Interstate 580 (California)
Interstate 580 is an 80-mile east–west Interstate Highway in Northern California. The traveled spur route of Interstate 80 runs from San Rafael in the San Francisco Bay Area to Interstate 5 near Tracy in the Central Valley, it provides a connection from the Bay Area to the southern San Joaquin Valley and Southern California via Interstate 5, as Interstate 5 bypasses the Bay Area to the east. A portion of I-580 is called the MacArthur Freeway, after General Douglas MacArthur. Other portions are named the John T. Knox Freeway, the Eastshore Freeway, the Arthur H. Breed Jr. Freeway, the William Elton "Brownie" Brown Freeway, the Sgt. Daniel Sakai Memorial Highway, the John P. Miller Memorial Highway; the western terminus of I-580 is 10 miles north of San Francisco in the city of San Rafael, at the junction with U. S. Route 101; the interchange with US 101 is incomplete, only allowing continuous travel from southbound US 101 to eastbound I-580 and from westbound I-580 to northbound US 101. Heading eastward through the light industrial portion of eastern San Rafael, I-580 provides access to San Quentin State Prison at the eastern tip of land before joining the Richmond–San Rafael Bridge to cross San Francisco Bay.
I-580 enters the city of Richmond in Contra Costa County mid-span continues through Richmond to join Interstate 80 in Albany at the "Hoffman Split." After joining I-80, I-580 runs directly south for several miles along the eastern shore of San Francisco Bay in the segment known as the Eastshore Freeway enters the MacArthur Maze. The segment between the Hoffman Split and the MacArthur Maze is a wrong-way concurrency, meaning I-580 east is signed as I-80 west, vice versa. From the MacArthur Maze, I-580 is known as the MacArthur Freeway, which runs through Oakland and San Leandro to Castro Valley. About halfway to Castro Valley from the Maze, is an interchange with the Warren Freeway. Between this interchange and Castro Valley, I-580 runs near or along the trace of the Hayward Fault, a major branch of the San Andreas Fault. In Castro Valley, I-580 turns eastward toward Dublin Canyon before descending into Dublin and Pleasanton. After passing through Livermore, the freeway enters the Altamont Pass.
The road emerges in the Central Valley west of Tracy, after I-205 splits near the Altamont Speedway, it turns southeastward and terminates by merging with I-5 south of Tracy just shy of the Stanislaus County line. I-580 provides Interstate Highway access between San Francisco and Los Angeles since I-5 runs east of the Bay Area. However, the primary control city listed on freeway signs along eastbound I-580 between I-80 and I-205 is instead Stockton, a vestige of when this segment used to be part of US 50. I-580 is part of the California Freeway and Expressway System, is part of the National Highway System, a network of highways that are considered essential to the country's economy and mobility by the Federal Highway Administration; the route is eligible for the State Scenic Highway System, is designated as a scenic highway by the California Department of Transportation from the San Leandro city limits to SR 24 and from I-5 to I-205, meaning that these are substantial sections of highway passing through a "memorable landscape" with no "visual intrusions", where the potential designation has gained popular favor with the community.
Trucks over 4.5 tons are prohibited through Oakland between the San Leandro border. Eastbound trucks cannot travel beyond Grand Avenue/Lakeshore Avenue, those going westbound must get off at MacArthur Boulevard/Foothill Boulevard, they are instead instructed to take I-238 in Castro Valley and I-880 through Oakland as an alternative route. The truck prohibition has been in effect since the freeway was built in 1963 as part of US 50. Both the Federal Highway Administration and the California Department of Transportation imposed the restriction because the City of Oakland had a truck ban through the area prior to the freeway's construction. Since the restriction was grandfathered in when the freeway was both renumbered and added to the Interstate Highway System; as a result, it is the only segment of Interstate Highway in California, not part of the National Truck Network. With trucks rerouted onto I-880 instead of I-580 through Oakland, the former gets more traffic than the latter. For decades, the trucking industry lobbied to have the ban removed, but was unsuccessful due to local opposition.
