Urdu —or, more Modern Standard Urdu—is a Persianised standard register of the Hindustani language. It is the official national lingua franca of Pakistan. In India, it is one of the 22 official languages recognized in the Constitution of India, having official status in the six states of Jammu and Kashmir, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and West Bengal, as well as the national capital territory of Delhi, it is a registered regional language of Nepal. Apart from specialized vocabulary, spoken Urdu is mutually intelligible with Standard Hindi, another recognized register of Hindustani; the Urdu variant of Hindustani received recognition and patronage under British rule when the British replaced the local official languages with English and Hindustani written in Nastaʿlīq script, as the official language in North and Northwestern India. Religious and political factors pushed for a distinction between Urdu and Hindi in India, leading to the Hindi–Urdu controversy. According to Nationalencyklopedin's 2010 estimates, Urdu is the 21st most spoken first language in the world, with 66 million speakers.
According to Ethnologue's 2017 estimates, along with standard Hindi and the languages of the Hindi belt, is the 3rd most spoken language in the world, with 329.1 million native speakers, 697.4 million total speakers. Urdu, like Hindi, is a form of Hindustani, it evolved from the medieval Apabhraṃśa register of the preceding Shauraseni language, a Middle Indo-Aryan language, the ancestor of other modern Indo-Aryan languages. Around 75% of Urdu words have their etymological roots in Sanskrit and Prakrit, 99% of Urdu verbs have their roots in Sanskrit and Prakrit; because Persian-speaking sultans ruled the Indian subcontinent for a number of years, Urdu was influenced by Persian and to a lesser extent, which have contributed to about 25% of Urdu's vocabulary. Although the word Urdu is derived from the Turkic word ordu or orda, from which English horde is derived, Turkic borrowings in Urdu are minimal and Urdu is not genetically related to the Turkic languages. Urdu words originating from Chagatai and Arabic were borrowed through Persian and hence are Persianized versions of the original words.
For instance, the Arabic ta' marbuta changes to te. Contrary to popular belief, Urdu did not borrow from the Turkish language, but from Chagatai, a Turkic language from Central Asia. Urdu and Turkish borrowed from Arabic and Persian, hence the similarity in pronunciation of many Urdu and Turkish words. Arabic influence in the region began with the late first-millennium Muslim conquests of the Indian subcontinent; the Persian language was introduced into the subcontinent a few centuries by various Persianized Central Asian Turkic and Afghan dynasties including that of Mahmud of Ghazni. The Turko-Afghan Delhi Sultanate established Persian as its official language, a policy continued by the Mughal Empire, which extended over most of northern South Asia from the 16th to 18th centuries and cemented Persian influence on the developing Hindustani; the name Urdu was first used by the poet Ghulam Hamadani Mushafi around 1780. From the 13th century until the end of the 18th century Urdu was known as Hindi.
The language was known by various other names such as Hindavi and Dehlavi. Hindustani in Persian script was used by Muslims and Hindus, but was current chiefly in Muslim-influenced society; the communal nature of the language lasted until it replaced Persian as the official language in 1837 and was made co-official, along with English. Hindustani was promoted in British India by British policies to counter the previous emphasis on Persian; this triggered a Hindu backlash in northwestern India, which argued that the language should be written in the native Devanagari script. This literary standard called "Hindi" replaced Urdu as the official language of Bihar in 1881, establishing a sectarian divide of "Urdu" for Muslims and "Hindi" for Hindus, a divide, formalized with the division of India and Pakistan after independence. There have been attempts to "purify" Urdu and Hindi, by purging Urdu of Sanskrit words, Hindi of Persian loanwords, new vocabulary draws from Persian and Arabic for Urdu and from Sanskrit for Hindi.
