Arts and Crafts movement
The Arts and Crafts movement was an international trend in the decorative and fine arts that began in Britain and flourished in Europe and America between about 1880 and 1920, emerging in Japan in the 1920s as the Mingei movement. It stood for traditional craftsmanship using simple forms, used medieval, romantic, or folk styles of decoration, it advocated economic and social reform and was anti-industrial. It had a strong influence on the arts in Europe until it was displaced by Modernism in the 1930s, its influence continued among craft makers and town planners long afterwards; the term was first used by T. J. Cobden-Sanderson at a meeting of the Arts and Crafts Exhibition Society in 1887, although the principles and style on which it was based had been developing in England for at least 20 years, it was inspired by the ideas of architect Augustus Pugin, writer John Ruskin, designer William Morris. The movement developed earliest and most in the British Isles and spread across the British Empire and to the rest of Europe and America.
It was a reaction against the perceived impoverishment of the decorative arts at the time and the conditions in which they were produced. The Arts and Crafts movement emerged from the attempt to reform design and decoration in mid-19th century Britain, it was a reaction against a perceived decline in standards that the reformers associated with machinery and factory production. Their critique was sharpened by the items that they saw in the Great Exhibition of 1851 which they considered to be excessively ornate and ignorant of the qualities of the materials used. Art historian Nikolaus Pevsner writes that the exhibits showed "ignorance of that basic need in creating patterns, the integrity of the surface", as well as displaying "vulgarity in detail". Design reform began with Exhibition organizers Henry Cole, Owen Jones, Matthew Digby Wyatt, Richard Redgrave, all of whom deprecated excessive ornament and impractical or badly made things; the organizers were "unanimous in their condemnation of the exhibits."
Owen Jones, for example, complained that "the architect, the upholsterer, the paper-stainer, the weaver, the calico-printer, the potter" produced "novelty without beauty, or beauty without intelligence." From these criticisms of manufactured goods emerged several publications which set out what the writers considered to be the correct principles of design. Richard Redgrave's Supplementary Report on Design analyzed the principles of design and ornament and pleaded for "more logic in the application of decoration." Other works followed in a similar vein, such as Wyatt's Industrial Arts of the Nineteenth Century, Gottfried Semper's Wissenschaft, Industrie und Kunst, Ralph Wornum's Analysis of Ornament, Redgrave's Manual of Design, Jones's Grammar of Ornament. The Grammar of Ornament was influential, liberally distributed as a student prize and running into nine reprints by 1910. Jones declared that ornament "must be secondary to the thing decorated", that there must be "fitness in the ornament to the thing ornamented", that wallpapers and carpets must not have any patterns "suggestive of anything but a level or plain".
A fabric or wallpaper in the Great Exhibition might be decorated with a natural motif made to look as real as possible, whereas these writers advocated flat and simplified natural motifs. Redgrave insisted that "style" demanded sound construction before ornamentation, a proper awareness of the quality of materials used. "Utility must have precedence over ornamentation." However, the design reformers of the mid 19th century did not go as far as the designers of the Arts and Crafts Movement. They were more concerned with ornamentation than construction, they had an incomplete understanding of methods of manufacture, they did not criticize industrial methods as such. By contrast, the Arts and Crafts movement was as much a movement of social reform as design reform, its leading practitioners did not separate the two; some of the ideas of the movement were anticipated by A. W. N. Pugin, a leader in the Gothic revival in architecture. For example, he advocated truth to material and function, as did the Arts and Crafts artists.
Pugin articulated the tendency of social critics to compare the faults of modern society with the Middle Ages, such as the sprawling growth of cities and the treatment of the poor—a tendency that became routine with Ruskin and the Arts and Crafts movement. His book Contrasts drew examples of bad modern buildings and town planning in contrast with good medieval examples, his biographer Rosemary Hill notes that he "reached conclusions in passing, about the importance of craftsmanship and tradition in architecture that it would take the rest of the century and the combined efforts of Ruskin and Morris to work out in detail." She describes the spare furnishings which he specified for a building in 1841, "rush chairs, oak tables", as "the Arts and Crafts interior in embryo." The Arts and Crafts philosophy was derived in large measure from John Ruskin's social criticism, which related the moral and social health of a nation to the qualities of its architecture and to the nature of work. Ruskin considered the sort of mechanized production and division of labour, created in the industrial revolution to be "servile labour", he thought that a healthy and moral society required independent workers who designed the things that they made.
