Dhakeshwari Temple

Dhakeshwari National Temple is a Hindu temple in Dhaka, Bangladesh. It is state-owned, giving it the distinction of being Bangladesh's'National Temple'; the name "Dhakeshwari" means so called "Goddess of Dhaka". Since the destruction of Ramna Kali Mandir in 1971 by the Pakistan Army during the Bangladesh Liberation War, the Dhakeshwari Temple has assumed status as the most important Hindu place of worship in Bangladesh, it is the largest Hindu temple in Bangladesh. This temple is part of the famous Shakti Peethas in Indian Subcontinent. Here the gem of sati's crown had fallen; the Dhakeshwari temple was built in the 12th century by Ballal Sen, a king of the Sena dynasty, it is said that the city was named after the Goddess. The current architectural style of the temple cannot be dated to that period because of the numerous repairs and rebuilding which have taken place over time, it is considered an essential part of Dhaka's cultural heritage. Many researchers believe that the temple is one of the Shakti Peethas, where the jewel from the crown of the Goddess Sati had fallen.

Although there is not enough historical context to establish this as a fact, researchers have been directed to this site while trying to locate the particular Shakti Peetha. Since ages, the temple has been held in great importance; the original 800-year-old murti was taken to Kumartuli, West Bengal, India. During the partition of India, she was brought to Kolkata from Dhaka with millions of refugees. By 1950, the businessman Debendranath Chaudhary built the temple of Goddess in Kumortuli area and established some of the Goddess' property for her daily services; the idol is 1.5 feet tall, has ten arms, mounted on her lion in the form of Katyani Mahishasurmardini Durga. On her two sides are Laxmi, Saraswati and Ganesh. A Tiwari family from Azamgarh was appointed by the royal family for daily worship of the deity. In 1946, the descendants of that family came to Calcutta and were re-appointed, where they still serve the Goddess continuously. Current presiding deity here in Dhakeshwari Temple is the replica of original idol.

It is believed that the Queen, wife of King Bijoy Sen went to Langolbond for bathing. On her way back she gave birth to a son, known to historians as Ballal Sen. After ascending to the throne, Ballal Sen built this temple to glorify his birthplace. Legends say. Ballal Sen built a temple, named for Dhakeswari. Whatever the legends describe, Hindus consider Dhakeswari to be the presiding deity of Dhaka, an incarnation or form of Goddess Durga the Adi Shakti; the idol of Durga is called Dhakeswari. Within the premises of the Dhakeswari there are temples of two types of architecture; the ancient one is of the Poncharotna Goddess Durga's which lost its actual look after the renovation work. Bradly Bird wrote this at the beginning of this century; the present temple is two hundred years old, built by an agent of East India Company. Most he had renovated the temple. Other than this there are four Shib Temples. According to hearsay, in the 16th century King Mansing built these temples by laying four Shib Lingas there.

But this information seems to be unreliable. The fusion of Bangla chowchala and shikor temple is notice in the architecture of Dhakeshawri. Ratan Lal Chakraborti in an article mentioned that " the structure and architecture of it is like a Buddhist Pagoda". From this he assumed that the temple was built in the 10th century. How did Dhakeshari temple look like in the 19th century? Ridoynath Majumder described about the temple. At that time the temple was covered by jungle and in its north the Urdu road went westward towards Pilkhana and at its south west was Mirpur road. At its south there was a wood and Urdu bazar was at the east; the temple was panchoratno, at its front Natamandir and around it there is a row of rooms and a big pond and nahobottola gate through which elephants used to pass. To the east there are tombs of some saints who used to meditate at the temple. Outside the temple there are 5–6 pagodas with a shib linga; the priest of Dhakeshawri temple used pray every day. The deity is doshvuja.

