The Mechi River is a trans-boundary river flowing through Nepal and India. It is a tributary of the Mahananda River; the Mechi originates in the Mahabharat Range in Nepal. It flows through Nepal, forms the boundary between India and Nepal and flows through the Indian state of Bihar to join the Mahananda in Kishanganj district; the Mechi-Mahananda interfluve is a transitional area between the hills and the plains and exhibits a wide range of topographical variations. The rivers originating in the hills attain a braiding character and have well developed alluvial fans; the Mahananda river system of which Mechi is a part has a catchment area of 8,088 square kilometres in Nepal and 11,520 square kilometres in India. Embankments exist of the left bank of the Mechi River for 14 kilometres in West Bengal; these need remodelling to prevent floods in the Naxalbari area of Darjeeling district. There is a need for new embankments; as the Mechi forms the international border, it was agreed at a meeting of the Nepal-India Joint Standing Technical Committee to take due care in aligning the embankments so that they would be at identified distance from the border and the top levels of the embankments should be kept same on both sides, as far as practicable.
There is a proposal to link the Mechi to the Kosi. Kosi–Mechi interlinking is part of a NPR 56000 billion River Interlinking Project proposed to Nepal by India; the Kankai forms part of this project. Besides the High Dam, a barrage across Kosi river will be constructed near village Chatra, 10 to 12 kilometres below the proposed Kosi High Dam, to transfer water to the Mechi through the Kosi–Mechi link canal
Rice is the seed of the grass species Oryza sativa or Oryza glaberrima. As a cereal grain, it is the most consumed staple food for a large part of the world's human population in Asia, it is the agricultural commodity with the third-highest worldwide production, after sugarcane and maize. Since sizable portions of sugarcane and maize crops are used for purposes other than human consumption, rice is the most important grain with regard to human nutrition and caloric intake, providing more than one-fifth of the calories consumed worldwide by humans. There are many varieties of rice and culinary preferences tend to vary regionally. Rice, a monocot, is grown as an annual plant, although in tropical areas it can survive as a perennial and can produce a ratoon crop for up to 30 years. Rice cultivation is well-suited to countries and regions with low labor costs and high rainfall, as it is labor-intensive to cultivate and requires ample water. However, rice can be grown anywhere on a steep hill or mountain area with the use of water-controlling terrace systems.
Although its parent species are native to Asia and certain parts of Africa, centuries of trade and exportation have made it commonplace in many cultures worldwide. The traditional method for cultivating rice is flooding the fields while, or after, setting the young seedlings; this simple method requires sound planning and servicing of the water damming and channeling, but reduces the growth of less robust weed and pest plants that have no submerged growth state, deters vermin. While flooding is not mandatory for the cultivation of rice, all other methods of irrigation require higher effort in weed and pest control during growth periods and a different approach for fertilizing the soil; the name wild rice is used for species of the genera Zizania and Porteresia, both wild and domesticated, although the term may be used for primitive or uncultivated varieties of Oryza. First used in English in the middle of the 13th century, the word "rice" derives from the Old French ris, which comes from the Italian riso, in turn from the Latin oriza, which derives from the Greek ὄρυζα.
The Greek word is the source of all European words. The origin of the Greek word is unclear, it is sometimes held to be from the Tamil word, or rather Old Tamil arici. However, Krishnamurti disagrees with the notion that Old Tamil arici is the source of the Greek term, proposes that it was borrowed from descendants of Proto-Dravidian *wariñci instead. Mayrhofer suggests that the immediate source of the Greek word is to be sought in Old Iranian words of the types *vrīz- or *vrinj-, but these are traced back to Indo-Aryan. P. T. Srinivasa Iyengar assumed that the Sanskrit vrīhí- is derived from the Tamil arici, while Ferdinand Kittel derived it from the Dravidian root variki; the rice plant can grow to 1–1.8 m tall more depending on the variety and soil fertility. It has long, slender leaves 50–100 cm long and 2–2.5 cm broad. The small wind-pollinated flowers are produced in a branched arching to pendulous inflorescence 30–50 cm long; the edible seed is a grain 5–12 mm long and 2–3 mm thick. The varieties of rice are classified as long-, medium-, short-grained.
