Fulton Center is a transit center and retail complex centered at the intersection of Fulton Street and Broadway in Lower Manhattan, New York City. The name refers to the $1.4 billion project by the Metropolitan Transportation Authority, a public agency of the state of New York, to rehabilitate the New York City Subway's Fulton Street station. The work involved constructing new underground passageways and access points into the complex, renovating the constituent stations, erecting a large station building that doubles as a part of the Westfield World Trade Center mall; the project, first announced in 2002, was intended to improve access to and connections among the New York City Subway services stopping at the Fulton Street station. Funding for the construction project, which began in 2005, dried up for several years, with no final approved plan and no schedule for completion. Plans for the transit center were revived by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009; the project used to be referred to as the Fulton Street Transit Center, but was re-branded the Fulton Center in May 2012 because of a heightened emphasis on retail.
The complex opened on November 10, 2014, along with the adjacent Dey Street Passageway. Through the Dey Street Passageway, the complex connects to the World Trade Center, the Westfield World Trade Center mall, PATH station, observation deck, provides connections to the Chambers Street–World Trade Center/Park Place/Cortlandt Street and WTC Cortlandt stations, as well as the PATH's World Trade Center station. Westfield Corporation operates the retail space as an extension of the Westfield World Trade Center, a block to the west; the Fulton Center features a high-visibility Transit Center with entrances on Broadway between Fulton Street and John Street, it connects the 2, 3, 4, 5, A, C, E, J, N, R, W, Z services via the underground Dey Street Passageway running east-west under Dey Street. Ove Arup and Partners served as the prime consultant of the entire project; the Fulton Center cost US$1.4 billion twice the original budget of $750 million. The major elements of the Fulton Center project included the renovations of the Fulton Street stations along the IRT Broadway–Seventh Avenue Line and the IRT Lexington Avenue Line.
During the latter's renovation, new entrances were opened at the corner of Broadway and Maiden Lane for the northbound platform, at Cortlandt Street and Broadway for the southbound platform. The mezzanine serving the Fulton Street station on the IND Eighth Avenue Line, which consisted of several ramps on either side of Nassau Street, was straightened. During these renovations, the entire complex was made ADA-accessible. Ten escalators and fifteen elevators were installed, as well as two ADA accessible public restrooms on the concourse and the street levels. A new station building, the Fulton Building, was constructed along the east side of Broadway between Fulton and John Streets; the new station required the demolition of the Girard Building and the former Childs Restaurant Building, incorporates the landmark Corbin Building at the corner of Broadway and John Street. It was nearly canceled at one point, but was saved in 2009 through funds from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009.
This portion of the project was part of a master lease to lease over 60,000 square feet of space. The Fulton Center opened on November 10, 2014, seven years behind schedule and $650 million over budget. Owing to the Fulton Center's use of renewable energy sources and energy-conservation features, the complex was awarded a Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design Silver certification in March 2016, becoming the first subway station in New York City to receive such a rating. In addition to work on the four linked Fulton Street stations, the Dey Street Passageway, located outside the subway system's paid area, was built under Dey Street, it connected the Fulton Street station complex to the Cortlandt–Church Streets station, serving the N, R, W trains.. A new entrance building was constructed on the southwest corner of Broadway and Dey Street, providing direct access to the Dey Street passageway, it opened alongside the rest of the Fulton Center in November 2014, an extension to the World Trade Center Transportation Hub opened in May 2016.
There were plans for a free transfer between the Cortlandt–Church Street station and the E train at the World Trade Center station. As of June 2017, the connection was again slated to be built and the passageway opened with newly-rearranged turnstiles; the connection opened on December 29, 2017, after a reconfiguration of the respective stations' fare areas. A separate transfer to the 1 train at WTC Cortlandt, outside the fare controls of either the Cortlandt–Church/World Trade Center or Fulton Street stations, was opened on September 8, 2018. After several pieces of transit infrastructure in Lower Manhattan were destroyed or damaged during the September 11, 2001, officials proposed a $7 billion redesign of transit in the neighborhood; this included the Fulton Street Transit Center, the South Ferry/Whitehall Street terminal further downtown, the reconstruction of the West Side Highway. The most important of these projects was the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey's proposed terminal for PATH trains at the World Trade Center site, destroyed when the World Trade Center collapsed.