In 2000, the California State Legislature passed Assembly Bill 500, adding the I-580 truck restriction into the California Vehicle Code. The ban is temporarily lifted by the California Highway Patrol for short periods to reduce traffic congestion when major accidents occur on I-880 or I-238. High-occupancy toll lanes along I-580 between Pleasanton and Livermore opened in February 2016; the eastbound express lanes stretch 12 miles between North Greenville Road. The wes
Fresno County, California
Fresno County the County of Fresno, is a county located in the central portion of the U. S. state of California. As of January 1, 2018, the population was 1,007,229; the county seat is the fifth-largest city in California. Fresno County comprises the Fresno, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area, part of the Fresno-Madera, CA Combined Statistical Area, it is located in north of Bakersfield. The area now known as Fresno County was the traditional homeland of Yokuts and Mono peoples, was settled by Spaniards during a search for suitable mission sites. In 1846, this area became part of the United States as a result of the Mexican War. Fresno County was formed in 1856 from parts of Mariposa and Tulare counties. Fresno is Spanish for "ash tree" and it was in recognition of the abundance of the shrubby local Ash, Fraxinus dipetala, growing along the San Joaquin River that it received its name. Parts of Fresno County's territory were given to Mono County in 1861 and to Madera County in 1893; the original county seat was along the San Joaquin River in Millerton, but was moved to the growing town of Fresno on the newly built Southern Pacific Railroad line after a flood destroyed much of the town.
The settling of Fresno County was not without its conflicts, land disputes, other natural disasters. Floods caused immeasurable damage elsewhere and fires plagued the settlers of Fresno County. In 1882, the greatest of the early day fires wiped out an entire block of the city of Fresno, was followed by another devastating blaze in 1883. At the same time residents brought irrigation and extensive agriculture to the area. Moses Church developed the first canals, called "Church Ditches," for irrigation; these canals allowed extensive cultivation of wheat. Francis Eisen, leader of the wine industry in Fresno County began the raisin industry in 1875, when he accidentally let some of his grapes dry on the vine. A. Y. Easterby and Clovis Cole developed extensive grain and cattle ranches; these and other citizens laid the groundwork for the cultivation of Fresno County – now one of the nation's leading agricultural regions. In more recent times cotton became a major crop in Fresno and the southern San Joaquin Valley, but recent drought and lower demand have lessened cotton's importance to the local economy.
The discovery of oil in the western part of the county, near the town of Coalinga at the foot of the Coast Ranges, brought about an economic boom in the 1900s though the field itself was known at least as early as the 1860s. By 1910, Coalinga Oil Field, the largest field in Fresno County, was the most richly productive oil field in California; the Coalinga field continues to produce oil, is the eighth-largest field in the state. More than thirty structures in Fresno County are on the National Register of Historic Places, including the Fresno Water Tower, which once held over 250,000 US gallons of water for the city of Fresno, the Meux Home, Kearney Mansion Museum. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 6,011 square miles, of which 5,958 square miles is land and 53 square miles is water. Major watercourses are the San Joaquin River, Kings River, Delta-Mendota Canal, Big Creek, Friant Kern Canal, Helm Canal and Madera Canal, it is bordered on the west on the east by the Sierra Nevada.
It is the center of a large agricultural area, known as the most agriculturally rich county in the United States. The county withdrew 3.7 billion US gallons of fresh water per day in 2000, more than any other county in the United States. Fresno County is part of the Madera AVA wine region. Fresno was named after two particular ash trees that grew near the town of Minkler on the Kings River, one of, still alive and standing. Giant Sequoia National Monument Kings Canyon National Park Sequoia National Forest Sierra National Forest A number of minerals have been discovered in the county, including macdonaldite, walstromite, verplanckite, muirite and kampfite; the 2010 United States Census reported that Fresno County had a population of 930,450. The racial makeup of Fresno County was 515,145 White, 49,523 African American, 15,649 Native American, 89,357 Asian, 1,405 Pacific Islander, 217,085 from other races, 42,286 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 468,070 persons. 46.0% of Fresno County's population is of Mexican descent.
As of the census of 2000, there were 799,407 people, 252,940 households, 186,669 families residing in the county. The population density was 134 people per square mile. There were 270,767 housing units at an average density of 45 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 54.3% White, 5.3% Black or African American, 1.6% Native American, 8.1% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 25.9% from other races, 4.7% from two or more races. 44.0% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 7.5% were of German ancestry according to Census 2000. 59.3% spoke English, 31.5% Spanish and 3.1% Hmong as their first language. There were 252,940 households ou
Concord is the largest city in Contra Costa County, California. At the 2010 census, the city had a population of 122,067 making it the 8th largest city in the San Francisco Bay Area. Founded in 1869 as the community of Todos Santos by Salvio Pacheco, the name was changed to Concord within months; the city is a major regional suburban East Bay center within the San Francisco Bay Area, is 29 miles east of San Francisco. Concord is located at 37°58′41″N 122°01′52″W, it is 29 miles northeast of San Francisco, 22 miles northeast from Oakland, 65 miles southwest of Sacramento, 51 miles north of San Jose. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 30.5 square miles, all of it land. The focal point of downtown Concord is Todo Santos Plaza, which encompasses an entire city block and is known for its farmers market, free summer concerts, large number of surrounding restaurants. Much of the area around downtown has been redeveloped, with new high-density apartment and condominium projects to take advantage of the proximity to public transportation and to the area surrounding the park.