English has exerted a heavy influence on both as a co-official language. There are over 100 million native speakers of Urdu in India and Pakistan together: there were 52 million and 80.5 million Urdu speakers in India as per the 2001 and 2011 censuses respectively. However, a knowledge of Urdu allows one to speak with far more people than that, because Hindustani, of which Urdu is one variety, is the third most spoken language in the world, after Mandarin and English; because of the difficulty in distinguishing between Urdu and Hindi speakers in India and Pakistan, as well as estimating the number of people for whom Urdu is a second language, the estimated number of speakers is uncertain and controversial. Owing to interaction with other languages, Urdu has become localized wherever it is spoken, including in Pakistan. Urdu in Pakistan has undergone changes and has incorporated and borrowed many words from region
Province No. 2
Province No. 2 is a province in the southeastern region of Nepal, formed after the adoption of the Constitution of Nepal. It is Nepal's second most populous province, smallest province by area, it borders Province No. 1 to the east, Province No. 3 to the north, India to the south. It has an area of 9,661 km2 with a population of 5,404,145 per the 2011 Census of Nepal, making it most densely populated province of Nepal; the Koshi River and Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve acts as provincial demarcation border between Province 2 and Province 1 in the east. And the demarcation line between Chitwan National Park and Parsa National Park acts as provincial demarcation border between Province 2 and Province 3 in the west; the province includes eight districts from Saptari District in the east to Parsa District in the west. The majority of the province's population speaks Maithili, Bhojpuri and Nepali; the Capital city, a sub-metropolitan city of Janakpur known as Janakpurdham, is a centre for religious and cultural tourism.
It is thought to have been the capital of the Videha dynasty that ruled Mithila region in ancient times. The first urban planned municipality of Nepal, Rajbiraj, is the oldest municipality of the Terai belt of Nepal; the town is believed to have been named after the ancient Rajdevi temple, which dates back to the 1700s. The metropolitan city of Birgunj is an economically important industrial centre and the only metropolitan city in the province; as per a 17 January 2018 cabinet meeting, Janakpur has been declared as the interim capital of Province No. 2. Mohammad Lalbabu Raut Gaddhi is the current Chief Minister; the region is surrounded by: The Sunsari District of Province No. 1 to the East. The Chitwan District of Province No. 3 to the West. The Makwanpur District and Sindhuli District of Province No. 3 and Udayapur District of Province No. 1 to the North. India to the South; as per Central Bureau of Statistics the province covers about 9,661 km2. of Nepal's total area of 147,181 km2. With total number of 5,404,145 inhabitants, it is the second most populous province in Nepal.
The province is located on flat plains of Terai, Chure or the Shiwalik Hills are the natural border of the province which falls in northern side. The southern side has an international border with the India. Koshi River on its eastern side acting as a natural border with Province No. 1. Province No. 2 has eight districts in a series. Koshi River, Bagmati River, Kamla River, Lakhandei River and Bishnumati River are the main rivers of the province; the Governor acts as the head of the province while the Chief Minister is the head of the provincial government. The Chief Judge of the Janakpur High Court is the head of the judiciary; the present Governor, Chief Minister and Chief Judge are Ratneshwar Lal Kayastha, Mohammad Lalbabu Raut and Udaya Prakash Chapagain. The province has 107 provincial assembly constituencies and 32 House of Representative constituencies. Province No. 2 has a unicameral legislature, like all of the other provinces in Nepal. The term length of provincial assembly is five years.
The Provincial Assembly of Province No. 2 is temporarily housed at the District Education Office in Janakpur. Province No. 2 is divided into eight districts. A district is administrated by the head of the District Coordination Committee and the District Administration Officer; the districts are further dived to rural municipalities. The municipalities include one metropolitan city, three sub-metropolitan cities and 73 municipalities. There are 59 rural municipalities in the province. Province No. 2 has no difficult terrains still the transportation has not been well developed in the region due to lack of investments and negligence. The major connecting link for the province is the Mahendra Highway which runs longitudinally across the province. All major cities of the province remain disconnected from this highway. Janakpurdham, Birgunj AND Gaur lie 25,10,24 and 42 kilometres south of the Mahendra Highway, respectively; the Tribhuvan Highway does not cross as much of the province as the Mahendra Highway, but it is most important link as it connects the province to Kathmandu and to the India.