A preliminary plan for the new terminal included situating it under Church Street, near the site of the former Hudson Terminal and close to the Metropolitan Transportation Authority's Broadway–Nassau/Fulton Street station. The new terminal would contain direct connections to the subway.
Chambers Street–World Trade Center/Park Place/Cortlandt Street (New York City Subway)
Chambers Street–World Trade Center/Park Place/Cortlandt Street is a New York City Subway station complex on the IND Eighth Avenue Line, IRT Broadway–Seventh Avenue Line, BMT Broadway Line. Located on Church Street between Chambers and Cortlandt Streets in Lower Manhattan, it is served by the: 2, A and E trains at all times W train on weekdays 3, C and R trains at all times except late nights N train during late nightsThe station connects to the PATH via the World Trade Center Transportation Hub, which links this station with the nearby Fulton Center. Chambers Street–World Trade Center on the IND Eighth Avenue Line is an express station with four tracks and two island platforms, but in an unusual layout: the station has separate island platforms for express and local trains. Both island platforms can accommodate 600-foot trains. There is a passenger connection between the two platforms at mezzanine level; this passageway includes the in-system transfer to the IRT station. Both platforms opened just after midnight on September 10, 1932, as did the rest of the IND Eighth Avenue Line north to Inwood–207th Street.
A late-1990s renovation saw prefabricated tile panels installed on the trackside wall of the express platform, with a tile band of Concord Violet bordered in black and "CHAMBERS" in white Copperplate lettering on black tiles on each panel, on the local platform's walls the new tiles were installed in 3-foot by 2-foot sections with a different shade of dark blue violet bordered in black. The trim lines in the entryways and passages use the Concord Violet color rather than the blue violet. Chambers Street, the express platform, is a through station. Just north of Chambers Street station is a third track between the uptown and downtown express tracks, with connecting switches at both ends, used to turn trains when Chambers Street was used as a terminal, before the Broadway–Nassau Street station opened on February 1, 1933, it is served by the C trains. This platform is not wheelchair-accessible, although it can gain accessibility in the future because the elevator to the local platform leads to the mezzanine, shared with this station.
However, it is one block away from the Chambers Street station on the IRT Broadway–Seventh Avenue Line, wheelchair-accessible. World Trade Center, the local platform, forms the terminus of the local service and is offset to the south of the express platform, at the northern edge of the World Trade Center site, it is served by the E train. Southbound local trains reach the platform by ramping underneath the express tracks south of Canal Street station; the northern end of the World Trade Center station has a signal tower and a diamond crossover switch that are at the middle of the through-platform. The local tracks end at bumper blocks at the south end of the platform. In addition, there is a platform-level passageway on the western side of the station toward the platform's south end, evidence of a former half-length side platform for the western track. A connection to the World Trade Center PATH station is available at the station's south end. Another passageway leads directly to the southbound BMT Broadway Line platform.
The station was named Hudson Terminal or H&M, after the nearby Hudson Terminal of the Hudson and Manhattan Railroad. Since 1973, this station has been named after the two World Trade Centers. Wall tiles reading "H AND M" remained on the walls of the World Trade Center station as late as December 1974, a year after the first World Trade Center was completed; the tiles were painted over, but since the station's renovation, they have been covered over. At the extreme southern end of the station is the exit to the Cortlandt Street station, along with a few High Entrance-Exit Turnstiles. Only this platform was ADA-accessible, only this platform is ADA-accessible; the doors and original ADA-accessible ramp, as well as the structure from the first World Trade Center leading into the station, survived the September 11 attacks. The station itself was not damaged; the passageway reopened for a while to provide an ADA-connection from the New York City Subway station to the temporary World Trade Center PATH station, but was closed again when the temporary PATH station closed for a reconstruction.
