing prototypes. In 1984 and 1985, he won the 24 Hours of Le Mans for Joest Racing in their #7 Porsche 956. Considering Le Mans and sportcars too dangerous after the deaths of Manfred Winkelhock and Stefan Bellof, he was recruited for the 1987 World Touring Car Championship for Ford only to finish runner-up by a single point to BMW driver Roberto Ravaglia after a post-season disqualification, he moved to the Deutsche Tourenwagen Meisterschaft, became champion in 1988 in a Ford Sierra RS500. Ludwig represented IMSA in the 1986 International Race of Champions, finishing 8th.
He repeated the success at Mercedes-Benz in 1992 and 1994, before moving back to sports cars racing for them in 1997 to become the 1998 FIA GT Champion. He retired, he soon returned in June 1999, to win the 24 Hours Nürburgring on the Nordschleife for the third time driving a Zakspeed Viper. When the DTM resumed as Deutsche Tourenwagen Masters in 2000, he returned to the series, winning at the age of 50 years at the Sachsenring circuit, only to retire once again. Ludwig returned as a "hobby pilot" to the Nürburgring Nordschleife when given the opportunity to drive a high power vehicle; the years 2004 and 2005 saw him enter the 24 Hours Nürburgring with Uwe Alzen on the Jürgen Alzen Porsche 996 GT2 Bi-Turbo. With a aspirated Porsche 997 GT3 of the Alzen brothers and Christian Abt managed to beat the old distance record in the 2006 edition of the 24h, yet finished only second, 1 lap behind the winners. Ludwig has worked as a TV commentator on DTM races. Winner 24 Hours of Le Mans: 1979, 1984, 1985 Deutsche Rennsport Meisterschaft champion 1979, 1981 Deutsche Tourenwagen Meisterschaft champion 1988, 1992, 1994 FIA GT World Champion 1998 * Overall positions shown.
WTCC points paying positions may be different † — Retired, but was classified as he completed 90% of the winner's race distance
Audi AG is a German automobile manufacturer that designs, produces and distributes luxury vehicles. Audi is a member of the Volkswagen Group and has its roots at Ingolstadt, Germany. Audi-branded vehicles are produced in nine production facilities worldwide; the origins of the company are complex, going back to the early 20th century and the initial enterprises founded by engineer August Horch. The modern era of Audi began in the 1960s when Auto Union was acquired by Volkswagen from Daimler-Benz. After relaunching the Audi brand with the 1965 introduction of the Audi F103 series, Volkswagen merged Auto Union with NSU Motorenwerke in 1969, thus creating the present day form of the company; the company name is based on the Latin translation of the surname of August Horch. "Horch", meaning "listen" in German, becomes "audi" in Latin. The four rings of the Audi logo each represent one of four car companies that banded together to create Audi's predecessor company, Auto Union. Audi's slogan is Vorsprung durch Technik, meaning "Being Ahead through Technology".
However, Audi USA had used the slogan "Truth in Engineering" from 2007 to 2016, have not used the slogan since 2016. Audi, along with fellow German marques BMW and Mercedes-Benz, is among the best-selling luxury automobile brands in the world. Automobile company Wanderer was established in 1885 becoming a branch of Audi AG. Another company, NSU, which later merged into Audi, was founded during this time, supplied the chassis for Gottlieb Daimler's four-wheeler. On 14 November 1899, August Horch established the company A. Horch & Cie. in the Ehrenfeld district of Cologne. In 1902, he moved with his company to Reichenbach im Vogtland. On 10 May 1904, he founded the August Horch & Cie. Motorwagenwerke AG, a joint-stock company in Zwickau. After troubles with Horch chief financial officer, August Horch left Motorwagenwerke and founded in Zwickau on 16 July 1909, his second company, the August Horch Automobilwerke GmbH, his former partners sued him for trademark infringement. The German Reichsgericht in Leipzig determined that the Horch brand belonged to his former company.
