Southfield School (Massachusetts)
Southfield School was an independent school for girls in Brookline, United States. Founded in 1992, its campus is home to its brother school, Dexter, an independent school for boys founded in 1926. In 2013 the school merged with Dexter to form Dexter Southfield; the 36-acre campus on the Boston-Brookline border provided a setting and facilities which serve the school community well. Of particular note is the Clay Center for Science and Technology which provides students with extraordinary classroom opportunities as well as a world-class astronomical observatory. Southfield's athletic programs featured a combination of interscholastic offerings. In Kindergarten through Grade 2 physical education is a daily activity. Intramural competition was introduced in Grade 3 through Grade 6 during which students competed in many different sports with the goal of instilling a spirit of sportsmanship and teamwork. Beginning in Grade 7, athletes choose from a variety of interscholastic sports. Southfield teams competed against many schools throughout the New England area.
The school used five fields on campus, including two multi-purpose turf fields and a dedicated baseball diamond. Two hockey rinks, the Lincoln Pool, the Dalrymple Gymnasium provided indoor athletic facilities; the rowing program had a boathouse on the Charles River in Dedham, ten minutes from campus. The school had won consecutive New England Championships in basketball and soccer
Noble and Greenough School
The Noble and Greenough School known as Nobles, is a coeducational, nonsectarian day and five-day boarding school for students in grades seven through twelve. It is near Boston on a 187-acre campus that borders the Charles River in Massachusetts; the current enrollment of 614 students includes a balance of girls. The boarding program hosts 45 students; the majority of students are from Massachusetts, neighboring states and from abroad. In recent history, all members of the senior class go on to accredited four-year colleges and universities. In 2010, Nobles was ranked as the 18th best prep school in the United States by Forbes. Nobles has 134 faculty members, with a student to faculty ratio of 6:1; the average class size is 12. Tuition for the 2018-2019 academic year is $50,200 for day students and $56,000 for five-day boarding students. Nobles' historic athletic rival is Milton Academy. Nobles was founded in 1866 by George Washington Copp Noble, in Boston, Massachusetts, as an all-boys preparatory school for Harvard University.
It became known as Noble & Greenough in 1892. During World War I, the school merged with Boston-based Volkman School, which had faced a drastically declining student population due to the headmaster's German origins. There is a monument to the Volkman School on the Nobles campus. In 1922, the school moved from Boston to its current location in Dedham; the property had been a family's estate. The grounds were designed by Frederick Law Olmsted; the school discontinued the lower school at this time, which caused parents to start the Dexter School, to fill the gap created. In 1975, Nobles began admitting girls. Noble and Greenough School includes grades 7–12. Students in grade 12 are known as members of Class I, this continues on down to seventh grade students who are known as members of Class VI, or more informally as the "sixies"; the eighth grade students, members of class V, are informally known as "fifthies", The Middle school is located in the Pratt Middle School building. The Upper School, grades 9–12, is in the main building, known as the Shattuck Schoolhouse.
The school covers 187 acres in Massachusetts. The grounds include nine athletic fields, two gyms, a sizable length of the Charles River. Nobles alumni have been prominently featured in recent news coverage. Sarah Parsons'05 scored four goals in the 2006 Winter Olympic Games for the USA's Olympic women's hockey team. Helen Resor'04 was on this team. Ayla Brown'06 was on the American television show American Idol as one of the final 13 contestants. Andrea Ross'09 sang in the Concert for Diana and is on tour performing in a musical produced by Andrew Lloyd Webber. Michelle Picard'11 is on the USA's Olympic women's hockey team and competed in the 2014 Sochi Olympics. John Fitzgerald Kennedy attended Noble and Greenough School when he was in 7th and 8th Grade but could not graduate. In September 2006, Nobles completed a state of the art, $20 million, 40,000-square-foot Arts Center, which houses theatrical productions as well as musical performances; the theatre was funded by the Viniks. This was part of an $86 million capital campaign ending in 2008 that improved faculty compensation as well as other aspects of the school.