The passageway was covered in plywood for preservation purposes. The renovated entrance, leading from the New York City Subway station to the newly rebuilt PATH station's Oculus headhouse as well as to the Westfield World Trade Center, opened on December 19, 2016; the newly reopened passageway retained its pre-9/11 design, save for a door on display that has the words "MATF 1 / 9 13" spray-painted on it. There is a plaque above the spray-painting. PATH was required to preserve the passageway's original design as per Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act, as a condition for getting funding to construct the Oculus and new stations; the passageway was not be made ADA-accessible again until 2017, as there are twenty-six steps down from the mezzanine to the Oculus he
Broadway is a road in the U. S. state of New York. Broadway runs from State Street at Bowling Green for 13 mi through the borough of Manhattan and 2 mi through the Bronx, exiting north from the city to run an additional 18 mi through the municipalities of Yonkers, Hastings-On-Hudson, Dobbs Ferry and Tarrytown, terminating north of Sleepy Hollow in Westchester County, it is the oldest north–south main thoroughfare in New York City, dating to the first New Amsterdam settlement, although most of it did not bear its current name until the late 19th century. The name Broadway is the English-language literal translation of Brede weg. Broadway in Manhattan is known as the heart of the American theatre industry, is used as a metonym for it. Broadway was the Wickquasgeck Trail, carved into the brush of Manhattan by its Native American inhabitants. Wickquasgeck means "birch-bark country" in the Algonquian language; this trail snaked through swamps and rocks along the length of Manhattan Island. Upon the arrival of the Dutch, the trail soon became the main road through the island from Nieuw Amsterdam at the southern tip.
The Dutch explorer and entrepreneur David Pietersz. de Vries gives the first mention of it in his journal for the year 1642. The Dutch named the road "Breede Weg". Although current street signs are labeled as "Broadway", in a 1776 map of New York City, Broadway is explicitly labeled "Broadway Street". In the mid-eighteenth century, part of Broadway in what is now lower Manhattan was known as Great George Street. An 1897 City Map shows a segment of Broadway as Kingsbridge Road in the vicinity of what is now the George Washington Bridge. In the 18th century, Broadway ended at the town commons north of Wall Street, where traffic continued up the East Side of the island via Eastern Post Road and the West Side via Bloomingdale Road; the western Bloomingdale Road would be widened and paved during the 19th century, called "Western Boulevard" or "The Boulevard" north of the Grand Circle, now called Columbus Circle. On February 14, 1899, the name "Broadway" was extended to the entire Broadway/Bloomingdale/Boulevard road.
Broadway once was a two-way street for its entire length. The present status, in which it runs one-way southbound south of Columbus Circle, came about in several stages. On June 6, 1954, Seventh Avenue became southbound and Eighth Avenue became northbound south of Broadway. None of Broadway became one-way, but the increased southbound traffic between Columbus Circle and Times Square caused the city to re-stripe that section of Broadway for four southbound and two northbound lanes. Broadway became one-way from Columbus Circle south to Herald Square on March 10, 1957, in conjunction with Sixth Avenue becoming one-way from Herald Square north to 59th Street and Seventh Avenue becoming one-way from 59th Street south to Times Square. On June 3, 1962, Broadway became one-way south of Canal Street, with Trinity Place and Church Street carrying northbound traffic. Another change was made on November 10, 1963, when Broadway became one-way southbound from Herald Square to Madison Square and Union Square to Canal Street, two routes – Sixth Avenue south of Herald Square and Centre Street, Lafayette Street, Fourth Avenue south of Union Square – became one-way northbound.
At the same time as Madison Avenue became one-way northbound and Fifth Avenue became one-way southbound, Broadway was made one-way southbound between Madison Square and Union Square on January 14, 1966, completing its conversion south of Columbus Circle. In 2001, a one-block section of Broadway between 72nd Street and 73rd Street at Verdi Square was reconfigured, its easternmost lanes, which hosted northbound traffic, were turned into a public park when a new subway entrance for the 72nd Street station was built in the exact location of these lanes. Northbound traffic on Broadway is now channeled onto Amsterdam Avenue to 73rd Street, makes a left turn on the three-lane 73rd Street, a right turn on Broadway shortly afterward. In August 2008, two traffic lanes from 42nd to 35th Streets were taken out of service and converted to public plazas. Additionally, bike lanes were added on Broadway from 42nd Street down to Union Square. Since May 2009, the portions of Broadway through Duffy Square, Times Square, Herald Square have been closed to automobile traffic, except for cross traffic on the Streets and Avenues, as part of a traffic and pedestrianization experiment, with the pavement reserved for walkers and those lounging in temporary seating placed by the city.