Since August Horch was prohibited from using "Horch" as a trade name in his new car business, he called a meeting with close business friends and Franz Fikentscher from Zwickau. At the apartment of Franz Fikentscher, they discussed how to come up with a new name for the company. During this meeting, Franz's son was studying Latin in a corner of the room. Several times he looked like he was on the verge of saying something but would just swallow his words and continue working, until he blurted out, "Father – audiatur et altera pars... wouldn't it be a good idea to call it audi instead of horch?" "Horch!" in German means "Hark!" or "hear", "Audi" in the singular imperative form of "audire" – "to listen" – in Latin. The idea was enthusiastically accepted by everyone attending the meeting. On 25 April 1910 the Audi Automobilwerke GmbH Zwickau was entered in the company's register of Zwickau registration court; the first Audi automobile, the Audi Type A 10/22 hp Sport-Phaeton, was produced in the same year, followed by the successor Type B 10/28PS in the same year.
Audi started with a 2,612 cc inline-four engine model Type A, followed by a 3,564 cc model, as well as 4,680 cc and 5,720 cc models. These cars were successful in sporting events; the first six-cylinder model Type M, 4,655 cc appeared in 1924. August Horch left the Audiwerke in 1920 for a high position at the ministry of transport, but he was still involved with Audi as a member of the board of trustees. In September 1921, Audi became the first German car manufacturer to present a production car, the Audi Type K, with left-handed drive. Left-hand drive spread and established dominance during the 1920s because it provided a better view of oncoming traffic, making overtaking safer. In August 1928, Jørgen Rasmussen, the owner of Dampf-Kraft-Wagen, acquired the majority of shares in Audiwerke AG. In the same year, Rasmussen bought the remains of the U. S. automobile manufacturer Rickenbacker, including the manufacturing equipment for eight-cylinder engines. These engines were used in Audi Zwickau and Audi Dresden models that were launched in 1929.
At the same time, six-cylinder and four-cylinder models were manufactured. Audi cars of that era were luxurious cars equipped with special bodywork. In 1932, Audi merged with Horch, DKW, Wanderer, to form Auto Union AG, Chemnitz, it was during this period that the company offered the Audi Front that became the first European car to combine a six-cylinder engine with front-wheel drive. It used a powertrain shared with the Wanderer, but turned 180-degrees, so that the drive shaft faced the front. Before World War II, Auto Union used the four interlinked rings that make up the Audi badge today, representing these four brands. However, this badge was used only on Auto Union racing cars in that period while the member companies used their own names and emblems; the technological development became more and more concentrated and some Audi models were propelled by Horch or Wanderer built engines. Reflecting the economic pressures of the time, Auto Union concentrated on smaller cars through the 1930s, so that by 1938 the company's DKW brand accounted for 17.9% of the German car market, while Audi held only 0.1%.
After the final few Audis were delivered in 1939 the "Audi" name disappeared from the new car market for more than two decades
Group C was a category of motorsport, introduced by the FIA in 1982 for sports car racing, along with Group A for touring cars and Group B for GTs. It was designed to replace both Group Group 6 Two Seater Racing Cars. Group C was used in the FIA's World Endurance Championship, World Sports-Prototype Championship, World Sportscar Championship and in the European Endurance Championship, it was used for other sports car racing series around the globe. The final year for the class came in 1993. Broadly similar rules were used in the North American IMSA Grand Touring Prototype series; the roots of the Group C category lie in both FIA Group 6 and in the GTP category introduced by the ACO at Le Mans in the mid-1970s. GTP was a class for roofed prototypes with certain dimensional restrictions, but instead of the more usual limits on engine capacity, it placed limits on fuel consumption; the FIA applied the same concept in its Group C rules. It limited cars to a maximum fuel capacity of 100 litres. With competitors restricted to five refueling stops within a 1000 kilometer distance, the cars were allowed 600 litres per 1000 kilometers.