The grains of long-grain rice tend to remain intact after cooking. Medium-grain rice is used for sweet dishes, for risotto in Italy, many rice dishes, such as arròs negre, in Spain; some varieties of long-grain rice that are high in amylopectin, known as Thai Sticky rice, are steamed. A stickier medium-grain rice is used for sushi. Medium-grain rice is used extensively in Japan, including to accompany savoury dishes, where it is served plain in a separate dish. Short-grain rice is used for rice pudding. Instant rice differs from parboiled rice in that it is cooked and dried, though there is a significant degradation in taste and texture. Rice flour and starch are used in batters and breadings to increase crispiness. Rice is rinsed before cooking to remove excess starch. Rice produced in the US is fortified with vitamins and minerals, rinsing will result in a loss of nutrients. Rice may be rinsed until the rinse water is clear to improve the texture and taste. Rice may be soaked to decrease cooking time, conserve fuel, minimize exposure to high temperature, reduce stickiness.
For some varieties, soaking improves the texture of the cooked rice by increasing expansion of the grains. Rice may be soaked for 30 minutes up to several hours. Brown rice may be soaked in warm water for 20 hours to stimulate germination; this process, called germinated brown rice, activates enzymes and enhances amino acids including gamma-aminobutyric acid to improve the nutritional value of brown rice. This method is a result of research carried out for the United Nations International Year of Rice. Rice is cooked by boiling or steaming, absorbs water during cooking. With the absorption method, rice may be cooked in a volume of water equal to the volume of dry rice- plus any evaporation losses. With the rapid-boil method, rice may be cooked in a large quantity of water, drained before serving. Rapid-boil preparation is not desirable with enriched rice, as much of the enrichment additives are l
Limbuwan is an area of the Himalayan region of the Indian subcontinent made up of 10 Limbu kingdoms, now part of Nepal, northern Sikkim in India and western Bhutan. Limbuwan means "abode of the Limbus" or "Land of the Limbus". "Yakthung Laaje" in original Limbu language which means "the country of the Yakthungs".its was an independent kingdom until 1774 A. D and emerged into Nepal by gorkha kingdom Today, Limbuwan comprises the districts of Taplejung, Ilam, Terhathum, Dhankuta and Morang. Limbuwan is the land east of the Arun and Koshi Rivers and west of Kanchenjunga Mountain and the Mechi River. Eastern Nepal and the dominant ethnic groups of that region are indigenously called Kirat; the land was sub-divided into three regions, the Wallo and Pallo Kirat. Limbuwan is called Pallo-kirat'Further Kirat'; the Ten Kings of Limbus came together to formally declare all the ten kingdoms between the Arun River and Teesta River to be called "Yakthung Laaje". The ten rulers, their kingdoms and their forts: Samlupi Samba Hang, King of Tambar and his capital Tambar Yiok.
Sisiyen Shering Hang, King of Mewa and Maiwa kingdoms and his capital Meringden Yiok. Thoktokso Angbo Hang, King of Athraya and his capital Pomajong. Thindolung Khokya Hang, King of Yangwarok and his capital Hastapojong Yiok Yengaso Papo Hang, King of Panthar and his capital at Yashok and Pheden. Shengsengum Phedap Hang, King of Phedap and his capital at Poklabung. Mung Tai Chi Emay Hang, King of Ilam and his capital at Phakphok. Soiyak Lado Hang, King of Bodhey and his capital at Shanguri Yiok. Tappeso Perung Hang, King of Thala and his capital at Thala Yiok. Taklung Khewa Hang, King of Chethar and his capital at Chamling Chimling Yiok. After a brief period, King Mawrong Hang came to prominence and took over Terai lands of Chethar, Bodhey and Ilam, he rose to power. He became their overlord, he died without any male heir and King Uba Hang took over as supreme ruler of Limbuwan in 849 AD- 865 AD. He made many social reforms in Limbuwan. Uba Hang's worthy son Mabo Hang succeeded him in 865 AD and ruled till 880 AD.