The city decided that the experiment was successful and decided to make the change permanent in February 2010. Though the anticipated benefits to traffic flow were not as large as hoped, pedestrian injuries dropped and foot traffic increased in the designated areas; the current portions converted into pedestrian plazas are between West 47th Street and West 42nd Street within Times and Duffy Squares, between West 35th Street and West 33rd Street in the Herald Square area. Additionally, portions of Broadway in the Madison Square and Union Square have been narrowed, allowing ample pedestrian plazas to exist along the side of the road. In May 2013, the NYCDOT decided to redesign Broadway between 35th and 42nd Streets for the second time in five years, owing to poor connections between pedestrian plazas and decreased vehicular traffic. With the new redesign, the bike lane is now on the right side of the street.
Fulton Street (New York City Subway)
Fulton Street is a New York City Subway station complex in Lower Manhattan. It consists of four linked stations on the IND Eighth Avenue Line, the IRT Lexington Avenue Line, the BMT Nassau Street Line and the IRT Broadway–Seventh Avenue Line; the last three cross Fulton Street at Broadway, Nassau Street, William Street respectively. The station is the seventh busiest in the system, with 26,838,473 passengers; the complex is served by the: 2, 4, A, J trains at all times 3, 5, C trains at all times except late nights Z train during rush hours in the peak directionThe Fulton Center is a renovation project that improves access throughout the station complex, introduces a new station building, provides easier access to the World Trade Center site. It links the Fulton Street subway station with the nearby Chambers Street-World Trade Center/Park Place/Cortlandt Street station complex and the World Trade Center Transportation Hub through the out-of-system Dey Street Passageway; the Fulton Center opened on November 10, 2014.
Fulton Street is a station on the IRT Lexington Avenue Line with two side platforms. This station opened on January 16, 1905, as part of a one-stop extension southbound from Brooklyn Bridge–City Hall. Only the northbound platform was in use; the southbound platform opened for service on June 12, 1905, when the subway was extended one stop to the south at Wall Street. This marked the first time. Only the southbound platform was ADA-accessible. In October 2012, a new entrance on Dey Street opened for the Dey Street underpass to Cortlandt Street, an ADA-accessible elevator was installed for the southbound platform. In November 2014, the northbound platform became accessible through an elevator to the underpass that connected to the southbound platform; the station, now a registered New York City Landmark, features a mosaic of the steamboat built by Robert Fulton. The southbound platform incorporates an ornate entrance to the building at 195 Broadway, which features fluted columns, engraved metal signs, ornate railings, blacked out store windows.
Despite being on the Lexington Avenue Line, the station lies underneath Broadway between Cortlandt and Fulton Streets, as the line takes its name from its Upper East Side trunk avenue. A number of exits to street level are available at Dey and Fulton Streets, while the connecting passage to the other stations within the Fulton Street complex lies underneath the latter. Southbound exits are located at: Two stairs, NW corner of Fulton Street and Broadway One stair, SW corner of Fulton Street and Broadway One stair, NW corner of Dey Street and Broadway One stair, one elevator, passageway, SW corner of Dey Street and Broadway One stair, NW corner of Cortlandt Street and BroadwayNorthbound exits are located at: Fulton Center building, SE corner of Fulton Street and Broadway One stair, NE corner of John Street and Broadway One stair, SE corner of John Street and Broadway One stair, NE corner of Cortlandt Street and Broadway Lee Stokey. Subway Ceramics: A History and Iconography. 1994. ISBN 978-0-9635486-1-0 The Fulton Street station on the IRT Broadway–Seventh Avenue Line was built on the portion of the line built as part of the Dual Contracts, the section south of Times Square–42nd Street.