Additional theaters in the school include: Lawrence Auditorium in the main building, Vinik Theatre in the arts building, Towles Theater in the Baker science building. In 2012, Nobles approved the construction of a dance studio adjacent to the Arts Center. Construction started in June 2013 and was completed in January 2014; the Noble and Greenough Middle School consists of 122 students in the 7th and 8th grades, with 60 students in each grade. The Middle School has a different afternoon activities program from the Upper School. Not all students start in the Middle School at Nobles. Nobles is a member of the competitive Independent School League; the school has 25 varsity teams. Boys and Girls participate in Soccer, Cross-Country, Basketball, Skiing, Lacrosse, Tennis and the newly formed Ultimate Frisbee team. Boys participate in Football and Baseball, while Girls participate in Volleyball, Field Hockey and Softball. Former Boston College hockey players, John Muse, forwards, Jimmy Hayes and younger brother Kevin Hayes, attended Nobles.
Nobles and Milton Academy have a Nobles/Milton Day each athletic season. On this day nearing, or on the last game of the season, the two schools compete in every sport. Students are known to "get psyched" by face-painting, reciting chants, wearing team colors. Over the past seven years: 86% of varsity teams have had a winning record 64% of varsity teams have finished in the top 3 of the ISL 50 varsity teams have won ISL Championships 75% of eligible varsity teams were invited to New England tournaments 15 varsity teams have won New England ChampionshipsOver the past 12 years: 82% of varsity teams have had a winning record 54% of varsity teams have finished in the top 3 of the ISL 73 varsity teams have won ISL Championships 71% of eligible varsity teams were invited to New England tournaments 21 varsity teams have won New England Championships2012–2013 championship summary: 6 ISL Titles: Girls' Squash, Girls' Basketball, Girls' Hockey, Girls' Alpine Skiing, Field Hockey 2 New England Championships: Girls' Basketball and Girls' Hockey Nobles students populate a variety of performing arts groups.
Additionally, Nobles' active theatre program produces four
Private schools known to many as independent schools, non-governmental funded, or non-state schools, are not administered by local, state or national governments. Children who attend private schools may be there because they are dissatisfied with public schools in their area, they may be selected for their academic prowess, or prowess in other fields, or sometimes their religious background. Private schools retain the right to select their students and are funded in whole or in part by charging their students for tuition, rather than relying on mandatory taxation through public funding; some private schools are associated with a particular religion, such as Judaism, Roman Catholicism, or Lutheranism. For the past century one in 10 U. S families has chosen to enroll their children in private school. In the United Kingdom and several other Commonwealth countries including Australia and Canada, the use of the term is restricted to primary and secondary educational levels. Private education in North America covers the whole gamut of educational activity, ranging from pre-school to tertiary level institutions.
Annual tuition fees at K-12 schools range from nothing at so called'tuition-free' schools to more than $45,000 at several New England preparatory schools. The secondary level includes schools offering years 7 through 12 and year 13; this category includes university-preparatory schools or "prep schools", boarding schools and day schools. Tuition at private secondary schools varies from school to school and depends on many factors, including the location of the school, the willingness of parents to pay, peer tuitions and the school's financial endowment. High tuition, schools claim, is used to pay higher salaries for the best teachers and used to provide enriched learning environments, including a low student-to-teacher ratio, small class sizes and services, such as libraries, science laboratories and computers; some private schools are boarding schools and many military academies are owned or operated as well. Religiously affiliated and denominational schools form a subcategory of private schools.
Some such schools teach religious education, together with the usual academic subjects to impress their particular faith's beliefs and traditions in the students who attend. Others use the denomination as more of a general label to describe on what the founders based their belief, while still maintaining a fine distinction between academics and religion, they include parochial schools, a term, used to denote Roman Catholic schools. Other religious groups represented in the K–12 private education sector include Protestants, Jews and the Orthodox Christians. Many educational alternatives, such as independent schools, are privately financed. Private schools avoid some state regulations, although in the name of educational quality, most comply with regulations relating to the educational content of classes. Religious private schools simply add religious instruction to the courses provided by local public schools. Special assistance schools aim to improve the lives of their students by providing services tailored to specific needs of individual students.