It is believed. At the left and right side of the deity there are some other murti. Like many ancient temples its inside is dark. To see the deity light is to be arranged; the temple is owned by many. Jotindramohan bought it in 1901. Dhakeshawri is crowded but it is an abode of peace; the low sound of the tongue mixes with the evening light and tune of temple bell and make the peaceful environment a happy event. In 1996, Dhakeshwari Temple was renamed Dhakeshwari Jatiya Mandir reflecting its position as the centre of Hindu culture and worship in Bangladesh; this was the culmination of a major campaign by Bangladeshi Hindu groups, demanding official recognition for the primary Hindu place of worship following the declaration of Islam as the state religion in 1988. As a result, the flag of Bangladesh is hoisted every morning outside the main temple premises, it follows the National Flag Code rules such as rendering half-mast on nationally declared days of mourning; as is the practice in other leading religious places of worship in Bangladesh, day-long prayers are common practice during important national holidays such as Independence Day, Language Martyrs' Day, Victory Day and birth and death anniversaries of former leaders such as Sheikh Mujibur Rahman and Ziaur Rahman.

Several of the temple custodians were tortured and killed by the Army th

Caixa de Rotllan

The Caixa de Rotllan is a dolmen in Arles-sur-Tech, Pyrénées-Orientales, southern France, dating back to the Neolithic period, during the second half of 3rd millennium BC. A legend holds that Roland lived in Vallespir and that, after his death at the Battle of Roncevaux Pass, his horse Veillantif carried Roland's corpse back to Vallespir and buried him under this dolmen. Dolmens are tombs, but they were erected many centuries before the legendary knight's adventures; the Caixa de Rotllan is made of three upright stones in a H-shape, supporting a thick roofing stone and delimiting a rectangular, medium-sized chamber. The entrance faces south-east; the building has been listed as a Monument historique since 1889 but has never been excavated by archaeologists. The Caixa de Rotllan is one of 148 dolmens listed in the Pyrénées-Orientales department; some have been destroyed or are attested by old sources but have been lost and not rediscovered by modern scholars. They are all located in hilly or mountainous areas of the department on a mountain pass, ridge or other high ground.

Like others, this dolmen is situated on a ridge line. It is on the southern side of the Canigou, at 830 metres above sea level, just beneath a granitic chaos in the historical and geographical region named Vallespir, it stands on the border between French communes Montbolo. Two ways lead to the dolmen from Arles town. A passable track along the Bonabosc river leads near it, but one must leave this track for a 60-metre walk to the dolmen; the GR 10 footpath runs near the dolmen. This part of the GR 10 is an old track leading to the Batère iron ore mines from Arles-sur-Tech; this route takes a half to walk. The Caixa de Rotllan is indicated by a star on the 1:25000 Institut Géographique National map, indicating a curiosité. Like most of the dolmens in the Pyrénées-Orientales, the Caixa de Rotllan has a simple plan — that is, without a corridor — which relates it to other dolmens from the chalcolithic and Bronze age of the second half of the third millennium BC. In Catalan, Caixa de Rotllan means "Roland's grave", suggesting that the inhabitants of the region had long known that the dolmen had been used as a grave.

Many megaliths in the Pyrénées-Orientales are named after mythic characters such as Roland or his enemies the "Moors". Other nearby places are named after Roland. 1,500 metres north of the Caixa along the ridgeline lies the Palet de Rotllan. It refers to an ancient game named Palet, in which players had to knock down a target standing on the ground by throwing a puck at it. According to a legend, Roland played this game, but used huge stones intstead of pucks and enjoyed aiming at the castles of Vallespir as targets. Further to the north lies the abeurador del cavall de Rotllan where the legedary knight's horse Veillantif used to drink; the Cova d'en Rotllan is another dolmen in a nearby commune where Roland used to rest. According to The Song of Roland and his friends Oliver and Turpin died at the Battle of Roncevaux Pass and their corpses were brought to and buried in the Basilica of St. Romain, in Blaye, by Charlemagne. Another legend tells that Veillantif brought the corpse of his master to the Vallespir near the place where he used to play palet.