He believed factory-made works to be "dishonest," and that handwork and craftsmanship merged dignity with labor. His followers favoured craft production over industrial manufacture and were concerned about the loss
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Adam Gottlieb Hermann Muthesius, known as Hermann Muthesius, was a German architect and diplomat best known for promoting many of the ideas of the English Arts and Crafts movement within Germany and for his subsequent influence on early pioneers of German architectural modernism such as the Bauhaus. Muthesius was born in 1861 in the village of Großneuhausen near Erfurt and received early training from his father, a builder. After a period of military service and two years studying philosophy and art history at Frederick William University in Berlin, he enrolled to study architecture at Charlottenburg Technical College in 1883, while working in the office of Reichstag architect Paul Wallot. Following completion of his studies, Muthesius spent 1887 to 1891 working for German construction firm Ende & Böckmann in Tokyo. There he saw his first building completed—a German Evangelical church in the Gothic Revival style—and was able to travel extensively across Asia, he returned to Germany in 1891 where he worked for the Prussian Ministry of Public Works, studied for a time in Italy on stipend, served for two years as the editor of a pair of official construction journals.
In 1896 Muthesius was offered a position as cultural attaché at the German Embassy in London. Muthesius married Anna Trippenbach, a fashion designer and singer; this gave him the opportunity to study report on the ways of the British. He focused the next six years investigating and residential architecture and domestic lifestyle and design, ending with a three-volume report published in 1904 and 1905 as Das englische Haus, his most famous work. Although his subjects were wide-ranging, he was interested in the philosophy and practices of the English Arts and Crafts movement, whose emphasis on function, understatement and honesty to materials he saw as alternatives to the ostentatious historicism and obsession with ornament in German nineteenth century architecture, whose efforts to bring a sense of craftsmanship to industrial design he saw as a significant national economic benefit, he visited Glasgow to investigate the innovative work of the Glasgow School exemplified by the designs of Charles Rennie Mackintosh, wrote about houses in Birmingham by William Bidlake.
As well as his official reports, Muthesius developed a career as an author, communicating his ideas and observations in an influential series of books and articles that saw him become a significant cultural figure in Germany, culminating in Das englische Haus. His wife wrote about Anti-fashion and how she felt that women were being exploited by German clothing industrialists, her book which incorporated a novel binding designed by Frances MacDonald is considered an important contribution to the Artistic Dress movement. Muthesius wrote about Glasgow's Willow Tearooms for an issue of Dekorative Kunst published in 1905, entirely devoted to A Mackintosh Tea Room in Glasgow, saying that "Today any visitor to Glasgow can rest body and soul in Miss Cranston's Tea Rooms and for a few pence drink tea, have breakfast and dream that he is in fairy land." At the same time he lamented Mackintosh's unrewarded struggle to "hold up the banner of Beauty in this dense jungle of ugliness." Muthesius returned to Germany in 1904 and established himself as an architect in private practice, while retaining a role as an official advisor to the Government of Prussia focusing his time on reforming art and design education in order that more emphasis be put on workshop training.
Over the next two decades he designed a series of houses throughout Germany, drawing upon and cementing the principles and practices expounded in his famous book. By this time Muthesius was recognised as an admirer of English culture, but this laid him open to accusations of divided loyalties. In 1907 he was accused by the Fachverband für die wirtschaftlichen Interessen des Kunstgewerbes of criticising the quality of German industrial products in a lecture in Berlin; the resulting controversy saw several influential designers and industrialists withdraw from the association and set up the Deutscher Werkbund, explicitly aimed at bringing the highest standards of design to mass-produced output. The Deutscher Werkbund was a major influence on the early careers of Le Corbusier, Walter Gropius and Mies van der Rohe, but although Muthesius was in many ways its spiritual father and served as its chairman from 1910 until 1916, he had little sympathy with the emerging early-modernism, considering both Art Nouveau and the designs of the Bauhaus to be just as much superficial styles as those of the nineteenth century.