Such schools include tutoring schools to assist the learning of handicapped children. Private schools are one of three types of school in Australia, the other two being government schools and religious. Whilst private schools are sometimes considered "public" schools, the term "public school" is synonymous with a government school. Private schools in Australia may be favored for many reasons: prestige and the social status of the "old school tie"; some schools offer the removal of the purported distractions of co-education. Student uniforms for Australian private schools are stricter and more formal than in government schools – for example, a compulsory blazer. Private schools in Australia are always more expensive than their public counterpartsThere are two main categories of private schools in Australia: Catholic schools and Independent schools. Catholic schools form the second largest sector after government schools, with around 21% of secondary enrollments. Most Australian Catholic schools belong to a system, like government schools, are co-educational and attempt to provide Catholic education evenly across the states.
These schools are known as "systemic". Systemic Catholic schools are funded by state and federal government and have low fees. Catholic schools, both systemic and independent have a strong religious focus, most of their staff and students will be Catholic. Independent schools make up the last sector and are the most popular form of schooling for boarding students. Independent schools are non-government institutions that are not part of a system. Although most are non-aligned, some of the best known independent schools belong to the large, long-established religious foundations, such as the Anglican Church, Uniting Church and Pres
John F. Kennedy
John Fitzgerald "Jack" Kennedy referred to by his initials JFK, was an American politician and journalist who served as the 35th president of the United States from January 1961 until his assassination in November 1963. He served at the height of the Cold War, the majority of his presidency dealt with managing relations with the Soviet Union. A member of the Democratic Party, Kennedy represented Massachusetts in the U. S. House of Representatives and Senate prior to becoming president. Kennedy was born in Brookline, the second child of Joseph P. Kennedy Sr. and Rose Kennedy. He graduated from Harvard University in 1940 and joined the U. S. Naval Reserve the following year. During World War II, he commanded a series of PT boats in the Pacific theater and earned the Navy and Marine Corps Medal for his service. After the war, Kennedy represented the 11th congressional district of Massachusetts in the U. S. House of Representatives from 1947 to 1953, he was subsequently elected to the U. S. Senate and served as the junior Senator from Massachusetts from 1953 to 1960.
While in the Senate, he published his book Profiles in Courage, which won a Pulitzer Prize for Biography. In the 1960 presidential election, Kennedy narrowly defeated Republican opponent Richard Nixon, the incumbent vice president. At age 43, he became the second-youngest man to serve as president, the youngest man to be elected as U. S. president, as well as the only Roman Catholic to occupy that office. He was the first president to have served in the U. S. Navy. Kennedy's time in office was marked by high tensions with communist states in the Cold War, he increased the number of American military advisers in South Vietnam by a factor of 18 over President Dwight D. Eisenhower. In April 1961, he authorized a failed joint-CIA attempt to overthrow the Cuban government of Fidel Castro in the Bay of Pigs Invasion, he subsequently rejected Operation Northwoods plans by the Joint Chiefs of Staff to orchestrate false flag attacks on American soil in order to gain public approval for a war against Cuba.
However his administration continued to plan for an invasion of Cuba in the summer of 1962. In October 1962, U. S. spy planes discovered. Domestically, Kennedy presided over the establishment of the Peace Corps and supported the civil rights movement, but was only somewhat successful in passing his New Frontier domestic policies. On November 22, 1963, Kennedy was assassinated in Texas. Pursuant to the Constitution, Vice President Lyndon Johnson automatically became president upon Kennedy's death. Marxist Lee Harvey Oswald was arrested for the state crime, but he was killed by Jack Ruby two days and so was never prosecuted. Ruby was sentenced to death and died while the conviction was on appeal in 1967. Both the FBI and the Warren Commission concluded that Oswald had acted alone in the assassination, but various groups challenged the findings of the Warren Report and believed that Kennedy was the victim of a conspiracy. After Kennedy's death, Congress enacted many of his proposals, including the Civil Rights Act and the Revenue Act of 1964.