Uba Hang kept on with the reforms. Uba Hang was succeeded by his son Muda Hang. Muda Hang was a weak ruler. Muda Hang was succeeded by his son Wedo Hang, by this time Limbuwan was in chaos and every principality was ruling independently and fighting with each other. Wedo hang was murdered and his son Chemjonghang succeeded. During this chaos and the waning phase of King Chemjong hang, King Sirijonga of Yangwarok kingdom rose to power, he took over as the new supreme ruler of Limbuwan. He built two big forts in Chainpur; the remains of the structure still stand today. One of legacy was, he brought feudal reform in Limbuwan and divided Limbuwan into new boundaries and districts. After the establishment of Namgyal dynasty in Sikkim and under the Lho-Mehn-Tsong Tsum, a treaty between the Bhutia and Limbu people of the Sikkim area, Limbuwan lost the area between Kunchenjunga range and Teesta River to the Bhutia Kings of Sikkim. Since Limbuwan comprises all the area between Arun River and Koshi River in the west to Kunchenjunga Mountains and Mechi River in the east.
At the beginning of the 15th century, the descendants of King Sirijonga became weak and Limbuwan again fell into chaos and anarchy. At the time Lowland Limbuwan Kingdom of Morang was ruled by King Sangla Ing. Sangla Ing became the first independent ruler of Morang in a century, his son Pungla Ing changed his name into Aamar Raya Ing. He was succeeded by his descendants, who bore Hindu names. Kirti Narayan Raya Ing, Aap Narayan Raya Ing, Jarai Narayan Raya Ing, Ding Narayan Raya Ing, Bijay Narayan Raya Ing. King Bijay Narayan Raya Sanlga Ing built a new town in the middle of Varatappa and Shangori fort and named it Bijaypur after him, he died without an heir. Bijaypur town was founded in 1584 AD and is located next to Dharan, Sunsari District. Bijaypur town remained the capital of Morang Kingdom and Limbuwan region until the Gorkha Limbuwan War in 1774 AD. Morang Kingdom was the most powerful and influential of all the Kingdoms in Limbuwan region and was able to establish its hegemony among all the other Limbu rulers.
But in 1609 AD Kirant King Lo hang Sen of Sen dynasty captured Morang and ruled it for seven generations. King of Phedap Murray Hang was made the chief minister of Morong, he stayed in Bijaypur and the King of Morong made his post hereditary. Murray Hang was given a Hindu name and he became Bidya Chandra Raya, his descendants remained Chief Ministers of Morong until Buddhi Karna Raya Khebang. Buddhi Karna succeeded the last Sen King of Morang Kama Datta sen and sat in the throne of Bijaypur Palace in 1769 AD. Meanwhile, the Gorkha King Prithivi Narayan Shah was on a campaign to conquer all the hill kingdoms into his Empire, he attacked Limbuwan on two fronts. After the Limbuwan Gorkha War 1771-1774 AD, the Limbu ministers of Morong, Limbu rulers of the ten principalities came to an agreement with the King of Gorkha. With the Limbuwan Gorkha treaty of 1774, Limbuwan was annexed to Nepal. Limbuwan was attacked several times by Sikkim after 1774 AD. Battle of Morong during the British Gurkha war took place in Moron
The Magars are one of the ethno linguistic groups of Nepal representing 7.13% of Nepal's total population as per the census of 2011. Their ancestral homeland extends from the Western and the Southern edges of the Dhaulagiri range of the Himalayas to the Mahabharat foothills in the South and Kali Gandaki river basin in the East; the Magars ruled while establishing their own kingdoms in ancient Nepal similar time with Khas kingdom baise and chaubise kingdom called the Bara Magaranth located east of the Gandaki River and the Athara Magaranth located west of the Gandaki River inhabited by the Kham Magars. Mythical stories on the Origins of Magars: There are interesting mythical stories describing the origins of Magars. Three different versions relative to three different language groups are presented; the Magar of the Bahra Magaranth east of the Kali Gandaki River) are said to have originated in the land of Seem. Two brothers, Seem Magar and Chintoo Magar and one remained in Seem, while the other left, ending up in Kangwachen in southern Sikkim.