Muthesius was one of the major architects who built Germany's first Garden City, Hellerau, a suburb of Dresden, founded in 1909. Its foundation was related with the activities of the Deutscher Werkbund, too. Among the many employees of Muthesius was the German Socialist city planner Martin Wagner, who applied the lessons of the garden city to Berlin on a huge scale, from 1924 to about 1932. Muthesius continued designing houses and writing about domestic architecture until 1927, when he died in a road accident after a site visit in Berlin. Bernhard house, Berlin-Wilmersdorf, Cramer house, Berlin-Zehlendorf, Stilarchitektur und Baukunst Das englische Haus Wie baue ich mein Haus Kleinhaus und Kleinsiedlung Winfried Muthesius Woodham, Twentieth-Century Design, New York, NY, USA and London, UK: Oxford University Press, ISBN 0192842048, OCLC 35777427 Works by or about Hermann Muthesiu
Munich is the capital and most populous city of Bavaria, the second most populous German federal state. With a population of around 1.5 million, it is the third-largest city in Germany, after Berlin and Hamburg, as well as the 12th-largest city in the European Union. The city's metropolitan region is home to 6 million people. Straddling the banks of the River Isar north of the Bavarian Alps, it is the seat of the Bavarian administrative region of Upper Bavaria, while being the most densely populated municipality in Germany. Munich is the second-largest city in the Bavarian dialect area, after the Austrian capital of Vienna; the city is a global centre of art, technology, publishing, innovation, education and tourism and enjoys a high standard and quality of living, reaching first in Germany and third worldwide according to the 2018 Mercer survey, being rated the world's most liveable city by the Monocle's Quality of Life Survey 2018. According to the Globalization and World Rankings Research Institute Munich is considered an alpha-world city, as of 2015.
Munich is a major international center of engineering, science and research, exemplified by the presence of two research universities, a multitude of scientific institutions in the city and its surroundings, world class technology and science museums like the Deutsches Museum and BMW Museum.. Munich houses many multinational companies and its economy is based on high tech, the service sector and creative industries, as well as IT, biotechnology and electronics among many others; the name of the city is derived from the Old/Middle High German term Munichen, meaning "by the monks". It derives from the monks of the Benedictine order, who ran a monastery at the place, to become the Old Town of Munich. Munich was first mentioned in 1158. Catholic Munich resisted the Reformation and was a political point of divergence during the resulting Thirty Years' War, but remained physically untouched despite an occupation by the Protestant Swedes. Once Bavaria was established as a sovereign kingdom in 1806, it became a major European centre of arts, architecture and science.
In 1918, during the German Revolution, the ruling house of Wittelsbach, which had governed Bavaria since 1180, was forced to abdicate in Munich and a short-lived socialist republic was declared. In the 1920s, Munich became home to several political factions, among them the NSDAP; the first attempt of the Nazi movement to take over the German government in 1923 with the Beer Hall Putsch was stopped by the Bavarian police in Munich with gunfire. After the Nazis' rise to power, Munich was declared their "Capital of the Movement". During World War II, Munich was bombed and more than 50% of the entire city and up to 90% of the historic centre were destroyed. After the end of postwar American occupation in 1949, there was a great increase in population and economic power during the years of Wirtschaftswunder, or "economic miracle". Unlike many other German cities which were bombed, Munich restored most of its traditional cityscape and hosted the 1972 Summer Olympics; the 1980s brought strong economic growth, high-tech industries and scientific institutions, population growth.
The city is home to major corporations like BMW, Siemens, MAN, Linde and MunichRE. Munich is home to many universities and theatres, its numerous architectural attractions, sports events and its annual Oktoberfest attract considerable tourism. Munich is one of the fastest growing cities in Germany, it is a top-ranked destination for expatriate location. Munich hosts more than 530,000 people of foreign background; the first known settlement in the area was of Benedictine monks on the Salt road. The foundation date is not considered the year 1158, the date the city was first mentioned in a document; the document was signed in Augsburg. By the Guelph Henry the Lion, Duke of Saxony and Bavaria, had built a toll bridge over the river Isar next to the monk settlement and on the salt route, but as part of the archaeological excavations at Marienhof in advance of the expansion of the S-Bahn from 2012 shards of vessels from the eleventh century were found, which prove again that the settlement Munich must be older than their first documentary mention from 1158.