The FIA hoped this would prevent manufacturers from concentrating on engine development. Engines had to be from a recognized manufacturer which had cars homologated in the FIA's Group A Touring Car or Group B GT Car categories. While the consumption requirement meant that cars needed to conserve fuel early in the race, manufacturer support for the new regulations grew with each make adding to the diversity of the series. With the new rules, it was theoretically possible for large aspirated engines to compete with small forced induction engines. In addition, all races were to be contested over at least 1000 km — lasting more than six hours — so it was possible to emphasize the "endurance" aspect of the competition as well. Ford and Porsche were the first constructors to join the series; the traditional turbocharged boxer engine in the 956 was tested in the 1981 version of the Group 6 936. Several other makes joined the series, including Lancia, Mercedes, Toyota and Aston Martin. Many of these took part in the IMSA championship, as its GTP class had similar regulations.
With costs increasing, the FIA introduced a new Group C Junior class for 1983. This was intended for privateer teams and small manufacturers and it limited cars to a minimum weight of 700 kg and a maximum fuel capacity of 55 liters. With competitors limited to five refueling stops within a 1000 kilometer distance, the cars were allowed 330 liters per 1000 kilometers; as in Group C, engines had to be from a recognized manufacturer which had cars homologated in Group A or Group B. Although it was expected that C Junior cars would use two-litre aspirated engines, in practice most cars used either the 3.5l BMW M1 engine or the new 3.3l Cosworth DFL, like in the main class, a variety of solutions was employed by each individual manufacturer. Alba with a small, lightweight turbo, Tiga and Ecurie Ecosse with Austin-Rover and Cosworth-powered cars were among the most competitive in this class; the low cost of these cars led to the notion of their use in national championships, such as the short-lived British BRDC C2 Championship.
Group C Junior was formally renamed Group C2 for 1984. By 1989, the Group C series popularity was nearly as great as Formula One; when C1 cars were found to be breaking over the 400 kilometres per hour mark at Le Mans' Mulsanne Straight — the WM-Peugeot recorded the highest 407 km/h during qualifying for the 1988 event — the FIA revolutionized the class by attempting to turn it into a formula series to replace the C2 category. The new formula restricted the performance of cars built to the original rules and benefited teams using F1-sourced 3.5 L engines — these latter teams being the large manufacturers alone, as the new formula cars were more expensive than the C1 cars. What followed was the quick downfall of Group C, as the new engines were unaffordable for privateer teams like Spice and ADA. A lack of entries meant. However, the ACO still allowed the Group C cars to compete at 24 Hours of Le Mans; the race still witnessed protests against the new state of affairs, as spectators placed cloth banners in fences expressing their feelings.
The 1994 24 Hours of Le Mans was the last one. A new category formed by race organizers saw modified Group C cars without roofs. In fact, a former C1 car disguised as a road-legal GT car, entered in the GT1 category, the Dauer 962 Le Mans, won the race after transmission problems by a leading Toyota 94C-V; the 962 was subsequently banned. Many of the modified open top Group C cars continued to compete until they wrecked, broke, or reti
Germany the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, the Alps to the south. It borders Denmark to the north and the Czech Republic to the east and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to the west. Germany includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,386 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With 83 million inhabitants, it is the second most populous state of Europe after Russia, the most populous state lying in Europe, as well as the most populous member state of the European Union. Germany is a decentralized country, its capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while Frankfurt serves as its financial capital and has the country's busiest airport. Germany's largest urban area is the Ruhr, with its main centres of Essen; the country's other major cities are Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf, Dresden, Bremen and Nuremberg. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity.
A region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period, the Germanic tribes expanded southward. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation. After the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire, the German Confederation was formed in 1815; the German revolutions of 1848–49 resulted in the Frankfurt Parliament establishing major democratic rights. In 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. After World War I and the revolution of 1918–19, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic; the Nazi seizure of power in 1933 led to the establishment of a dictatorship, the annexation of Austria, World War II, the Holocaust. After the end of World War II in Europe and a period of Allied occupation, Austria was re-established as an independent country and two new German states were founded: West Germany, formed from the American and French occupation zones, East Germany, formed from the Soviet occupation zone.