The line first opened as a shuttle to 34th Street–Penn Station on June 3, 1917, south to South Ferry on July 1, 1918. On this same date, the Fulton Street station opened, with service to the station running as a shuttle between Chambers Street and Wall Street, on the line's Brooklyn Branch. On August 1, 1918, the new "H" system was implemented on August 1, 1918, joining the two halves of the Broadway–Seventh Avenue Line and sending all West Side trains south from Times Square; as a result, shuttle service to this station was replaced by through service. During the 1964–1965 fiscal year, the platforms at Fulton Street, along with those at four other stations on the Broadway–Seventh Avenue Line, were lengthened to 525 feet to accommodate a ten-car train of 51-foot IRT cars. Fulton Street station has a standard local configuration of one island platform. Brooklyn-bound trains use track K2 while uptown trains use track K3; these designations come from track chaining which measures track distances and are not used in normal conversation.
Based on this chaining, Fulton Street is about 19,700 ft from post zero at Broadway and 44th Street since this is where the West Side Line "merges" with the 42nd Street Shuttle. This is non-standard signage because it is a local station using express track numbers as these tracks become the express tracks on the main line, providing a reasonable explanation. There is an ADA-accessible elevator from platform level to the mezzanine at the platform's extreme south end, connecting to the mezzanine, which has elevators to the rest of the station via the IND Eighth Avenue Line platform; the Marine Grill Murals, salvaged from the restaurant of the same name in the Hotel McAlpin, reside near these elevators. The station has two mezzanines, separated at Fulton Street; the full-time entrance is to the south mezzanine, at the southeast corner of Fulton and William Streets. There are part-time entrances mid-block on William Street, through an office building on John Street; the north mezzanine is open part-time, with an entrance through an office building on the northeast corner of Fulton and William Streets.
Like Wall Street, the next station south, there is
Brookfield Place (New York City)
Brookfield Place, built as and still referred to as the World Financial Center, is a shopping center and office-building complex located across West Street from the World Trade Center in the Battery Park City neighborhood of Manhattan, New York City. Overlooking the Hudson River, Brookfield Place has been home to offices of various companies including Merrill Lynch, RBC Capital Markets, Nomura Group, American Express, Bank of New York Mellon, Time Inc. and Brookfield Asset Management, among others. In 2014, the complex was given its current name following the completion of extensive renovations. Brookfield Place is owned by Toronto-based Brookfield Office Properties, except for the spaces occupied by American Express, owned by the American Express Company. Brookfield Place serves as the United States headquarters for Brookfield Office Properties, which has its headquarters located in 250 Vesey Street. Brookfield Place has its own zip code, 10281; the building's original developer was Olympia and York based in Toronto.
The buildings are: 200 Liberty Street One World Financial Center, height 577 feet, 40 stories Leasable area: 1,628,000 square feet Rooftop: truncated square pyramid 225 Liberty Street Two World Financial Center, height 645 feet, 44 stories Leasable area: 2,491,000 square feet Rooftop: round dome 200 Vesey Street Three World Financial Center, height 739 feet, 51 stories Leasable area: 1,200,000 square feet Rooftop: pyramid 250 Vesey Street Four World Financial Center, height 500 feet, 34 stories Leasable area: 1,800,000 square feet Rooftop: ziggurat Winter Garden Atrium a 45,000 square feet glass domed pavilion housing various plants and flowers shopping areas, cafes Rebuilt 2002 after terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001. Leasable area: 295,000 square feet One North End Avenue known as the New York Mercantile Exchange building, height 253 feet, 16 stories Leasable area:500,000 square feet Designed by architect César Pelli, with Adamson Associates, the World Financial Center complex was built by Olympia and York between 1982 and 1988 on landfill used to build Battery Park City.
The fill material consisted of dirt excavated during the building of the World Trade Center, as well as garbage and other debris. During the September 11 attacks in 2001, Three World Financial Center had a massive piece of steel shot into its east side, other debris damaged the lobby and lower floors causing the building to be in danger of collapse, it has since been restored and significant repairs were made to the other buildings in the complex. The Winter Garden Atrium received major structural damage to its glass and steel frame, but ceremonially reopened on September 11, 2002. After the attacks, the World Financial Center underwent a $250 million renovation and expansion project, in conjunction with the construction of a new east-west passageway linking the complex with the World Trade Center site; the project included a transit pavilion to be built as an extension of the existing Winter Garden Atrium, on the West Street side. Preliminary plans called for the demolition of the Grand Staircase, the main focal entry point to Winter Garden and the waterfront, as it connected to the Vesey Street pedestrian bridge adjacent to the original World Trade Center.