Kennedy continues to rank in polls of U. S. presidents with historians and the general public. His personal life has been the focus of considerable public fascination following revelations regarding his lifelong health ailments and alleged extra-marital affairs, his average approval rating of 70% is the highest of any president in Gallup's history of systematically measuring job approval. John Fitzgerald Kennedy was born on May 29, 1917, at 83 Beals Street in suburban Brookline, Massachusetts, to businessman/politician Joseph Patrick "Joe" Kennedy and philanthropist/socialite Rose Elizabeth Fitzgerald Kennedy, his paternal grandfather P. J. Kennedy was a member of the Massachusetts state legislature, his maternal grandfather and namesake John F. Fitzgerald served as a U. S. Congressman and was elected to two terms as Mayor of Boston. All four of his grandparents were children of Irish immigrants. Kennedy had an elder brother, Joseph Jr. and seven younger siblings: Rosemary, Eunice, Robert and Edward.
As of 2019, he has been the only Catholic U. S. President. Kennedy lived in Brookline for the first ten years of his life and attended the local St. Aidan's Church, where he was baptized on June 19, 1917, he was educated at the Edward Devotion School in Brookline, the Noble and Greenough Lower School in nearby Dedham and the Dexter School through the 4th grade. His father's business had kept him away from the family for long stretches of time, his ventures were concentrated on Wall Street and Hollywood. In September 1927, the family moved from Brookline to the Riverdale neighborhood of New York City. Young John attended the lower campus of Riverdale Country School, a private school for boys, from 5th to 7th grade. Two years the family moved to suburban Bronxville, New York, where Kennedy was a member of Boy Scout Troop 2 and attended St. Joseph's Church; the Kennedy family spent summers and early autumns at their home in Hyannis Port and Christmas and Easter holidays at their winter retreat in Palm Beach, Florida purchased in 1933.
In September 1930, Kennedy—then 13 years old—attended the Canterbury School in New Milford, for 8th grade. In April 1931, he had an appendectomy, after which he withdrew from Canterbury and recuperated at home. In September 1931, Kennedy started attending Choate, a prestigious board
Franklin Story Musgrave, M. D. is a retired NASA astronaut. He is a public speaker and consultant to both Disney's Imagineering group and Applied Minds in California. In 1996 he became only the second astronaut to fly on six spaceflights, he is the most formally educated astronaut with six academic degrees. Musgrave is the only astronaut to fly aboard all 5 Space Shuttles. Musgrave was born August 19, 1935, grew up in Stockbridge, but considers Lexington, Kentucky, to be his hometown, he has seven children. His hobbies are chess, gardening, literary criticism, microcomputers, photography, running, scuba diving, soaring. In the early 1990s, Musgrave was stalked by Margaret Mary Ray, a schizophrenic woman who had served time for stalking comedian David Letterman. Musgrave attended Dexter School in Brookline, Massachusetts and St. Mark's School in Southborough, Massachusetts. From 1947 to 1953, he dropped out of St. Mark's in his senior year when a car accident "caused him to miss a substantial amount of vital pre-graduation exam schooling."While serving in the Marines, he completed his GED.
Following his discharge, Musgrave received a B. S. in mathematics and statistics from Syracuse University in 1958. He went on to receive an M. B. A. in operations analysis and computer programming from the University of California, Los Angeles in 1959, a B. A. in chemistry from Marietta College in 1960, an M. D. degree from Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons in 1964, an M. S. in physiology and biophysics from the University of Kentucky in 1966, a M. A. in literature from the University of Houston–Clear Lake in 1987. After leaving school, Musgrave enlisted in the United States Marine Corps in 1953, he served as an aviation electrician, instrument technician and aircraft crew chief while completing duty assignments in Korea and Hawaii, aboard the carrier USS Wasp in the Far East. Musgrave's aviator brother Percy, who served on USS Wasp, died on a mission when the carrier "ran over him" after a takeoff crash. Although he did not qualify as a pilot until completing his stipulated astronaut training, Musgrave has flown 17,700 hours in 160 different types of civilian and military aircraft, including 7,500 hours in jet aircraft.