Despite this, some crime and homelessness remain issues in the downtown area. To the north and east of downtown is the older residential area of Concord, with many homes dating back to before World War II. In the far northern edge of town is a industrial area, dominated by the Tesoro Golden Eagle Refinery; the southeastern area of the city, centered along Clayton Road, is residential and was developed in the 1960s and 1970s. In the southwest area of the city is the Latino neighborhood known as Four Corners, centered around the intersection of Monument Boulevard and Oak Grove Road. Concord is bordered on the west by Pleasant Hill and the unincorporated community of Pacheco, on the south by Walnut Creek, on the southeast by Clayton, on the northeast by Pittsburg and the unincorporated community of Bay Point, on the north by the unincorporated community of Clyde. Although it shares no border with Concord, Martinez is located immediately adjacent to Concord on the northwest; the North Concord BART station is known as Martinez BART.
Concord has a hot summer Mediterranean climate. Official data from the National Weather Service cooperative station in Concord shows average January temperatures are a maximum of 57.2 degrees Fahrenheit and a minimum of 41.6 °F. Average July temperatures are a maximum of 87.8 °F and a minimum of 58.2 °F. There are an average of 45.0 days with highs of 90 °F or higher and 3.8 days with lows of 32 °F or lower. The highest recorded temperature was 110 °F on September 1, 2017; the lowest record temperature was 24 °F on December 23, 1998. Average annual precipitation is 18.31 in, falling on an average of 57 days annually. The wettest year was 1995 with 26.62 inches and driest year was 2007 with 10.57 inches. The most rainfall in one month was 11.79 inches in December 2005, which included the 24-hour maximum rainfall of 3.95 inches on December 31. The valleys north of Mount Diablo were inhabited by the Miwok people, who hunted elk and fished in the numerous streams flowing from the mountain into the San Francisco Bay.
In 1772, Spanish explorers did not settle there. In 1834, the Mexican land grant Rancho Monte del Diablo at the base of Mount Diablo was granted to Salvio Pacheco. Concord was founded under the name of Todos Santos, on the initiative of Pacheco in 1869, it achieved prominence in the 19th century when most residents of Pacheco relocating to Concord to avoid the devastation of fire and flood which crippled Pacheco's booming economy. Concord was incorporated on February 5, 1905; the area around Concord in the surrounding Ygnacio and Clayton Valleys was a large agricultural area. Crops that were grown included grapes, almonds, wheat and tomatoes; the area to the east was the site of a few enormous wheat ranches over 5,000 acres, was a sea of wheat all the way to the marshes bordering Suisun Bay. During Prohibition, many vineyards were replaced with walnut orchards; the town of Cowell, now incorporated into Concord, produced cement. The first Concord post office opened in 1872; the munitions on board a Navy cargo ship exploded while being loaded during World War II, resulting in the largest number of casualties among African Americans in any one incident during that war.
On the evening of July 17, 1944 a massive explosion killed 320 sailors, merchant seamen and civilians working at the pier. The blast was felt 30 miles away. A subsequent refusal by 258 black sailors to load any more ammunition was the beginning of the Navy's largest-ever mutiny trial in which 50 men were found guilty. Future Supreme Court Justice Thurgood Marshall sat in on most of the proceedings and declared that he saw a prejudiced court; the 2010 United States Census reported that Concord had a population of 122,067. The population density was 3,996.2 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Concord was 78,767 White, 4,371 African American, 852 Native American, 13,538 Asian, 816 Pacific Islander, 15,969 from other races, 7,754 from two or more rac
Mount Diablo is a mountain of the Diablo Range, in Contra Costa County of the eastern San Francisco Bay Area in Northern California. It is northeast of Danville, it is an isolated upthrust peak of 3,849 feet, visible from most of the San Francisco Bay Area. Mount Diablo appears from many angles to be a double pyramid and has many subsidiary peaks, the largest and closest of, the other half of the double pyramid, North Peak, nearly as high in elevation at 3,557 feet and about a mile northeast of the main summit; the summit is accessible by bicycle, or motor vehicle. Road access is via South Gate Road; the peak is in a state park of about 20,000 acres. The park was the first public open space of a complex—according to Save Mount Diablo—now including 38 preserves, including nearby city open spaces, regional parks, that are buffered in some areas with private lands protected with conservation easements. Preserved lands on and around Mount Diablo total more than 90,000 acres; the day use fee per vehicle for the park is by entrance way: $6 via Macedo Ranch or Mitchell Canyon, $10 via South Gate Rd. & North Gate Rd. leading up Mount Diablo.