The Grand Staircase has been used as an amphitheater. The transit pavilion opened in 2013, is located at 100 West Street. Leasable space on the lower floors of the office towers underwent conversions and expansion to accommodate new retail. One notable example is 2 Brookfield Place: a European-style marketplace and dining terrace opened in 2013; the space between 3 and 4 Brookfield Place, at 225 Vesey Street, which contained retail, expanded to accommodate in‑line retail and high-end fashion retail, according to the plans and renderings. With some restaurants and retail temporarily closed due to construction, a food truck court was in operation beginning in early 2012 on North End Avenue. Various food trucks that operate around New York City, serving a variety of foods, service the Brookfield Place/Battery Park City area five days a week during lunch hours. A new 2,000-seat food court comprising existing restaurants, such as Le District and Hudson Eats, new restaurants, opened in stages between November 2014 and March 2015.
Overall, the intent is to drive more tourism in the area with the retail and the new access to the passageway under West Street. It is being developed as a catalyst to integrate and drive development in the Battery Park City area, of which the World Financial Center sits promptly in between the residential neighborhood. Brookfield Properties bought the adjacent One North End Avenue building, headquarters of the New York Mercantile Exchange, in 2013, for US$200 million, integrated it into the complex. Following expansion, the entire World Financial Center complex was renamed Brookfield Place, in conjunction with similar complexes in Toronto and Perth owned by Brookfield; the name change took place in 2014. Official website
PATH (rail system)
Port Authority Trans-Hudson is a rapid transit system connecting the cities of Newark, Harrison and Jersey City, in metropolitan northern New Jersey, with the lower and midtown sections of Manhattan in New York City. The PATH is operated by the Port Authority Trans-Hudson Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. PATH trains run 7 days a week; the system contains 13 stations and has a total route length of 13.8 miles, not double-counting route overlaps. PATH trains use tunnels in Manhattan and Downtown Jersey City; the tracks cross the Hudson River through century-old cast iron tubes that rest on the river bottom under a thin layer of silt. The PATH tracks from Grove Street in Jersey City west to Newark Penn Station run in open cuts, at grade level, on elevated track; the routes of the PATH system were operated by the Hudson & Manhattan Railroad. The railroad's Uptown Hudson Tubes first opened in 1908, followed by the Downtown Hudson Tubes in 1909, the system was completed by 1911, with 16 stations.
The H&M system had reached its peak in 1927, with 113 million passengers, soon started to decline with the advent of vehicular travel. In 1937, two new stations in Harrison and Newark were built. Two other stations in Manhattan were closed in the mid-20th century; the H&M went into bankruptcy in 1954. It operated under bankruptcy protection until 1962, when the Port Authority took it over and renamed it PATH. In 1971, as part of the construction of the World Trade Center, the Hudson Terminal in Lower Manhattan was replaced by the World Trade Center station; the PATH system was disrupted for several years after the World Trade Center was destroyed on September 11, 2001, a new transport hub was built at the site of the World Trade Center station. There have been several unfulfilled proposals to extend the H&M and the PATH, including to Grand Central Terminal and Astor Place in New York City and to Plainfield, New Jersey. A PATH extension to Newark Airport, first proposed in the 1970s, was reconsidered in the 2000s and is projected to start construction in 2020.
The PATH's primary method of payment is SmartLink, a smart card, not presently compatible with any other transit system, though PATH has plans to expand its usage. PATH accepts the same pay-per-ride MetroCard used by the New York City Transit system, but it does not accept unlimited ride, reduced fare, or EasyPay MetroCards. In 2017, PATH had an annual ridership of 82.8 million passengers, with an average daily ridership of 283,719. The PATH system is technically a commuter railroad under the jurisdiction of the Federal Railroad Administration though it operates as a rapid transit system; this is because its predecessor, the H&M, used to share its route to Newark with the Pennsylvania Railroad. The PATH uses one class of rolling stock, the PA5, delivered in 2009–2011; the PATH predates the New York City Subway's first underground line, operated by the Interborough Rapid Transit Company. It was known as the Hudson & Manhattan Railroad. Although the railroad was first planned in 1874, existing technologies could not safely tunnel under the Hudson River.