The starting point of Tribhuvan Highway i.e. Birgunj is the most important International Gateway and trade way for this province and entire country and hence known as "The Gateway of Nepal". In terms of revenue generation, Birjung custom point is the largest. Birendra highway whhich is connected to Mahendra highway from Headquarter of Rautahat district Gaur to the Chandranigahpur. Which is 42km in length. Mahendra Highway - Part Postal Highway - Part Tribhuvan Highway - Part Birendra Highway - part A few other railway projects are under progress in the province no. 2. All these projects are of Nepal Railways. Government of Nepal has proposed Janakpur as a Main Station for 1024 km east-west Metro Railway project and further be extended to India and China for connecting Nepal Railways with Indian Railways and China Railway for business and tourism promotion. Janakpur to Lhasa Bardibas, Janakpur to Jainagar, Bihar Janakpur to Kathmandu Janakpur to Biratnagar Janakpur to Nepalgunj Janakpur to Birgunj Province No. 2 has 3 airports: Rajbiraj Airport, in Rajbiraj Janakpur Airport in Janakpur.
Simara Airport in Pipara Simara close to Birganj. Nijgadh International Airport in Bara district. List of provinces of Nepal List of districts of Nepal
The Terai is a lowland region in southern Nepal and northern India that lies south of the outer foothills of the Himalayas, the Siwalik Hills, north of the Indo-Gangetic Plain. This lowland belt is characterised by tall grasslands, scrub savannah, sal forests and clay rich swamps. In northern India, the Terai spreads from the Yamuna River eastward across Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh and Bihar; the Terai is part the Terai-Duar savanna and grasslands ecoregion. The corresponding lowland region in West Bengal, Bangladesh and Assam in the Brahmaputra River basin is called'Dooars'. In Nepal, the Terai stretches over 33,998.8 km2, about 23.1% of Nepal's land area, lies at an altitude of between 67 and 300 m. The region comprises more than 50 wetlands. North of the Terai rises a narrow but continuous belt of forest about 8 -- 12 km wide. In Hindi the region is called तराई,'tarāī' meaning "foot-hill". In Nepali, the region is called तराइ'tarāi' meaning "the low-lying land, plain" and "the low-lying land at the foot of the Himālayas".
The region's name in Urdu is ترائي'tarāʼī' meaning "lands lying at the foot of a watershed" or "on the banks of a river. The Terai is crossed by the large perennial Himalayan rivers Yamuna, Sarda, Karnali and Kosi that have each built alluvial fans covering thousands of square kilometres below their exits from the hills. Medium rivers such as the Rapti rise in the Mahabharat Range; the geological structure of the region consists of old and new alluvium, both of which constitute alluvial deposits of sand, silt and coarse fragments. The new alluvium is renewed every year by fresh deposits brought down by active streams, which engage themselves in fluvial action. Old alluvium is found rather away from river courses on uplands of the plain where silting is a rare phenomenon. A large number of small and seasonal rivers flow through the Terai, most of which originate in the Siwalik Hills; the soil in the Terai is fine to medium textured. Forest cover in the Terai and hill areas has decreased at an annual rate of 1.3% between 1978 and 1979, 2.3% between 1990 and 1991.
With deforestation and cultivation increasing, a permeable mixture of gravel and sand evolves, which leads to a sinking water table. But where layers consist of clay and fine sediments, the groundwater rises to the surface and heavy sediment is washed out, thus enabling frequent and massive floods during monsoon, such as the 2008 Bihar flood; the reduction in slope as rivers exit the hills and transition from the sloping Bhabhar to the nearly level Terai causes current to slow and the heavy sediment load to fall out of suspension. This deposition process creates multiple channels with shallow beds, enabling massive floods as monsoon-swollen rivers overflow their low banks and shift channels. Many areas show erosion such as gullies. There are several differences between the climate on the western edge of the Terai at Chandigarh in India and at Biratnagar in Nepal near the eastern edge. Moving inland and away from monsoon sources in the Bay of Bengal, the climate becomes more continental with a greater difference between summer and winter.
In the far western Terai, five degrees latitude further north, the coldest months' average is 3 °C cooler. Total rainfall markedly diminishes from east to west; the monsoon arrives is much less intense and ends sooner. However, winters are wetter in the west. In India, the Terai extends over the states of Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal; these are the districts of these states that are on the Indo-Nepal border: Haryana: Panchkula district Uttarakhand: Haridwar district, Udham Singh Nagar and Nainital districts Uttar Pradesh: Pilibhit district, Lakhimpur Kheri district, Bahraich district, Shravasti district, Balrampur district, Siddharthnagar district, Maharajganj district Bihar: West Champaran district, East Champaran district, Sitamarhi district, Madhubani district, Supaul district, Araria district, Kishanganj district West Bengal: Siliguri subdivision of Darjeeling district, Jalpaiguri Sadar subdivision of Jalpaiguri district The Terai in Nepal is differentiated into "Inner" and "Outer" Terai and includes 20 districts.