On a clear day the Sierra Nevada is plainly visible. The best views are after a winter storm. Lassen Peak, 181 miles away, is just visible over the curve of the earth. Sentinel Dome in Yosemite National Park is visible, but Half Dome is hidden by the 8000-foot ridge at 37.755N 119.6657W. Eight bridges are visible, from west to east: San Mateo, Golden Gate, San Rafael, Benicia and Rio Vista. Claims that the mountain's viewshed is the largest in the world—or second largest after Mount Kilimanjaro—are ill founded, it does boast one of the largest viewsheds in the Western United States and played a key role in California history. Countless peaks in the state are taller, but Mount Diablo has a remarkable visual prominence for a mountain of such low elevation, its looming presence over much of the bay area and Central Valley, good visibility from the Mother Lode, all key regions during the gold rush and early statehood, made it an important landmark for mapping and navigation. The summit is used as the reference datum for land surveying in much of northern California and Nevada.
Mount Diablo is sacred to many California Native American peoples. Prior to European entry, the creation narrative varied among surrounding local groups. In one surviving narrative fragment, Mount Diablo and Reed's Peak were surrounded by water. In another, Molok the Condor brought forth his grandson Wek-Wek the Falcon Hero, from within the mountain. About 25 independent tribal groups with well-defined territories lived in the East Bay countryside surrounding the mountain, their members spoke dialects of three distinct languages: Ohlone, Bay Miwok, Northern Valley Yokuts. The Chochenyo-speaking Ohlone from Mission San Jose and the East Bay area, called the mountain Tuyshtak, meaning "at the dawn of time". Most of Mount Diablo, including its peak, was within the homeland of the early Volvon, a Bay Miwok-speaking tribe, as early as 1811, the mountain was called "Cerro Alto de los Bolbones" or sometimes "Sierra de los Bolgones"; the Nisenan of the Sacramento Valley called it Sukkú Jaman, or as Nisenan elder Dalbert Castro once explained, "the place where dogs came from in trade".
A Southern Miwok name for the mountain was Supemenenu. It has been suggested that another early Native American name for the mountain was Kawukum or Kahwookum, but there is no evidence to confirm the assertion. According to Indian historian Bev Ortiz and "Save Mount Diablo": "The name Kahwookum was made up in 1866 — with no real Native American connection — referred to the California Legislature's Committee on Public Morals, tabled, it resurfaced as a real estate gimmick in 1916 with a supposed new translation, "Laughing Mountain", attributed without documentation to Diablo area Volvon Indians. The conventional view is that the peak derives its name from the 1805 escape of several Chupcan Native Americans from the Spanish in a nearby willow thicket; the natives seemed to disappear, the Spanish soldiers thus gave the area the name "Monte del Diablo", meaning "thicket of the devil." Monte was misinterpreted by English speakers as mount or mountain. General Mariano G. Vallejo, in an 1850 report to the California State legislature, gave this much romanticized story of the derivation of the name of Mount Diablo from its Spanish to Anglo form, related to the mountain and an evil spirit.
