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Dhow

Dhow is the generic name of a number of traditional sailing vessels with one or more masts with settee or sometimes lateen sails, used in the Red Sea and Indian Ocean region. Historians are divided as to whether the dhow was invented by Indians. Sporting long thin hulls, dhows are trading vessels used to carry heavy items, such as fruit, fresh water, or other heavy merchandise, along the coasts of Eastern Arabia, East Africa and coastal South Asia. Larger dhows have crews of thirty, smaller ones around twelve; the exact origins of the dhow are lost to history. Most scholars believe that it originated in India between 600 BC to 600 AD; some claim that a type of dhow, may be derived from the Portuguese caravel. The Yemeni Hadhrami people, as well as Omanis, for centuries came to Beypore, in Kerala, India for their dhows; this was because of the good timber in the Kerala forests, the availability of good coir rope, the skilled carpenters who specialized in ship building. In former times, the sheathing planks of a dhow's hull were held together by coconut rope.

Beypore dhows are known as ` Uru' in the local language of Kerala. Settlers from Yemen, known as'Baramis', are still active in making urus in Kerala. In the 1920s, British writers identified Al Hudaydah as the centre for dhow building; those built in Al Hudaydah were smaller in size, used for travel along the coasts. They were constructed of acacia found in Yemen. Captain Alan Villiers documented the days of sailing trade in the Indian Ocean by sailing on dhows between 1938 and 1939 taking numerous photographs and publishing books on the subject of dhow navigation. To the present day, dhows make commercial journeys between the Persian Gulf and East Africa using sails as their only means of propulsion, their cargo is dates and fish to East Africa and mangrove timber to the lands in the Persian Gulf. They sail south with the monsoon in winter or early spring, back again to Arabia in late spring or early summer. For celestial navigation, dhow sailors have traditionally used the kamal, an observation device that determines latitude by finding the angle of the Pole Star above the horizon.

Baghlah – from the Arabic language word for "mule". A heavy ship, the traditional deep-sea dhow. Baqarah or baggarah – from the Arabic word for "cow". Old type of small dhow similar to the Battil. Barijah – small dhow. Battil – featured long stems topped by large, club-shaped stem heads. Badan – a smaller vessel requiring a shallow draft. Boum or dhangi – a large-sized dhow with a stern, tapering in shape and a more symmetrical overall structure; the Arab boum has a high prow, trimmed in the Indian version. Ghanjah or kotiya – a large vessel, similar to the Baghlah, with a curved stem and a sloping, ornately carved transom. Jahazi or jihazi. A fishing or trading dhow with a broad hull similar to the Jalibut, common in Lamu Island and the coast of Oman, it is used in Bahrain for the pearl industry. The word comes from jahāz, a Persian word for "ship". Jalibut or jelbut. A small to medium-sized dhow, it is the modern version of the shu'ai with a shorter prow stem piece. Most jalibuts are fitted with engines.

Pattamar, a type of Indian dhow. Sambuk or sambuq – the largest type of dhow seen in the Persian Gulf today, it has a characteristic keel design, with a sharp curve right below the top of the prow. It has been one of the most successful dhows in history; the word is cognate with the Greek σαμβύκη sambúkē from Middle Persian sambūk. Shu'ai. Medium-sized dhow; the most common dhow in the Persian Gulf used for fishing as well as for coastal trade. Zaruq – small dhow larger than a barijahThe term "dhow" is sometimes applied to certain smaller lateen-sail rigged boats traditionally used in the Red Sea, the eastern Mediterranean and the Persian Gulf area, as well as in the Indian Ocean from Madagascar to the Bay of Bengal; these include the feluccas used in Egypt and Iraq, the Dhoni used in the Maldives, as well as the tranki and ghalafah. All these vessels have common elements with the dhow. On the Swahili Coast, in countries such as Kenya, the Swahili word used for dhow is "jahazi". Felucca Uru Arab slave trade Xebec Fusta Al-Wakrah Stadium Agius, Dionisius A, Classic Ships of Islam: From Mesopotamia to the Indian Ocean, Brill, ISBN 90-0415863-4.

Bowen, Richard LeBaron, Essay on the tradition of painting eyes, known as oculi, on the bows of boats among mariners and fishermen from ancient times to the present. Found in the Indian Ocean region. Clifford W. Hawkins, The dhow: an illustrated history of the dhow and its world. Anthony Jack, Arab dhows. Kaplan, Twilight of the Arab dhow. Martin, Esmond Bradley, The decline of Kenya's dhow trade. ———. Henri Perrier, Djibouti's dhows. A. H. J. Prins, Sailing from Lamu: A Study of Maritime Culture in Islamic East Africa. Assen: van Gorcum & Comp. 1965. A. H. J. Prins; the Persian Gulf Dhows: Two Variants in Maritime Enterprise. Persica: Jaarboek van het Genootschap Nederland-Iran, No. II: pp. 1–18. A. H. J. Prins; the Persian Gulf Dhows: Notes on the Classification of Mid-Eastern Sea-Craft. Persica: Jaarboek van het Genootschap Nederland-Iran, No. VI: pp. 157–1166. A. H. J. Prins. A Handbook of Sewn Boats. Maritime Monographs and Reports No.59. Greenwich, London:: National Maritime Museum, 1986. Tessa Rihards, Dhow building: survival of an