He has earned FAA ratings for instructor, instrument instructor, glider instructor, airline transport pilot in addition to astronaut wings. An accomplished parachutist, he has made more than 800 free falls, including over 100 experimental free-fall descents involved with the study of human aerodynamics. Following his graduation from Syracuse University, Musgrave was employed as a mathematician and operations analyst by the Eastman Kodak Company in Rochester, New York in 1958. Upon completing his medical doctorate, he served a surgical internship at the University of Kentucky Medical Center from 1964 to 1965, he continued there as a United States Air Force postdoctoral fellow, working in aerospace medicine and physiology, as a National Heart Institute postdoctoral fellow and doing research in cardiovascular and exercise physiology. From 1967 to 1989, he practiced clinical medicine on a part-time basis at Denver General Hospital and served as an adjunct instructor of physiology and biophysics at the University of Kentucky Medical Center.
He has written or been listed as a co-author of twenty five scientific papers in the areas of aerospace medicine and physiology, temperature regulation, exercise physiology, clinical surgery. Musgrave was selected as a scientist-astronaut by NASA in August 1967 as a member of NASA Astronaut Group 6. After completing flight and academic training, he worked on the design and development of the Skylab Program. In 1973, he was the backup Science Pilot for Skylab 2, becoming the first Group 6 astronaut to earn a potential flight assignment. Musgrave participated in the design and development of all Space Shuttle extra-vehicular activity equipment, including spacesuits, life support systems and Manned Maneuvering Units. From 1979 to 1982, 1983 to 1984, he was assigned as a test and verification pilot in the Shuttle Avionics Integration Laboratory at JSC. Musgrave served as a CAPCOM for the second and third Skylab missions, STS-31, STS-35, STS-36, STS-38 and STS-41, he was a Mission Specialist on STS-6, STS-51-F/Spacelab-2, STS-33, STS-44, STS-80.
A veteran of six space flights, Musgrave has spent a total of 1,281 hours, 59 minutes, 22 seconds on space missions, including nearly 27 hours of EVA. Musgrave is the only astronaut to have flown on all five Space Shuttles. Prior to John Glenn's return to space in 1998, Musgrave held the record for the oldest person in orbit, at age 61, he retired from NASA in 1997. He first flew on STS-6, which launched from the Kennedy Space Center, on April 4, 1983, landed at Edwards Air Force Base in California, on April 9, 1983. During this maiden voyage of Space Shuttle Challenger, the crew performed the first Shuttle deployment of an IUS/TDRS satellite, Musgrave and Don Peterson conducted the first Space Shuttle extra-vehicular activity to test the new space suits and construction and repair devices and procedures. Mission duration was 23 minutes, 42 seconds. On STS-51-F/Spacelab-2, the crew aboard Challenger launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, on 29 July 1985, landed at Edwards Air Force Base, California, on 6 August 1985.
This flight was the first pallet-only Spacelab mission, the first mission to operate the Spacelab Instrument Pointing System. It carried 13 major experiments in astronomy, astrophysics
The Minnesota Wild are a professional ice hockey team based in Saint Paul, Minnesota. They are members of the Central Division of the Western Conference of the National Hockey League; the Wild are the only Minneapolis–Saint Paul area major professional sports league franchise to play in Saint Paul until Minnesota United FC move to their new home, Allianz Field, in 2019. The other three teams play in Minneapolis; the Wild did not start play until the 2000 -- 01 season. The Wild were the first NHL franchise in Minnesota since the Minnesota North Stars moved to Dallas in 1993, they lost their first game, 3–1, to the Mighty Ducks of Anaheim and recorded their first win against the Tampa Bay Lightning five games later. The Wild play at the Xcel Energy Center. In the 2002–03 season, the team made its first Stanley Cup playoffs appearance, making a surprising run to the Western Conference Finals. Following the departure of the Minnesota North Stars after the 1993 season, the state of Minnesota was without an NHL team for seven seasons.