The Bhutia people lived at the northern end of this region. Over time, the Magars became powerful and made the northern Bhutia their vassals. Sintoo Sati Sheng ruled in a despotic manner, the Bhutia conspired to assassinate him. Sheng's queen took revenge and poisoned 1,000 Bhutia people at a place now called Tong Song Fong, meaning "where a thousand were murdered"; the Bhutia drove the Magar out, forcing them to again migrate further south. As part of this migration, one group migrated to Simrongadh, one group moved towards the Okhaldhunga region, another group seems to have returned to the east. No dates are given. A second Magar federation called Athara Magarat was situated west of the Gandaki River, inhabited by western magars; the first written history about Magar people dates as back as 1100 AD. But it is accepted that they have resided around Palpa from time immemorial, they are thought to be the earliest settlers from the north. This part of the country was divided into twelve districts, each under its own ruler, being known as the Barah, or twelve Magarant or twelve Thams, the members of each being of common extraction in the male line.
Some records show these twelve areas as being Arghakhanchi, Isma, Khanchi, Rising, Payung, Garhung and Satung. However, it is probable that some of the latter places should have been excluded in favour of Palpa, Dhurkot, Char Hajar and Piuthan and Salyan; the Magars of middle and western region played a role in Nepal's formative history. Their kingdom was one of the strongest of west Nepal in and around Palpa District during the time of the 22 and 24 rajya principalities; the 18th-century king, Prithvi Narayan Shah, the founder of the modern Kingdom of Nepal was announced and loved to call himself the King of Magarat. Many prominent historians of Nepal have claimed that Aramudi, an eighth-century ruler of the Kali Gandaki region, was a Magar King. "Aramudi" derives from the word for'river' in the Magar language.'Ari'-'Source of Water' +'Modi'-'River'='Arimodi' or'Aramudi', thus the literal meaning of Aramudi is source of river. But due to the lack of historical evidence there are some conflicting ideas among the historians.
The Magars are structured with septs, followed by sub-septs. Broadly speaking, Magars are divided into two main groups: Athara Magaratis. Before the unification of Nepal in the 18th century by the King Prithvi Narayan Shah, the Magarat land was divided into two Magarat states. West of Kali Gandaki was called eighteen East of Kali Gandaki was called twelve Magarat, they are Ale,Rana,Thapa,Gaha, Pun,Raika and Gharti clans. Within these seven clans, more than 1100 sub-clans can be found; these Magar are equal in social standing. Linguistically, the Magars are divided into three groups. Baraha Magaratis speak Dhut dialect, whereas Athara Magaratis speak Kaike dialects. MagarDhut-speakers: Rana, Ale,Thapa, Gaha. MagarPang-speakers: Budha, Roka, KaikeMagar-speakers: Tarali Magar of Dolpa/Budha, Roka magar, Jhankri all Magar clans residing in Dolpa and Karnali districts. Of the 2,064,000 Magar people in Nepal, nearly 788,530 speak a Magar language as their mother tongue. Most of the others speak Nepali as their mother tongue.
The western inhabitants of Nepal did not speak the language in the past. But almost everyone has started learning the language; the western magars of Rapti Zone speak Magar Pang kura. In Dolpa District, the Magar speak Magar Kaike language; the Magar languages are rooted in the Bodic branch of the Tibetan family. Magar Dhut kura speakers are all Magar clans residing in twelve Magarats. Magar Pang kura speakers are all magar clans from eighteen Magarats. Magar Kaike language speakers are all magar clans in Karnali zone; the 1971 census put the total population of those who spoke the Magar language at 288,383, i.e. 2.49 percent of the total population of Nepal, of which more than half lived in the Western hills of Nepal. Many Magar words are used today as location names. Magar toponyms in Nepali include: tilaurakot, * Tansen Some scholars opine that the amount of Magar words in Nepali indicates that Magarat were larger than believed, extending from Dhading to Doti, they note that the place suffix -Kot indicates a place from which Magar kings ruled.