In 1175 Munich received city fortification. In 1180 with the trial of Henry the Lion, Otto I Wittelsbach became Duke of Bavaria, Munich was handed to the Bishop of Freising. In 1240, Munich was transferred to Otto II Wittelsbach and in 1255, when the Duchy of Bavaria was split in two, Munich became the ducal residence of Upper Bavaria. Duke Louis IV, a native of Munich, was elected German king in 1314 and crowned as Holy Roman Emperor in 1328, he strengthened the city's position by granting it the salt monopoly, thus assuring it of additional income. In the late 15th century, Munich underwent a revival of gothic arts: the Old Town Hall was enlarged, Munich's largest gothic church – the Frauenkirche – now a cathedral, was constructed in only 20 years, starting in 1468; when Bavaria was reunited in 1506, Munich became its capital. The arts and politics became influenced by the court. During the 16th century, Munich was a centre of the German counter reformation, of renaissance arts. Duke Wilhelm V commissioned the Jesuit Michaelskirche, which became a centre for the counter-reform
Joseph Maria Olbrich
Joseph Maria Olbrich was an Austrian architect and co-founder of the Vienna Secession. Olbrich was born in the third child of Edmund and Aloisia Olbrich, he had two sisters, who died before he was born, two younger brothers and Edmund. His father was a prosperous confectioner and wax manufacturer who owned a brick works, where Olbrich's interest in the construction industry has its early origin. Olbrich studied architecture at the University of Applied Arts Vienna and the Academy of Fine Arts Vienna, where he won several prizes; these included the Prix de Rome, for which he traveled in North Africa. In 1893, he started working for Otto Wagner, the Austrian architect, did the detailed construction for most of Wagner's Wiener Stadtbahn buildings. In 1897, Gustav Klimt, Josef Hoffmann and Koloman Moser founded the Vienna Secession artistic group. Olbrich designed their exhibition building, the famous Secession Hall, which became the movement's landmark. In 1899, Ernest Louis, Grand Duke of Hesse, founded the Darmstadt Artists' Colony, for which Olbrich designed many houses and several exhibition buildings.
Olbrich was appointed to a professorship by the Grand Duke. In 1903, he married Claire Morawe. In the following years, Olbrich executed diverse architectural commissions and experimented in applied arts and design, he designed pottery, book bindings, musical instruments. His courtyard and interiors at the St. Louis World's Fair won the highest prize at the exhibition. At the time, the St. Louis Post-Dispatch wrote of his pavilion, "The interior decorators of the United States are now talking about the Olbrich Pavilion, it is indicated as one of the things at the World's Fair which will leave a permanent mark upon American life." He was subsequently appointed corresponding member of the American Institute of Architects. His architectural works his exhibition buildings for the Vienna and Darmstadt Secessions, had a strong influence on the development of the Art Nouveau style. Shortly after his daughter Marianne's birth on July 19, 1908, Olbrich died from leukemia in Düsseldorf on August 8, aged 40.
The Secession hall, Vienna Residence for Hermann Bahr, Vienna Hochzeitsturm and other buildings at Darmstadt Artists' Colony, Mathildenhöhe, Darmstadt Department store for Leonhard Tietz, Düsseldorf Villa for Josef Feinhals, built 1908 and destroyed in World War II Ester Claesson Latham, Ian. Joseph Maria Olbrich. New York: Rizzoli. ISBN 0-8478-0230-2. Olbrich, Joseph Maria. Ideen von Olbrich. Leipzig: Verlag von Baumgärtner's Buchhandlung. Ulmer, Renate. Joseph Maria Olbrich. München: Deutscher Kunstverlag. ISBN 3-422-06659-4. Joseph Maria Olbrich on Architectuul
Mark Jarzombek is a United States-born architectural historian and critic. Since 1995 he has taught and served within the History Theory Criticism Section of the Department of Architecture at MIT School of Architecture and Planning, Massachusetts, United States. Jarzombek received his architectural training at the ETH Zurich, where he graduated in 1980. From there he went to MIT, where he received his doctorate in 1986, he taught at Cornell University until 1994. He has written on a wide variety of subjects, from Renaissance architecture to contemporary criticism, he was a 2005 Fellow at the Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute, a 2002 Fellow at the Canadian Centre for Architecture a 1993 Resident Fellow at the Institute for Advanced Study and a 1986 Post-doctoral Fellow at the Getty Center for the History of Art and the Humanities. Jarzombek taught a massive open online course "A Global History of Architecture" at edX in 2016. On Leon Battista Alberti, His Literary and Aesthetic Theories The Psychologizing of Modernity: Art and History.