Following the Revolutions of 1989 that ended communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe, the country was reunified on 3 October 1990. Today, the sovereign state of Germany is a federal parliamentary republic led by a chancellor, it is a great power with a strong economy. As a global leader in several industrial and technological sectors, it is both the world's third-largest exporter and importer of goods; as a developed country with a high standard of living, it upholds a social security and universal health care system, environmental protection, a tuition-free university education. The Federal Republic of Germany was a founding member of the European Economic Community in 1957 and the European Union in 1993, it is part of the Schengen Area and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999. Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the G20, the OECD. Known for its rich cultural history, Germany has been continuously the home of influential and successful artists, musicians, film people, entrepreneurs, scientists and inventors.
Germany has a large number of World Heritage sites and is among the top tourism destinations in the world. The English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine; the German term Deutschland diutisciu land is derived from deutsch, descended from Old High German diutisc "popular" used to distinguish the language of the common people from Latin and its Romance descendants. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz "popular", derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- "people", from which the word Teutons originates; the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a coal mine in Schöningen between 1994 and 1998 where eight 380,000-year-old wooden javelins of 1.82 to 2.25 m length were unearthed. The Neander Valley was the location where the first non-modern human fossil was discovered.
The Neanderthal 1 fossils are known to be 40,000 years old. Evidence of modern humans dated, has been found in caves in the Swabian Jura near Ulm; the finds included 42,000-year-old bird bone and mammoth ivory flutes which are the oldest musical instruments found, the 40,000-year-old Ice Age Lion Man, the oldest uncontested figurative art discovered, the 35,000-year-old Venus of Hohle Fels, the oldest uncontested human figurative art discovered. The Nebra sky disk is a bronze artefact created during the European Bronze Age attributed to a site near Nebra, Saxony-Anhalt, it is part of UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme. The Germanic tribes are thought to date from the Pre-Roman Iron Age. From southern Scandinavia and north Germany, they expanded south and west from the 1st century BC, coming into contact with the Celtic tribes of Gaul as well
Group 5 (racing)
Group 5 was an FIA motor racing classification, applied to four distinct categories during the years 1966 to 1982. Group 5 regulations defined a Special Touring Car category and from 1970 to 1971 the classification was applied to limited production Sports Cars restricted to 5 litre engine capacity; the Group 5 Sports Car category was redefined in 1972 to exclude the minimum production requirement and limit engine capacity to 3 litres. From 1976 to 1982 Group 5 was for Special Production Cars, a liberal silhouette formula based on homologated production vehicles. In 1966 the FIA introduced a number of new racing categories including one for modified touring cars known as Group 5 Special Touring Cars; the regulations permitted vehicle modifications beyond those allowed in the concurrent Group 1 and Group 2 Touring Car categories. Group 5 regulations were adopted for the British Saloon Car Championship from 1966 and for the European Touring Car Championship from 1968; the Special Touring Cars category was discontinued after the 1969 season.
For the 1970 season, the FIA applied the Group 5 classification to the Sports Car class, known as Group 4 Sports Cars. The minimum production requirement remained at 25 and the engine capacity maximum at 5 litres as had applied in the superseded Group 4. Group 5 Sports Cars contested the FIA's International Championship for Makes in 1970 & 1971, alongside the 3 litre Group 6 Prototype Sports Cars. During 1970 the FIA decided to replace the existing Group 5 Sports Car category when the rules expired at the end of the 1971 season, so the big 917s and 512s would have to be retired at the end of that year. Ferrari decided to give up any official effort with the 512 in order to prepare for the new 1972 season regulations, but many 512s were still raced by most of them converted to M specification. As a result of the rule change, sports car racing popularity suffered and did not recover until the following decade, with the advent of Group C which incidentally were forced out of competition in favour of the 3.5 atmo engine formula, reminiscent of events nineteen years previous.
In an effort to reduce the speeds generated at Le Mans and other fast circuits of the day by the unlimited capacity Group 6 Prototypes such as the 7 litre Fords, to entice manufacturers of 3 litre Formula One engines into endurance racing, the Commission Sportive Internationale announced that the new International Championship for Makes would be run for Group 6 Sports-Prototypes limited to 3 litre capacity for the four years from 1968 through 1971. Well-aware that few manufacturers were ready to take up the challenge, the CSI allowed the participation of 5 litre Group 4 Sports Cars manufactured in quantities of at least 50 units; this targeted existing cars like the newer Lola T70 coupe. In April 1968, the CSI announced that, as there were still too few entries in the 3 litres Group 6 Prototype category, the minimal production figure to compete in the Group 4 Sport category of the International Championship of Makes would be reduced from 50 to 25 starting in 1969 through to the planned end of the rules in 1971.