Kali Gadaki, Bheri, Modi all the river names with di or ti suffix are named after Magar language
A planet symbol is a graphical symbol used in astrology and astronomy to represent a classical planet or one of the eight modern planets. The symbols are used in alchemy to represent the metals that are associated with the planets; the use of these symbols is based in ancient Greco-Roman astronomy, although their current shapes are a development of the 16th century. The classical planets with their symbols and associated metals are: The International Astronomical Union discourages the use of these symbols in modern journal articles, their style manual proposes one- and two-letter abbreviations for the names of the planets for cases where planetary symbols might be used, such as in the headings of tables; the modern planets with their symbols and abbreviations recommended by the IAU: The symbols of Venus and Mars are used to represent female and male in biology and botany, following a convention introduced by Linnaeus in the 1750s. The written symbols for Mercury, Venus and Saturn have been traced to forms found in late Greek papyri.
Early forms are found in medieval Byzantine codices which preserve ancient horoscopes. Antecedents of the planetary symbols are attested in the attributes given to classical deities, represented in simplified pictographic form in the Roman era. Bianchini's planisphere shows the seven planets represented by portraits of the seven corresponding gods, each with a simple representation of an attribute, as follows: Mercury has a caduceus. A diagram in the astronomical compendium by Johannes Kamateros shows the Sun represented by the circle with a ray, Jupiter by the letter zeta, Mars by a shield crossed by a spear, the remaining classical planets by symbols resembling the modern ones, without the cross-mark seen in modern versions of the symbols; these cross-marks first appear in early 16th century. According to Maunder, the addition of crosses appears to be "an attempt to give a savour of Christianity to the symbols of the old pagan gods."The modern symbols for the seven classical planets are found in a woodcut of the seven planets in a Latin translation of Abu Ma'shar's De Magnis Coniunctionibus printed at Venice in 1506, represented as the corresponding gods riding chariots.
Earth is not one of the classical planets. Its status as planet is a consequence of the development of heliocentrism. There are ancient symbols for Earth, notably a cross representing the four cardinal directions, as a cross in a circle interpreted as a globe with equator and a meridian. Alternatively, there is the globus cruciger, now most used as planetary symbol; the "globus cruciger" symbol is used as an alchemical symbol of antimony. Uranus U+2645 ♅, a globe surmounted by the letter H for Herschel): The symbols for Uranus were created shortly after its discovery in 1781. One symbol, invented by J. G. Köhler and refined by Bode, was intended to represent the newly discovered metal platinum; this symbol combines the symbols of Mars and the Sun because in Greek Mythology, Uranus represented heaven, represents the combined power of Mars' spear and the Sun. Another symbol, was suggested by Lalande in 1784. In a letter to Herschel, Lalande described it as "un globe surmonté par la première lettre de votre nom".
Neptune, Neptune's trident a globe surmounted by the letters "L" and "V" for Le Verrier): Several symbols were proposed for Neptune to accompany the suggested names for the planet. Claiming the right to name his discovery, Urbain Le Verrier proposed the name Neptune and the symbol of a trident, while falsely stating that this had been approved by the French Bureau des Longitudes. In October, he sought to name the planet Leverrier, after himself, he had loyal support in this from the observatory director, François Arago, who in turn proposed a new symbol for the planet. However, this suggestion met with stiff resistance outside France. French almanacs reintroduced the name Herschel for Uranus, after that planet's discoverer Sir William Herschel, Leverrier for the new planet. Professor James Pillans of the University of Edinburgh defended the name Janus for the new planet, proposed a key for its symbol. Meanwhile, Struve presented the name Neptune on December 29, 1846, to the Saint Petersburg Academy of Sciences.