Designing MIT: Bosworth's New Tech. A Global History of Architecture, with Vikram Prakash and Francis D. K. Ching "The Post-traumatic Turn and the Art of Walid Raad and Krzysztof Wodiczko: from Theory to Trope and Beyond," in Trauma and Visuality, Lisa Saltzman and Eric Rosenberg, editors Architecture of First Societies: A Global Perspective Digital Stockholm Syndrome in the Post-Ontological Age Homepage MIT faculty Profile Global Architectural History Teaching Collaborative
The Staatliches Bauhaus known as the Bauhaus, was a German art school operational from 1919 to 1933 that combined crafts and the fine arts, was famous for the approach to design that it publicized and taught. The Bauhaus was founded by Walter Gropius in Weimar; the German term Bauhaus—literally "building house"—was understood as meaning "School of Building", but in spite of its name and the fact that its founder was an architect, the Bauhaus did not have an architecture department. Nonetheless, it was founded upon the idea of creating a Gesamtkunstwerk in which all the arts, including architecture, would be brought together; the Bauhaus style became one of the most influential currents in modern design, Modernist architecture and art and architectural education. The Bauhaus movement had a profound influence upon subsequent developments in art, graphic design, interior design, industrial design, typography; the school existed in three German cities—Weimar, from 1919 to 1925. Although the school was closed, the staff continued to spread its idealistic precepts as they left Germany and emigrated all over the world.
The changes of venue and leadership resulted in a constant shifting of focus, technique and politics. For example, the pottery shop was discontinued when the school moved from Weimar to Dessau though it had been an important revenue source. After Germany's defeat in World War I and the establishment of the Weimar Republic, a renewed liberal spirit allowed an upsurge of radical experimentation in all the arts, suppressed by the old regime. Many Germans of left-wing views were influenced by the cultural experimentation that followed the Russian Revolution, such as constructivism; such influences can be overstated: Gropius did not share these radical views, said that Bauhaus was apolitical. Just as important was the influence of the 19th-century English designer William Morris, who had argued that art should meet the needs of society and that there should be no distinction between form and function. Thus, the Bauhaus style known as the International Style, was marked by the absence of ornamentation and by harmony between the function of an object or a building and its design.
However, the most important influence on Bauhaus was modernism, a cultural movement whose origins lay as early as the 1880s, which had made its presence felt in Germany before the World War, despite the prevailing conservatism. The design innovations associated with Gropius and the Bauhaus—the radically simplified forms, the rationality and functionality, the idea that mass production was reconcilable with the individual artistic spirit—were partly developed in Germany before the Bauhaus was founded; the German national designers' organization Deutscher Werkbund was formed in 1907 by Hermann Muthesius to harness the new potentials of mass production, with a mind towards preserving Germany's economic competitiveness with England. In its first seven years, the Werkbund came to be regarded as the authoritative body on questions of design in Germany, was copied in other countries. Many fundamental questions of craftsmanship versus mass production, the relationship of usefulness and beauty, the practical purpose of formal beauty in a commonplace object, whether or not a single proper form could exist, were argued out among its 1,870 members.
The entire movement of German architectural modernism was known as Neues Bauen. Beginning in June 1907, Peter Behrens' pioneering industrial design work for the German electrical company AEG integrated art and mass production on a large scale, he designed consumer products, standardized parts, created clean-lined designs for the company's graphics, developed a consistent corporate identity, built the modernist landmark AEG Turbine Factory, made full use of newly developed materials such as poured concrete and exposed steel. Behrens was a founding member of the Werkbund, both Walter Gropius and Adolf Meyer worked for him in this period; the Bauhaus was founded at a time when the German zeitgeist had turned from emotional Expressionism to the matter-of-fact New Objectivity. An entire group of working architects, including Erich Mendelsohn, Bruno Taut and Hans Poelzig, turned away from fanciful experimentation, turned toward rational, sometimes standardized building. Beyond the Bauhaus, many other significant German-speaking architects in the 1920s responded to the same aesthetic issues and material possibilities as the school.
They responded to the promise of a "minimal dwelling" written into the new Weimar Constitution. Ernst May, Bruno Taut and Martin Wagner, among others, built large housing blocks in Frankfurt and Berlin; the acceptance of modernist design into everyday life was the subject of publicity campaigns, well-attended public exhibitions like the Weissenhof Estate and sometimes fierce public debate. The Vkhutemas, the Russian state art and technical school founded in 1920 in Moscow, has been compared to Bauhaus. Founded a year after the Bauhaus school, Vkhutemas has close parallels to the German Bauhaus in its intent and scope; the two schools were