Saint Paul mayor Norm Coleman began a campaign to either recruit the relocation of an existing franchise to the city or the award of an expansion franchise to a Minnesota-based ownership group. These efforts came close to success in the mid-1990s when Minnesota interests purchased the original Winnipeg Jets with the intention of relocating the franchise to Minnesota. Shortly after the failed attempt to relocate the Jets, the NHL announced its intention to expand from 26 to 30 teams. Businessman and Minnetonka native Bob Naegele, Jr. became the lead investor for an application to the NHL for an expansion franchise and the first majority owner. On June 25, 1997, the National Hockey League announced that Minnesota had been awarded an expansion franchise, to begin play in the 2000–01 season; the six finalist team names for the new NHL franchise, were announced on November 20, 1997. Jac Sperling was named chief executive officer of the Minnesota team, Doug Risebrough was named general manager, Tod Leiweke was named President, Martha Fuller was named chief financial officer.
The team was named the Wild, with the unveiling occurring at Aldrich Arena in the suburb of Maplewood on January 22, 1998. The new name was introduced to everyone with the song "Born to be Wild" by Steppenwolf playing over the arena's speaker system; the Minnesota Wild announced its first major sponsorship agreement with MasterCard from First USA. It was the earliest that First USA had signed an agreement in advance of a team beginning play; the State of Minnesota adopted legislation in April, 1998 to loan $65 million to the City of Saint Paul to fund 50% of the estimated $130 million project costs for the Xcel Energy Center in Saint Paul. The legislation provided that only $48 million of the loan needed to be repaid if the team met the requirements to have an agreement in place during the term of the lease with the Minnesota Amateur Sports Commission; the City of Saint Paul issued an additional $65 million in bonds, with 90% of the debt service on the bonds and the repayment of the state loan coming from scheduled rent and payment in lieu of taxes from the Minnesota Wild.
Deconstruction of the Saint Paul Civic Center began soon thereafter and the Xcel Energy Center design was announced. A groundbreaking ceremony for the Xcel Energy Center was hosted in Saint Paul; the Minnesota Wild announced a 26-year partnership agreement with the Minnesota Amateur Sports Commission. The Minnesota Wild-MASC partnership is the first partnership of its kind between a private professional sports team and a public amateur sports organization. Doug Risebrough was named executive vice president/general manager of Minnesota Wild and the Xcel Energy Center was completed and ready for use; the Wild named Jacques Lemaire their first-ever head coach and the team picked Marian Gaborik third overall in the first round of the 2000 NHL Entry Draft. Gaborik would go on to score the first goal for the Wild in their franchise debut on October 6 at Anaheim; the Wild played their first home game on October 11 against the Philadelphia Flyers and skated to a 3–3 tie. Minnesota native Darby Hendrickson scored the first-ever home goal for the Wild.
The team was not successful on the ice, but showed promise for future seasons. However, the most notable game of the year was the first visit of the Dallas Stars, who had played in Minnesota as the Minnesota North Stars; the Wild rode an emotional sellout crowd of over 18,000 to a 6–0 shutout in Dallas' first regular season game in Minnesota since a neutral-site game in 1993. The season ended with Scott Pellerin as the leading scorer with 39 points while Wes Walz, Darby Hendrickson and Gaborik paced the team with 18 goals each; the Wild would get off to a strong start in the 2001–02 season by earning at least one point in their first seven games. However, the Wild would finish in last place again with a record of 26–35–12–6. En route, there were signs the Wild were improving, as second-year speedster Gaborik had a solid sophomore season with 30 goals, including an invite to the NHL YoungStars Game, Andrew Brunette led the team in scoring with 69 points. Gaborik spent much of the 2002–03 season vying for the league scoring crown before slumping in the second half, the Wild, in their first playoff appearance, made it all the way to the Western Conference Finals before being swept 4–0 by the Mighty Ducks of Anaheim.
The Wild had beaten the favored and third-seeded Colorado Avalanche in the first round in seven games, coming back from a 3–1 series deficit and w
Brookline is a town in Norfolk County, Massachusetts, in the United States, is a part of Greater Boston. Brookline borders six of Boston's neighborhoods: Brighton, Fenway–Kenmore, Mission Hill, Jamaica Plain, West Roxbury; the city of Newton lies to the west of Brookline. At the 2010 census, the population of the town was 58,732, it is the most populous municipality in Massachusetts to have a town form of government. Brookline was first settled in 1638 as a hamlet in Boston, but was incorporated as a separate town in 1705. Brookline was the hometown of John F. Kennedy, 35th President of the United States. Once part of Algonquian territory, Brookline was first settled by European colonists in the early 17th century; the area was an outlying part of the colonial settlement of Boston and known as the hamlet of Muddy River. In 1705, it was incorporated as the independent town of Brookline; the northern and southern borders of the town were marked by two small rivers or brooks, hence the name. The northern border with Brighton was Smelt Brook.