In August 1847, the Bureau des Longitudes announced its decision to follow prevailing astronomical practice and adopt the choice of Neptune, with Arago refraining from participating in this decision. Pluto was considered a planet from its discovery in 1930 until its re-classification as a "dwarf planet" in 2006; the symbol used for Pluto was a ligature of the letters P and L. In the 19th century, symbols for the major asteroids were in use, including Vesta, Ceres, Pallas (⚴
Cabbage or headed cabbage is a leafy green, red, or white biennial plant grown as an annual vegetable crop for its dense-leaved heads. It is descended from the wild cabbage, B. oleracea var. oleracea, belongs to the "cole crops", meaning it is related to broccoli and cauliflower. Brassica rapa is named Chinese, celery or napa cabbage and has many of the same uses. Cabbage is high in nutritional value. Cabbage heads range from 0.5 to 4 kilograms, can be green, purple or white. Smooth-leafed, firm-headed green cabbages are the most common. Smooth-leafed purple cabbages and crinkle-leafed savoy cabbages of both colors are rarer, it is a multi-layered vegetable. Under conditions of long sunny days, such as those found at high northern latitudes in summer, cabbages can grow quite large; as of 2012, the heaviest cabbage was 62.71 kilograms. Cabbage was most domesticated somewhere in Europe before 1000 BC, although savoys were not developed until the 16th century AD. By the Middle Ages, cabbage had become a prominent part of European cuisine.
Cabbage heads are picked during the first year of the plant's life cycle, but plants intended for seed are allowed to grow a second year and must be kept separate from other cole crops to prevent cross-pollination. Cabbage is prone to several nutrient deficiencies, as well as to multiple pests, bacterial and fungal diseases. Cabbages are prepared many different ways for eating. Cabbage is a good source of vitamin C and dietary fiber; the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations reported that world production of cabbage and other brassicas for 2014 was 71.8 million metric tonnes, with China accounting for 47% of the world total. Cabbage is the mustard family, Brassicaceae. Several other cruciferous vegetables are considered cultivars of B. oleracea, including broccoli, collard greens, brussels sprouts and sprouting broccoli. All of these developed from the wild cabbage B. oleracea var. oleracea called colewort or field cabbage. This original species evolved over thousands of years into those seen today, as selection resulted in cultivars having different characteristics, such as large heads for cabbage, large leaves for kale and thick stems with flower buds for broccoli.
The varietal epithet capitata is derived from the Latin word for "having a head". B. oleracea and its derivatives have hundreds of common names throughout the world."Cabbage" was used to refer to multiple forms of B. oleracea, including those with loose or non-existent heads. A related species, Brassica rapa, is named Chinese, napa or celery cabbage, has many of the same uses, it is a part of common names for several unrelated species. These include cabbage bark or cabbage tree and cabbage palms, which include several genera of palms such as Mauritia, Roystonea oleracea and Euterpe oenocarpus; the original family name of brassicas was Cruciferae, which derived from the flower petal pattern thought by medieval Europeans to resemble a crucifix. The word brassica derives from a Celtic word for cabbage. Many European and Asiatic names for cabbage are derived from the Celto-Slavic root cap or kap, meaning "head"; the late Middle English word cabbage derives from the word caboche, from the Picard dialect of Old French.
This in turn is a variant of the Old French caboce. Through the centuries, "cabbage" and its derivatives have been used as slang for numerous items and activities. Cash and tobacco have both been described by the slang "cabbage", while "cabbage-head" means a fool or stupid person and "cabbaged" means to be exhausted or, vulgarly, in a vegetative state. Cabbage seedlings have a thin cordate cotyledon; the first leaves produced are ovate with a lobed petiole. Plants are 40–60 cm tall in their first year at the mature vegetative stage, 1.5–2.0 m tall when flowering in the second year. Heads average between 0.5 and 4 kg, with fast-growing, earlier-maturing varieties producing smaller heads. Most cabbages have thick, alternating leaves, with margins that range from wavy or lobed to dissected. Plants have root systems that are shallow. About 90 percent of the root mass is in the upper 20–30 cm of soil; the inflorescence is an unbranched and indeterminate terminal raceme measuring 50–100 cm tall, with flowers that are yellow or white.