The Inner Terai consists of five elongated valleys located between the Mahabharat and Shivalik ranges. From north-west to south-east these valleys are: Surkhet Valley in the Surkhet district, north of the Kailali and Bardiya districts. Most of these valleys are 5 -- 10 up to 100 km long; the Outer Terai extends to the Indo-Gangetic plain. In the Far-Western Region, Nepal it comprises the Kanchanpur and Kailali districts, in the Mid-Western Region, Nepal Bardiya and Banke districts. Farther east, the Outer Terai comprises the Kapilvastu, Nawalparasi, Bara, Sarlahi, Dhanusa, Saptari, Sunsari and Jhapa districts. East of Banke the Nepalese Outer Terai is interrupted where the international border swings north and follows the edge of the Siwaliks adjacent to Deukhuri Valley. Here the Outer Terai is in Uttar Pradesh's Shravasti and Balrampur districts. East of Deukhuri the
Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist Centre)
The Communist Party of Nepal was a communist political party in Nepal. The party was founded in 1994 after breaking away from the Communist Party of Nepal; the party has led three governments, from 2008 to 2009 and from 2016 to 2017 under Pushpa Kamal Dahal and from 2013 to 2015 under Baburam Bhattarai. The party was known as the Communist Party of Nepal until 2009 and as the Unified Communist Party of Nepal until 2016. In 2008, The Unified Communist Party of Nepal, placed first in the election with 220 out of 575 elected seats, became the largest party in the Constituent Assembly. In the 2013 elections, the party won 80 out of 575 elected seats to become the third largest party in the Constituent Assembly of Nepal; the party dissolved on the 17th of May 2018, after merging with the Communist Party of Nepal to create the Nepal Communist Party. The party was formed in 1994 following a split in the Communist Party of Nepal into two factions, one led by Pushpa Kamal Dahal and the other led Nirmal Lama.
The electoral front of the party, the United People's Front of Nepal split and the faction led by Baburam Bhattarai allied with the Pushpa Kamal Dahal led Communist Party of Nepal. The two United People's Front of Nepal decided to register itself with the Election Commission, but the commission only recognized the Nirmal Lama backed party. Baburam Bhattarai responded by calling for a boycott of the 1994 mid-term elections; the Unity Centre led by Pushpa Kamal Dahal went underground after the split to begin preparations for its next phase of struggle. The party held its Third Plenum in March 1995, where the party renamed itself to the Communist Party of Nepal, it decided that the for "the true liberation of the people, all efforts must be concentrated for the development of a people's war that would usher in the new people's democratic form of government" and decided to give up its policy of taking part in parliamentary elections. The March meeting was followed by six months of preparations to recast the old organizational structure into a fighting machine, in September 1995, the'Plan for the Historic Initiation of the People's War' was adopted by the Central Committee of the party.
There began a series of public meetings all over the country under the aegis of the United People's Front of Nepal as part of the final politico-ideological preparation. The party launched the'Sija campaign' in Rolpa and Rukum, named after the Sisne and Jaljala mountains in the two districts, to propagate the ideology of Marxism–Leninism–Maoism. In October 1995, during the Sija campaign, a fight broke out between supporters of the United People's Front of Nepal and other parties the Nepali Congress and the Rastriya Prajatantra Party, at a village in the eastern part of Rukum; the newly formed government under Sher Bahadur Deuba moved swiftly to arrest the UPFN supporters, accusing them of creating public disorder. The police launched'Operation Romeo' in November 1995. Operation Romeo was labeled as an operation to control a rise in criminal activities in Rolpa. Operation Romeo resulted in gross violations of human rights, including the arbitrary arrest and detention of hundreds of members of left-of-center parties, executions and “disappearances.”