On the fly

On the fly is a phrase used to describe something, being changed while the process that the change affects is ongoing. It is used in the automotive and culinary industries. In cars, on the fly can be used to describe the changing of the cars configuration while it is still driving. Processes that can occur while the car is still driving include switching between two wheel drive and four wheel drive on some cars and opening and closing the roof on some convertible cars. In computing, on the fly CD writers can read from one CD and write the data to another without saving it on a computer's memory. Switching programs or applications on the fly in multi-tasking operating systems means the ability to switch between native and/or emulated programs or applications that are still running and running in parallel while performing their tasks or processes, but without pausing, freezing, or delaying any, or other unwanted events. Switching computer parts on the fly means computer parts are replaced while the computer is still running.

It can be used in programming to describe changing a program while it is still running. In restaurants and other places involved in the preparation of food, the term is used to indicate that an order needs to be made right away. In colloquial use, "on the fly" means; the phrase is used to mean: something, not planned ahead changes that are made during the execution of same activity: ex tempore, impromptu. In the automotive industry, the term refers to the circumstance of performing certain operations while a vehicle is driven by the engine and moving. In reference to four-wheel drive vehicles, this term describes the ability to change from two to four-wheel drive while the car is in gear and moving. In some convertible models, the roof can be folded electrically on the fly, whereas in other cases the car must be stopped. In harvesting machines, newer monitoring systems let the driver track the quality of the grain, while enabling them to adjust the rotor speed on the fly as harvesting progresses.

In multitasking computing an operating system can handle several programs, both native applications or emulated software, that are running independent, together in the same time in the same device, using separated or shared resources and/or data, executing their tasks separately or together, while a user can switch on the fly between them or groups of them to use obtained effects or supervise purposes, without waste of time or waste of performance. In operating systems using GUI often it is done by switching from an active window of a particular software piece to another one but of another software. A computer can compute results on the fly, or retrieve a stored result, it can mean to make a copy of a removable media directly, without first saving the source on an intermediate medium. The copy process requires each block of data to be retrieved and written to the destination, so that there is room in the working memory to retrieve the next block of data; when used for encrypted data storage, on the fly the data stream is automatically encrypted as it is written and decrypted when read back again, transparently to software.

The acronym OTFE is used. On-the-fly programming is the technique of modifying a program without stopping it. A similar concept, hot swapping, refers to on-the-fly replacement of computer hardware. On-the-fly computing is about customizing software tailored to the needs of a user. According to a requirement specification, this software is composed of basic components, so-called basic services, a user-specific setting of these basic components is made. Accordingly, the requested services are compiled only at the request of the user and run in a specially designed data center to make the user the functions of the created service accessible. In restaurants, banquet halls, other places involved in the preparation of food, the term is used to indicate that an order needs to be made right away; this is because a previously-served dish is inedible, because a waiter has made a mistake or delayed, or because a guest has to leave promptly

Wahweap Formation

The Wahweap Formation of the Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument is a geological formation in southern Utah and northern Arizona, around the Lake Powell region, whose strata date back to the Late Cretaceous. Dinosaur remains are among the fossils; the Wahweap Formation shows a substantial amount of invertebrate activity ranging from fossilized insect burrows in petrified logs to various mollusks that characterize the shell beds. Large fossilized crabs are common at most shell bed sites in the Wahweap, over 1,900 gastropod specimens have been unearthed in the formation's siltstone. In addition to terrestrial vertebrates, freshwater fish fossils have been uncovered from the Wahweap which include bowfin vertebrae, ray teeth, probable lungfish burrows. Dinosaurs known from the Wahweap include, at least 2 species of hadrosaur, at least two ceratopsians and at least one theropod. A fair number of mammals spanning the lower Campanian are known from the Wahweap as well, including at least 15 genera of multituberculates, cladotherians and placental insectivores.

Trace fossils are relatively abundant in the Wahweap, include vertebrate tracks as well as burrow activity. Tracks preserved in the capping sandstone indicate the presence of crocodylomorphs, known in this area only from teeth elements, as well as ornithischian dinosaurs. At least one possible theropod track has been identified in this area as well. In 2010 a unique trace fossil from the Wahweap was discovered that indicates a predator–prey relationship between dinosaurs and primitive mammals; the trace fossil includes at least two fossilized mammalian den complexes as well as associated digging grooves caused by a maniraptoran dinosaur. The proximity indicates a case of probable active predation of the burrow inhabitants by the owners of the claw marks. List of dinosaur-bearing rock formations