Each flower has four petals set in a perpendicular pattern, as well as four sepals, six stamens, a superior ovary, two-celled and contains a single stigma and style. Two of the six stamens have shorter filaments; the fruit is a silique that opens at maturity through dehiscence to reveal brown or black seeds that are small and round in shape. Self-pollination is impossible, plants are cross-pollinated by insects; the initial leaves form a rosette shape comprising 7 to 15 leaves, each measuring 25–35 cm by 20–30 cm. Many shapes and leaf textures are found in various cultivated varieties of cabbage. Leaf types are divided between crinkled-leaf
Dudh Koshi is a river in eastern Nepal. It is the highest river in terms of elevation; the Kosi River, or Sapt Koshi, drains eastern Nepal. It is known as Sapta Koshi because of the seven rivers which join together in east-central Nepal to form this river; the main rivers forming the Sapta Koshi River system are – the Sun Koshi], the Indravati River, the Bhote Koshi, the Dudh Koshi, the Arun River, Tamor River and Likhu River. The Dudh Kosi river originates from the high-altitude areas of Mt Everest and the snow and glacier melt contributes significant portion of streamflow during the dry season; the combined river flows through the Chatra Gorge in a southerly direction to emerge from the hills. The river drains the highest peak in the world, it flows south to Namche Bazaar. Continuing south, the Dudh Koshi passes to the west of Lukla; the Lamding Khola joins the Dudh Koshi to the southwest of Surkya and continues its southerly course to Harkapur, where it joins the Sun Kosi. The river is characteristic of extreme white water and cannot be used for watersports.
The descent is over 5% and there are rapids that reach WW VI difficulty and places that need to be portaged with the best equipment. In addition, the river changes — big stones getting moved around by natural forces etc. Flowing down from Mount Everest, the river is believed to be the highest navigable whitewater; as such, it came to attention of teams participating in the world cup since Austrian paddlers made a world record descending from 3200 m altitude in France. Czechoslovak sportsmen agreed to take up the challenge. A team of sixteen men, fourteen Czechs and two Slovaks, had been gathered and on January 4, 1973 they set on the journey from Děhylov by cars. For the last part from Lukla to Pheriche, 110 porters were hired to carry the boats and other equipment; the actual river trip began on April 1 near Pheriche at 4243 mamsl and ran for 126 km down to Sun Kosi. The paddlers used both covered tandem canoes of Vertex brand and solo kayaks, all made of fiberglass; the expedition returned home safely in August the same year.
Three years in 1976, there was a British expedition of seven kayakers under the leadership of Mike Jones. They used 4 metres long fiberglass slalom-style kayaks specially designed by Pyranha Canoes with extra buyonancy and reinforcement; the expedition is notable for taking place in September to avoid ice and when the water was high to set new altitude record. They paddled at 5300 mamsl on one of the lakes at the Khumbu Glacier, but the high water flow had to be omitted. It is unclear which parts of the river were skipped, but the descent is considered incomplete; the next year, HTV documentary movie "Dudh Kosi: Relentless River of Everest" has been released, a source of common misconception that this was the first trip on the river. Note that both expeditions didn't embark on Dudh Kosi but rather on Lobuche, the river formed by the Khumbu Glacier and which runs around Pheriche. Just below Pheriche it merges with Imja Khola which runs for about ten kilometres before it joins Dudh Kosi under Tengboche.
Since there were many expeditions using wide variety of boat constructions allowing to run some rapids that had to be portaged previously. However the access to upper parts above Lukla is now limited due to stricter regulations in and around national parks