In the light of this action, the Political Bureau of the Central Committee of the party met in January 1996 and made the final decision on the historic initiation of the'People's War' for February 13, 1996. On February 4, 1996, Baburam Bhattarai led a three-member delegation of the United People's Front of Nepal to present a memorandum to Prime Minister Sher Bahadur Deuba; the memorandum warned that unless the government took initiative to fulfill their 40-point demands by February 17, the UFPN would launch an armed revolution. On February 13, 1996, after Prime Minister Sher Bahadur Deuba had left for a state visit to India two days before, the office of the Small Farmer's Development Programme run by the Agricultural Development Bank was overrun in Gorkha district and the loan papers were destroyed; this was followed in the evening by attacks on police posts in Aathbiskot-Rari in Rukum, Holeri in Rolpa and Sindhuligadhi in Sindhuli. The'People's War' was formally launched. After the Communist Party of Nepal came into government in 1997, violence between both sides stopped but the issue could not be resolved.
The government formed a taskforce to look into the'Maoist Activities and a Search for Solutions' in April 1997 under CPN MP Prem Singh Dhami but the commission report was shelved in August of the same year. A local election was called in May 1997, but polls could not be held in 87 village development committees due to intimidation by the Maoists; the government in response attempted to introduce the Terrorist and Destructive Activities Act in July 1997 at the initiative of deputy prime minister and home minister Bam Dev Gautam. The act would give the police wide-ranging powers against perceived'terrorists', but the government was forced to backtrack on the law before it was placed in front of the parliament owing to mass protests from the civil society, the media, international organizations. On 13 February 1998, the second anniversary of the'people's war', the Maoists announced the existence of a Central Military Commission under Prachanda. By May 1998, 51 village development committees in Rolpa district and western Nepal were under Maoist control and they were operating a parallel administration called the'People's Government'.
When the new Prime Minister Girija Prasad Koirala went on tour of the Maoist influenced area he r
Communist Party of Nepal (Unified Marxist–Leninist)
The Communist Party of Nepal was one of the two major communist parties in Nepal. The party was formed in January 1991 with the unification of the Communist Party of Nepal and the Communist Party of Nepal, it has led four governments: from 1994 to 1995 under Man Mohan Adhikari, from 2009 to 2011 under Madhav Kumar Nepal, in 2011 under Jhala Nath Khanal, from 2015 to 2016 under Khadga Prasad Oli. The party was a junior partner in five coalition governments: in 1997 under Lokendra Bahadur Chand, from 1998 to 1999 under Girija Prasad Koirala, from 2008 to 2009 under Pushpa Kamal Dahal, from 2011 to 2013 under Baburam Bhattarai, from 2014 to 2015 under Sushil Koirala, it dissolved on 17 May 2018 to make way for the Nepal Communist Party in a merger with the Communist Party of Nepal. The United Left Front was formed in 1990 to protest the Panchayat system and restore multi-party democracy, they organized a joint movement with the Nepali Congress, King Birendra yielded to their Jana Andolan in November 1990.
Two constituents of the United Left Front merged on January 6, 1991 to form the Communist Party of Nepal before the 1991 elections, the United Left Front became inactive. In the 1991 elections, the party won 69 of 205 seats and was the second-largest party in the House of Representatives. Man Mohan Adhikari was elected head of the parliamentary group, became the Leader of the Opposition in May 1991; the fifth party congress was held in Kathmandu in January 1993, People's Multiparty Democracy was adopted as its main ideology. Adhikari was elected chairman, Madan Bhandari was elected general secretary. Bhandari was killed in a vehicle accident in Chitwan that year, Madhav Kumar Nepal became the party's general secretary. After the mid-term elections in 1994, the party won 88 of 205 seats in a hung parliament and formed a minority government under Man Mohan Adhikari; the government lasted for nine months after Adhikari was forced to resign when he lost a no-confidence motion in September 1995. The party was back in the government in March 1997, after supporting the Surya Bahadur Thapa-led Rastriya Prajatantra Party government.
Following dissension in the RPP, Lokendra Bahadur Chand CPN returned to the opposition. The party faced its first split in March 1998, after disagreements about a water-sharing agreement with India; the new party formed with 46 legislators from the mother party as the Communist Party of Nepal, under the leadership of Bam Dev Gautam. The party joined the government again in December 1998, backing the Girija Prasad Koirala-led Nepali Congress-Nepal Sadbhawana Party coalition government. In the 1999 elections, the party won 70 of 205 seats and was the second-largest party in the House of Representatives. Most members of the Communist Party of Nepal rejoined the parent party on February 15, 2002, the others decided to restructure the existing party; the party's seventh general convention was held in Janakpur on February 1–6, 2003. The convention decided to abolish the post of party chair, vacant after the death of Man Mohan Adhikari and Madhav Kumar Nepal's unanimous reelection as general secretary of the party.