Vallejo's report could be interpreted to align with Gudde's account. This name was applied to Salvio Pacheco's Rancho Monte del Diablo, the present-day site of the city of Concord; the name's origin was misinterpreted by English-speaking newcomers to refer to the mountain rather than the settlement. The name Monte del Diablo appears on the "Plano topográfico de la Misión de San José" about 1824, where there was an Indian settlement at the approximate site of the present town of Concord. On August 24, 1828, the name was applied to the Monte del Diablo land grant for which Salvio Pacheco had petitioned in 1827. In May, 1862 California Geological Survey field director William H. Brewer named the northeast peak of Mount Diablo "Mount King," aft
Pacific Coast Ranges
The Pacific Coast Ranges, are the series of mountain ranges that stretch along the West Coast of North America from Alaska south to Northern and Central Mexico. The Pacific Coast Ranges are part of the North American Cordillera, which includes the Rocky Mountains, Columbia Mountains, Interior Mountains, the Interior Plateau, Sierra Nevada Mountains, the Great Basin mountain ranges, other ranges and various plateaus and basins; the Pacific Coast Ranges designation, only applies to the Western System of the Western Cordillera, which comprises the Saint Elias Mountains, Coast Mountains, Insular Mountains, Olympic Mountains, Cascade Range, Oregon Coast Range, California Coast Ranges, Transverse Ranges, Peninsular Ranges, the Sierra Madre Occidental. The term Coast Range is not used by the United States Geological Survey to refer only to the ranges east from the Strait of Juan de Fuca in Washington to the California-Mexico border. I.e. the Pacific Border province. The same term is used informally in Canada to refer to the Coast Mountains and adjoining inland ranges such as the Hazelton Mountains, sometimes the Saint Elias Mountains.
The character of the ranges varies from the record-setting tidewater glaciers in the ranges of Alaska, to the rugged Central and Southern California ranges, the Transverse Ranges and Peninsular Ranges, in the chaparral and woodlands ecoregion with Oak Woodland, Chaparral shrub forest or Coastal sage scrub-covering them. The coastline is dropping steeply into the sea with photogenic views. Along the British Columbia and Alaska coast, the mountains intermix with the sea in a complex maze of fjords, with thousands of islands. Off the Southern California coast the Channel Islands archipelago of the Santa Monica Mountains extends for 160 miles. There are coastal plains at the mouths of rivers that have punched through the mountains spreading sediments, most notably at the Copper River in Alaska, the Fraser River in British Columbia, the Columbia River between Washington and Oregon. In California: the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers' San Francisco Bay, the Santa Clara River's Oxnard Plain, the Los Angeles, San Gabriel, Santa Ana Rivers' Los Angeles Basin - a coastal sediment-filled plain between the peninsular and transverse ranges with sediment in the basin up to 6 miles deep, the San Diego River's Mission Bay.
From the vicinity of San Francisco Bay north, it is common in winter for cool unstable air masses from the Gulf of Alaska to make landfall in one of the Coast Ranges, resulting in heavy precipitation, both as rain and snow on their western slopes. The same Winter weather occurs with less frequency and precipitation in Southern California, with the mountains' western faces and peaks causing an eastward rainshadow that produces the arid desert regions. Omitted from the list below, but included is the Sierra Nevada, a major mountain range of eastern California, separated by the Central Valley over much of its length from the California Coast Ranges and the Transverse Ranges. On the West coast of North America, the coast ranges and the coastal plain form the margin. Most of the land is made of terranes. In the north, the insular belt is an accreted terrane; this belt extends from the Wrangellia Terrane in Alaska to the Chilliwack group of Canada. A rupture in Rodinia 750 million years ago formed a passive margin in the eastern Pacific Northwest.
The breakup of Pangea 200 million years ago began the westward movement of the North American plate, creating an active margin on the western continent. As the continent drifted West, terranes were accreted onto the west coast; the timing of the accretion of the insular belt is uncertain, although the closure did not occur until at least 115 million years ago. Other Mesozoic terranes that accreted onto the continent include the Klamath Mountains, the Sierra Nevada, the Guerrero super-terrane of western Mexico. 80 to 90 million years ago the subducting Farallon plate split and formed the Kula Plate to the North. This formed an area in what is now Northern California, where the plates converged forming a Mélange. North of this was the Columbia Embayment, where the continental margin was east of the surrounding areas. Many of the major batholiths date from the late Cretaceous; as the Laramide Orogeny ended around 48 million years ago, the accretion of the Siletzia terrane began in the Pacific Northwest.