Construction began on the existing tunnels in 1890, but stopped shortly thereafter when funding ran out. Construction resumed in 1900 under the direction of William Gibbs McAdoo, an ambitious young lawyer who had moved to New York from Chattanooga, Tennessee. McAdoo became president of the H&M; the H&M became so associated with McAdoo that, in its early years, they became known as the McAdoo Tubes or McAdoo Tunnels. The first tunnel, now called the Uptown Hudson Tubes, started construction in 1873; the chief engineer of the time, Dewitt Haskin, tried to construct the tunnel using compressed air and line it with brick. The workers succeeded in building the tunnel out by 1,200 feet from Jersey City. However, construction was disrupted by a lawsuit, as well as a series of blowouts, including a serious one in 1880 that killed 20 workers; the project was abandoned in 1883 due to a lack of funds. Another effort by a British company, between 1888 and 1892 proved to be unsuccessful; when the New York and Jersey Tunnel Company resumed construction on the uptown tubes in 1902, chief engineer Charles M. Jacobs employed a different method of tunneling.
He pushed a shield through the mud and placed tubular cast iron plating around the tube. As the northern tube of the uptown tunnel was completed shortly after the resumption of construction, the southern tube was constructed using the tubular cast iron method. Construction of the uptown tunnel was completed in 1906. By the end of 1904, the New York and Jersey Railroad Company had received permission from the New York City Board of Rapid Transit Commissioners to build a new subway line through Midtown Manhattan, which would connect with the Uptown Hudson Tubes; the Midtown Manhattan line would travel eastward under Christopher Street before turning northeastward under Sixth Avenue continue underneath Sixth Avenue to a terminus at 33rd Street. In January 1905, the Hudson Companies was incorporated for the purpose of completing the Uptown Hudson Tubes and constructing the Sixth Avenue line; the company, contracted to construct the Uptown Hudson Tubes' subway tunnel connections on each side of the river had a capital of $21 million.
The H&M was incorporated in December 1906 to operate a passenger railroad system between New York and New Jer
Nassau Street (Manhattan)
Nassau Street is a street in the Financial District of New York City. It is located near City Hall, it starts at Wall Street and runs north to Spruce Street at the foot of the Brooklyn Bridge, located one block east of Broadway and east of Park Row, in the borough of Manhattan. Nassau Street was called Kip Street — after an early Dutch settler family — but was subsequently named in honor of the royal family of the Netherlands, the House of Orange-Nassau, it was named some time before William of Nassau, the Dutch prince who became King William III of England, so, not the origin of the name, despite how it could be mistaken as such. Nassau Street once housed many of the city's newspapers. Late in the 20th century Nassau Street was closed to motor traffic during certain hours, in order to promote shopping. Nassau Street borders on the Fulton-Nassau Historic District, bounded by Broadway and Park Row, Nassau and William Sts and Spruce Sts. and Liberty St. The original headquarters of The New York Times — the New-York Daily Times — was located at 113 Nassau Street.
In 1854, the paper moved to 138 Nassau Street, in 1858 it moved to Park Row, making it the first newspaper in New York City to have entire building for its own work force. As early as 1915, Mekeel's Weekly Stamp News contained many advertisements for stamp dealers in Nassau Street. In the 1930s, stamp collecting became popular and Nassau Street was the center of New York City's "Stamp District", called its "Street of Stamps", with dozens of stamp and coin dealers along its short length. While the stock market did poorly during the Great Depression, stamps kept their value and were "negotiable assets." The Stamp Center Building was located at 116 Nassau Street, the Subway Stamp Shop was located at 87 Nassau Street. With the dispersal of most dealers in the 1970s, a process that accelerated with internet trading, the street no longer has this character. Nassau Street was the title of a book written in the 1960s by Herman Herst Jr. that described the "golden age" of the stamp collecting industry.
63 Nassau Street Atlantic National Bank, New York City New York Songlines: Broad Street with Nassau Street, a virtual walking tour