1923 Giro d'Italia

The 1923 Giro d'Italia was the 11th edition of the Giro d'Italia, a cycling race organized and sponsored by the newspaper La Gazzetta dello Sport. The race began on 23 May in Milan with a stage that stretched 328 km to Turin, finishing back in Milan on 10 June after a 341.3 km stage and a total distance covered of 3,202.7 km. The race was won by the Italian rider Costante Girardengo of the Maino team. Second and third were the Italian riders Giovanni Brunero and Bartolomeo Aymo; this year saw the debutant Ottavio Bottecchia finish in 5th place overall, the leading'isolate'. Bottecchia caught the attention of French rider Henri Pélissier, who instigated his glorious Tour de France career. Of the 96 or 97 riders that began the Giro d'Italia on 23 May, 38 of them made it to the finish in Milan on 10 June. Riders were allowed to ride as a member of a team. There were three teams that competed in the race: Atala and Maino; the peloton was composed of Italians. The field featured two former Giro d'Italia champions in the 1919 Giro d'Italia winner Costante Girardengo and returning champion Giovanni Brunero.

Other notable Italian riders that started the race included Bartolomeo Aymo, Ottavio Bottecchia, Angelo Gremo, Giovanni Rossignoli. There were 38 cyclists. For these cyclists, the times they had needed in each stage was added up for the general classification; the cyclist with the least accumulated time was the winner. Ottavio Bottecchia won the prize for best ranked independent rider in the general classification

Admiral of Flanders

Admiral of Flanders and Admiral of the Netherlands was a title in the medieval Low Countries for the commander of the war fleet. The title of admiral, for naval commanders of ships which protected commercial convoys against piracy existed temporary in the different parts of the Low Countries before, but was first made permanent in Flanders by Louis II of Flanders in 1383; when the Burgundians gained control of the Low Countries, they created a permanent position of admiral for the rest of the Burgundian Netherlands in 1446. After the failed Flemish revolt against Maximilian of Austria, both positions were united and Philip of Cleves was appointed as first Admiral of the Netherlands. With the start of the Dutch Revolt in 1568 and the defeat and imprisonment of the last Admiral Maximilien de Hénin-Liétard in the Battle on the Zuiderzee against the rebels, the position was abolished. Asaert, G. Bosscher, Ph. M. Bruijn, J. R. Hoboken, W. J. van et al: Maritieme geschiedenis der Nederlanden, De Boer Maritiem, Bussum Sicking, L.: Zeemacht en onmacht, Maritieme politiek in de Nederlanden, 1488 -1558, De Bataafsche Leeuw, Amsterdam, ISBN 9067074659