The southern boundary, abutting Boston, was the Muddy River. The Town of Brighton was merged with Boston in 1874, the Boston-Brookline border was redrawn to connect the new Back Bay neighborhood with Allston-Brighton; this merger created a narrow strip of land along the Charles River belonging to Boston, cutting Brookline off from the shoreline. It put certain lands north of the Muddy River on the Boston side, including what are now Kenmore Square and Packard's Corner; the current northern border follows Commonwealth Avenue, on the northeast, St. Mary's Street; when Frederick Law Olmsted designed the Emerald Necklace of parks and parkways for Boston in the 1890s, the Muddy River was integrated into the Riverway and Olmsted Park, creating parkland accessible by both Boston and Brookline residents. Throughout its history, Brookline has resisted being annexed by Boston, in particular during the Boston–Brookline annexation debate of 1873; the neighboring towns of West Roxbury and Hyde Park connected Brookline to the rest of Norfolk County until they were annexed by Boston in 1874 and 1912 putting them in Suffolk County.
Brookline is now separated from the remainder of Norfolk County. Brookline has long been regarded as a verdant environment. In the 1841 edition of the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gardening, Andrew Jackson Downing described the area this way: The whole of this neighborhood of Brookline is a kind of landscape garden, there is nothing in America of the sort, so inexpressibly charming as the lanes which lead from one cottage, or villa, to another. No animals are allowed to run at large, the open gates, with tempting vistas and glimpses under the pendent boughs, give it quite an Arcadian air of rural freedom and enjoyment; these lanes are clothed with a profusion of trees and wild shrubbery almost to the carriage tracks, curve and wind about, in a manner quite bewildering to the stranger who attempts to thread them alone. Brookline residents were among the first in the country to propose extending the vote to women. Benjamin F. Butler, in his 1882 campaign for Governor, advocated the idea. Two branches of upper Boston Post Road, established in the 1670s, passed through Brookline.
Brookline Village was the original center of retail activity. In 1810, the Boston and Worcester Turnpike, now Massachusetts Route 9, was laid out, starting on Huntington Avenue in Boston and passing through the village center on its way west. Steam railroads came to Brookline in the middle of the 19th century; the Boston and Worcester Railroad was constructed in the early 1830s, passed through Brookline near the Charles River. The rail line is still in active use, now paralleled by the Massachusetts Turnpike; the Highland Branch of the Boston and Albany Railroad was built from Kenmore Square to Brookline Village in 1847, was extended into Newton in 1852. In the late 1950s, this would become the Green Line "D" Branch; the portion of Beacon Street west of Kenmore Square was laid out in 1850. Streetcar tracks were laid above ground on Beacon Street in 1888, from Coolidge Corner to Massachusetts Avenue in Boston, via Kenmore Square. In 1889, they were extended over the Brighton border at Cleveland Circle.
They would become the Green Line "C" Branch. Thanks to the Boston Elevated Railway system, this upgrade from horse-drawn carriage to electric trolleys occurred on many major streets all over the region, made transportation into downtown Boston faster and cheaper. Much of Brookline was developed into a streetcar suburb, with large brick apartment buildings sprouting up along the new streetcar lines. Brookline was known as the hamlet of Muddy River and was considered part of Boston until the Town of Brookline was independently incorporated in 1705, it is said. According to the United States Census Bureau, Brookline has a total area of 6.8 sq mi, all but 0.039 sq mi of, land. The northern part of Brookline north of the D-line tracks, is urban in character, as walkable and transit rich; the population density of this part of town is nearly 20,000 inhabitants per square mile, on a par with the densest neighborhoods in nearby Cambridge and Chelsea, Massachusetts