When King Gyanendra dissolved Parliament and sacked Prime Minister Sher Bahadur Deuba of the CPN in 2003, five other parties protested his decision. However, when Deuba was reinstated CPN joined the provisional government with Bharat Mohan Adhikari as deputy prime minister; this government was dissolved by the king on February 1, 2005. A Seven Party Alliance was formed to protest his decision and, following an agreement with the Communist Party of Nepal, a joint struggle was launched against the king's direct rule. On April 10, 2006, Parliament was reconvened by the king and a government was formed under Girija Prasad Koirala. In the 2008 Constituent Assembly elections, the party finished third. Madhav Kumar Nepal resigned as general secretary, was replaced by Jhala Nath Khanal; the party backed Communist Party of Nepal candidate Pushpa Kamal Dahal, joined his government in August 2008. Khanal was elected party chairman and Ishwor Pokhrel general secretary by the eighth general convention in Butwal in February 2009.
In early May 2009, the CPN joined several other parties in leaving Dahal's coalition government after he sacked Army Chief of Staff Rookmangud Katawal. Following their withdrawal, they formed a new coalition government with the Nepali Congress and the Madhesi Jana Adhikar Forum under Madhav Kumar Nepal. Nepal resigned in June 2010 after failing to draft a new constitution. Following more than seven months of political stalemate, Khanal was elected prime minister in February 2011 with support from the Unified Communist Party of Nepal, he resigned in August after he failed to reach a consensus with the other parties on drafting a new constitution and the peace process. The party joined the next government, led by Baburam Bhattarai, on August 28, 2011. Following Bhattarai's dissolution of the Constituent Assembly of Nepal when it failed to draft a new constitution before the deadline, the CPN became the second-largest party after winning 175 of 575 elected seats in the 2013 elections; the party joined a coalition government with the Nepali Congress and the Rastriya Prajatantra Party under Sushil Koirala.
In July 2014, Khadga Prasad Oli became party chair after he defeated Madhav Kumar Nepal in the party's ninth general convention. The new constitution was delivered by this government on September 20, 2015. After the new constitution was drafted, Sushil Koi
Orders of magnitude (area)
This page is a progressive and labelled list of the SI area orders of magnitude, with certain examples appended to some list objects. Orders of magnitude
Bimalendra Nidhi, is the former Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Home Affairs of Nepal. He is vice president of the Nepali Congress, the second largest political party of the nation, he has served as minister and member of parliament, was elected to the Sambidhan Sabha. He is newly elected vice-president of Nepali Congress. Born in a Maithil ethnic family of Madhesi people to Late Mahendra Narayan Nidhi, new Vice-president of Nepali Congress Party, his spouse Late Prem Sagari Nidhi, Bimalendra Nidhi is the second son in the family, he has two sons, Abiral Nidhi and Anukul Nidhi. Bimalendra Nidhi, popularly known among his colleagues as Bimalji and as Nidhiji incidentally the same name that his father was fondly remembered as, a prominent figure in Nepalese Politics renowned as Gandhian Leader of Nepal, started his political career at a young age, witnessing the arrest of his father having sparked the interest in him, he is the newly elected Vice-president of Nepali Congress Party. He is the former Party General Secretary of Nepali Congress Party, a faction of Nepali Congress Party before Janandolan II movement citing differences in opinion assuming the same post after the two parties merged after the movement, until 2009.
He is the former President of the student wing of Nepali Congress Party. He has served twice as the Minister for General Administration, once as the Minister for Education and Sports and for a period of a month as Minister of Industries and Supplies, he served as the Minister for Physical Infrastructure and Transport. He was arrested time and again for his political views most notably in the People's Movement of 1990 and the recent Janandolan II, having spent seven years behind bars at different points of time. Nidhi is a firm believer of B. P Koirala's democratic socialism, federalism and the peaceful process of conflict resolution. Nidhi was an elected member to the Constituent Assembly from Constituency Number 3 of Dhanusa District, he earned his M. A in Political Science from Tribhuvan University