This was to allow the homologation in Group 4 of cars such as the Ferrari 250 LM and the Lola T70 which had not been manufactured in sufficient quantities to qualify. Starting in July 1968, Porsche made a surprising and expensive effort to take advantage of this rule; as they were rebuilding race cars with new chassis every race or two anyway, they decided to conceive and build 25 versions of a whole new car for the Sport category with one underlying goal: to win its first overall victory in the 24 Hours of Le Mans. In only ten months the Porsche 917 was developed, based upon the Porsche 908, with remarkable technology: Porsche's first 12-cylinder engine, many components made of titanium and exotic alloys, developed for lightweight hillclimb racers. Other ways of weight reduction were rather simple, like a gear lever knob made of Balsa wood; when Porsche was first visited by the CSI inspectors only three cars were completed, while 18 were being assembled and seven additional sets of parts were present.
Porsche argued that if they assembled the cars they would have to take them apart again to prepare the cars for racing. The inspectors asked to see 25 assembled and working cars. On April 20 Ferdinand Piëch displayed 25 917s parked in front of the Porsche factory to the CSI inspectors. Piëch offered the opportunity to drive one of the cars, declined. During June 1969, Enzo Ferrari sold half of his stock to FIAT, used some of that money to do what Porsche did 6 months earlier with the 917, to build 25 cars powered by a 5-litre V12 in order to compete against them. With the financial help of Fiat, that risky investment was made, surplus cars were intended to be sold to racing customers to compete for the 1970 season. Within 9 months Ferrari manufactured 25 512S cars. Ferrari entries only consisted of the factory cars, tuned by SpA SEFAC and there were the private cars of Scuderia Filipinetti, N. A. R. T. Écurie Francorchamps, Scuderia Picchio Rosso, Gelo Racing Team and Escuderia Montjuich which not receive the same support from the factory.
They were considered as field fillers, never as candidate for a win. At Porsche, however, JWA Gulf, KG Salzburg who were replaced by Martini Racing for the following season, received all direct factory support and the privateers like AAW Shell Racing and David Piper Racing received a much better support than Ferrari's clients; the 917 instability problem was resolved with a rev
Deutsche Tourenwagen Masters
The Deutsche Tourenwagen Masters is a touring car series sanctioned by DMSB and ITR, an affiliation of FIA since 1976 and 2003 respectively. Deutsche Tourenwagen Masters cars use a silhouette racing car based on a mass-produced road car, is based in Germany, but with rounds elsewhere in Europe. From 2000 onwards, this new DTM continued the former Deutsche Tourenwagen Meisterschaft and ITC, discontinued after 1996 due to high costs. During the ITC era a large proportion of the revenue generated by the championship went to the FIA, with the result that less went to the teams who subsequently complained of little return on their large investment in the high-tech series. Since 1997 many ideas have been discussed in order to find a compromise for rules of a new DTM. Opel put the primary emphasis on cost control, Mercedes-Benz supported expensive competitiveness in development, BMW wanted an international series rather than one focused on Germany only, while Audi insisted on allowing their trademark quattro four-wheel drive in sports car racing.
The DTM returned in 2000 as Mercedes and Opel had agreed to use cars that were based on the concept car, shown by Opel on various occasions, e.g. the 1999 24 Hours Nürburgring where Opel celebrated its 100th anniversary. The series adopted the format of the 1995 championship, with most rounds held in Germany with occasional rounds throughout Europe, but having learnt the lessons of the ITC disaster, the ITR strived to keep costs in the series from exploding to unreasonable levels, to keep the championship tied to its German roots; as too many races were planned outside Germany, no Championship status was granted by the DMSB, the DTM initials now stand for Deutsche Tourenwagen Masters. Unlike the previous incarnation which used saloon models like the Mercedes-Benz W201, the new DTM featured only 2-door coupés. Opel used the upcoming Coupé version of the Astra as in the concept car, Mercedes the CLK model, used as a pattern for the Mercedes-Benz CLK-GTR; the motorsport arm of the Bavarian tuning company Abt Sportsline was allowed to enter on short notice.