This began the volcanic activity in the Cascadia subduction zone, forming the modern Cascade Range, lasted into the Miocene. Events here may relate to the ignimbrite flare-up of Range; as extension in the Basin and Range Province slowed by a change in North American Plate movement circa 7 to 8 Million years ago, rifting began on the Gulf of California. Although many of the ranges do share a common geologic history, the Pacific Coast Ranges province is not defined by geology, but rather by geography. Many of the various ranges are composed of distinct forms of rock from many different periods of geological time from the Precambrian in parts of the Little San Bernardino Mountains to 10,000-year-old rock in the Cascade Range. For one example, the Peninsular Ranges, composed of Mesozoic batholitic rock, are geologically extr
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
Trade, intermarriage a
United States Geological Survey
The United States Geological Survey is a scientific agency of the United States government. The scientists of the USGS study the landscape of the United States, its natural resources, the natural hazards that threaten it; the organization has four major science disciplines, concerning biology, geography and hydrology. The USGS is a fact-finding research organization with no regulatory responsibility; the USGS is a bureau of the United States Department of the Interior. The USGS employs 8,670 people and is headquartered in Reston, Virginia; the USGS has major offices near Lakewood, Colorado, at the Denver Federal Center, Menlo Park, California. The current motto of the USGS, in use since August 1997, is "science for a changing world." The agency's previous slogan, adopted on the occasion of its hundredth anniversary, was "Earth Science in the Public Service." Since 2012, the USGS science focus is directed at six topical "Mission Areas", namely Climate and Land Use Change, Core Science Systems, Ecosystems and Minerals and Environmental Health, Natural Hazards, Water.
In December 2012, the USGS split the Energy and Minerals and Environmental Health Mission Area resulting in seven topical Mission Areas, with the two new areas being: Energy and Minerals and Environmental Health. Administratively, it is divided into six Regional Units. Other specific programs include: Earthquake Hazards Program monitors earthquake activity worldwide; the National Earthquake Information Center in Golden, Colorado on the campus of the Colorado School of Mines detects the location and magnitude of global earthquakes. The USGS runs or supports several regional monitoring networks in the United States under the umbrella of the Advanced National Seismic System; the USGS informs authorities, emergency responders, the media, the public, both domestic and worldwide, about significant earthquakes. It maintains long-term archives of earthquake data for scientific and engineering research, it conducts and supports research on long-term seismic hazards. USGS has released the UCERF California earthquake forecast.
As of 2005, the agency is working to create a National Volcano Early Warning System by improving the instrumentation monitoring the 169 volcanoes in U. S. territory and by establishing methods for measuring the relative threats posed at each site. The USGS National Geomagnetism Program monitors the magnetic field at magnetic observatories and distributes magnetometer data in real time; the USGS collaborates with Canadian and Mexican government scientists, along with the Commission for Environmental Cooperation, to produce the North American Environmental Atlas, used to depict and track environmental issues for a continental perspective. The USGS operates the streamgaging network for the United States, with over 7400 streamgages. Real-time streamflow data are available online. National Climate Change and Wildlife Science Center implements partner-driven science to improve understanding of past and present land use change, develops relevant climate and land use forecasts, identifies lands and communities that are most vulnerable to adverse impacts of change from the local to global scale.
Since 1962, the Astrogeology Research Program has been involved in global and planetary exploration and mapping. In collaboration with Stanford University, the USGS operates the USGS-Stanford Ion Microprobe Laboratory, a world-class analytical facility for U--Pb geochronology and trace element analyses of minerals and other earth materials. USGS operates a number of water related programs, notably the National Streamflow Information Program and National Water-Quality Assessment Program. USGS Water data is publicly available from their National Water Information System database; the USGS operates the National Wildlife Health Center, whose mission is "to serve the nation and its natural resources by providing sound science and technical support, to disseminate information to promote science-based decisions affecting wildlife and ecosystem health. The NWHC provides information, technical assistance, research and leadership on national and international wildlife health issues." It is the agency responsible for surveillance of H5N1 avian influenza outbreaks in the United States.
The USGS runs 17 biological research centers in the United States, including the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. The USGS is investigating collaboration with the social networking site Twitter to allow for more rapid construction of ShakeMaps; the USGS produces several national series of topographic maps which vary in scale and extent, with some wide gaps in coverage, notably the complete absence of 1:50,000 scale topographic maps or their equivalent. The largest and best-known topographic series is the 7.5-minute, 1:24,000 scale, quadrangle, a non-metric scale unique to the United States. Each of these maps covers an area bounded by two lines of latitude and two lines of longitude spaced 7.5 minutes apart. Nearly 57,000 individual maps in this series cover the 48 contiguous states, Hawaii, U. S. territories, areas of Alaska near Anchorage and Prudhoe Bay. The area covered by each map varies with the latitude of its represented location due to convergence of the meridians. At lower latitudes, near 30° north, a 7.5-minute quadrangle contains an area of about 64 square miles.
At 49° north latitude, 49 square miles are contained within a quadrangle of that size. As a unique non-metric map scale, the 1:24,000 scale requires a separate and specialized romer scale for pl