A tomb was built there: it is the Caixa de Rotllan. Many places in this region are named after the pawprints left by Veillantif; the Caixa de Rotllan may have been erected during the Chalcolithic or the beginning of the Bronze Age, during the second half of the 3rd millennium BC. During the Middle Ages it marked the boundary between Montbolo; the current boundary between these two communes runs near the dolmen. The first paper that mentioned this dolmen was an article written by Jean-Baptiste Renard de Saint-Malo in 1837 and entitled Monument druidique, but Renard de Saint-Malo seems to have confused the Caixa with another stone, the nearby palet of Roland. Louis Companyo's Histoire naturelle du département des Pyrénées-Orientales, in 1861, corrected this mistake, noting that the palet is not a dolmen and warning its readers against the frequent confusion between some natural stones and dolmens. · The first scientific description of the Caixa was made by Alexandre-Félix Ratheau in 1866, in «Note sur un monument celtique du département» published in the Bulletin de la Société agricole, scientifique et littéraire des Pyrénées-Orientales.

At this time, people thought. In his paper, Ratheau, a French engineer and author of several books on fortications, recorded the dolmen's dimensions, its orientation relative to the north and a plan with three elevation cuts. Ratheau said that the palet was made of pieces of abandoned granite grindstones and clarified Companyo's correction. Indeed, reading Companyo's paper, people may have thought. In 1887, an engraving, made from a photograph, of the dolmen was published in La création de l'Homme et premiers âges, by Henri Raison du Cleuziou. In 1889, the Caixa de Rotllan was classified as a Monument historique. Abélanet, Jean. Lieux et légendes du des Pyrénées catalanes. Canet: Trabucaire. Abélanet, Jean. Itinéraires mégalithiques: dolmens et rites funéraires en Roussillon et Pyrénées nord-catalanes. Canet: Trabucaire. ISBN 9782849741245. Carreras Vigorós, Enric.


Brynamman is a village on the south side of the Black Mountain, part of the Brecon Beacons National Park. The village is split into Upper Brynamman and Lower Brynamman by the River Amman, the boundary between the counties of Carmarthenshire and Neath Port Talbot. Ruins of stone dwellings, an early type of lime kiln and rectangular medieval buildings found on the mountain show that people have lived in this area for a long time. In the 18th century the Industrial Revolution, with iron and tin works and coal mining, transformed the area from a small, scattered farming community to a built-up populated commercial centre; the Welsh language was at the fore and the successful participation in local and national eisteddfodau by numerous village people and bands put Brynamman on the map. It was once a thriving village, with three bank branches on Station Road in Upper Brynamman alone. Today there are no industries in or around the village, its inhabitants having to commute to Ammanford, Swansea or Llanelli for work.

The whole area has become more attractive to live in, with the countryside and the wild open areas available for walking on the Black Mountain. It is still a stronghold of the Welsh language. Brynamman was known as Y Gwter Fawr. George Borrow describes aspects of Gwter Fawr in the mid-19th century in his book Wild Wales published 1862; the current name is derived from "Brynamman House", the home of builder of the railway. Brynamman Golf Club first appeared in the mid-1920s, it continued into the 1930s. Ynys Dawela Nature Park is situated to the west of Brynamman, in the upper reaches of the Amman Valley, its northern boundary is the Brecon Beacons National Park, the river Amman, fringed with ancient oak woodland, forms its southern boundary. The park was once a working farm; the meadows dating from this period now support some scarce flowers, such as the Whorled Caraway and Meadow Thistle, other wildlife, such as the marsh fritillary butterfly and dormice. The park has a range of important habitats supporting a diverse assemblage of animal life.

The wet grasslands, marshy ground and ponds are important to amphibians, like newts and toads. The site narrowly escaped opencast mining, before Dinefwr Borough Council secured its future by purchasing it from British Coal. Since the park has been developed for recreational and educational use; the park is supported by volunteers. The Tregib Arms in Brynamman was built c.1860. The first-ever union branch to look after the needs of Welsh anthracite miners was started in the public bar in 1891; the original certificate can be viewed in the lounge bar. During the 1930s Welsh middleweight boxing champion Tommy Davies was a regular customer. Black Mountain Centre / Community Centre for Brynamman