Abt used the Audi TT as a basis, as Audi had no suitable 2-door coupé though the dimensions of this car did not fit into the rules. The 1999 STW-Supertouring-champion Christian Abt could not defend his STW title as this series was discontinued, with Opel moving into DTM. In May 2000, the new DTM started with the traditional Hockenheimring short track version; some cars still had no or few sponsorship decals. While Opel could match the speed of most Mercedes in the 2000 season, the hastily developed Abt-Audis were outclassed; as the TT shape had rather poor aerodynamic properties, Abt was allowed to use a stretched form later. Further benefits like a higher rear wing helped the Abt-Audi TT-R win the DTM championship in 2002 with Laurent Aïello. In 2000, Manuel Reuter came second in the championship. After that year, no Opel driver was among the top three, with few podium finishes and no victory for the disappointing "lightnings". On the other hand, it was Opel team boss Volker Strycek who brought a new highlight to the fans, by racing a modified DTM car on the traditional old version of the Nürburgring in 2002, 20 years after the top classes had moved to the modern Grand Prix track, 10 years after the old DTM stopped racing there.
The Opels did not win in most of their entries in the VLN endurance races as they were testing, but the speed was impressive, the fans loved it. They won however the 2003 Nürburgring 24 Hours against factory efforts by Audi and BMW. After their successes with the Audi R8 and the official support of the Abt-TTRs at the Nürburgring, Audi joined the DTM as a factory entry in 2004; the three constructors involved decided to switch to saloon bodies. The road models used as patterns since 2004 are the Audi A4, Opel Vectra GTS and the Mercedes-Benz C-Class. All dimensions, like wheelbase, are identical in order to provide equal opportunities without the actual design of the road cars having any influence. Audi had stellar success in 2004 with Swedish driver Mattias Ekström, now a long-time veteran of the sport, becoming champion for the first time; the championship suffered a setback in 2004 when long-time also-ran Opel decided to pull out of the series at the end of the 2005 season, as part of a large cost-cutting operation in General Motors' European division.
The gap looked set to be filled by MG Rover, however their plans to enter the series were cancelled after the company collapsed in April 2005. Audi and Mercedes fielded 10 cars each in 2006, but the important television deal with the major television station ARD required three marques in 2007; the DTM carried on with only two manufacturers. The years 2007-2009 were marked by the dominance of Audi. Swede Mattias Ekström won the second of his two titles in 2007, Timo Scheider took the driver's championship in the following two years. Mercedes were in the runner-up positions in both 2008 and 2009. In 2010, Mercedes bridged the gap to Audi, as Paul di Resta won the 2010 championship driving for AMG Mercedes. In 2011 and 2012, the DTM held a Race of Champions-style exhibition event in the Munich Olympic Stadium.2012 was the year that BMW made a return to the series after twenty years away, won the drivers', teams', manufacturers' titles in their first year after a 20-year hiatus. Audi has switched from the A4 to the A5 in 2012 and to the RS5
Manuel Reuter is a German former race car driver. He has won the 24 Hours of Le Mans twice: in 1989 24 Hours of Le Mans for Sauber-Mercedes in 1996 24 Hours of Le Mans for Joest RacingHe won the Interserie in 1992 in a Kremer K7 and the Deutsche Tourenwagen Meisterschaft/ITC in 1996 for Opel in an Opel Calibra V6. Reuter continued to race in the Super Tourenwagen Cup for Opel; when Opel retired from the Deutsche Tourenwagen Masters after 2005, he retired. He acted as a commentator for the DTM on German television channel Das Erste from 2007 to 2013. † — Retired, but was classified as he completed 90% of the winner's race distance. Manuel Reuter