Dial-up Internet access

Dial-up Internet access is a form of Internet access that uses the facilities of the public switched telephone network to establish a connection to an Internet service provider by dialing a telephone number on a conventional telephone line. Dial-up connections use modems to decode audio signals into data to send to a router or computer, to encode signals from the latter two devices to send to another modem. In 1979, Tom Truscott and Steve Bellovin, graduates of Duke University, created an early predecessor to dial-up Internet access called the USENET; the USENET was a UNIX based system that used a dial-up connection to transfer data through telephone modems. Dial-up Internet has been around since the 1980s via public providers such as NSFNET-linked universities; the BBC established Internet access via Brunel University in the United Kingdom in 1989. Dial-up was first offered commercially in 1992 by Pipex in the United Kingdom and Sprint in the United States. After the introduction of commercial broadband in the late 1990s, dial-up Internet access became less popular in the mid-2000s.

It is still used where other forms are not available or where the cost is too high, as in some rural or remote areas. Dial-up connections to the Internet require no additional infrastructure other than the telephone network and the modems and servers needed to make and answer the calls; because telephone access is available, dial-up is the only choice available for rural or remote areas, where broadband installations are not prevalent due to low population density and high infrastructure cost. Dial-up access may be an alternative for users on limited budgets, as it is offered free by some ISPs, though broadband is available at lower prices in many countries due to market competition. Dial-up requires time to establish a telephone connection and perform configuration for protocol synchronization before data transfers can take place. In locales with telephone connection charges, each connection incurs an incremental cost. If calls are time-metered, the duration of the connection incurs costs. Dial-up access is a transient connection, because either the user, ISP or phone company terminates the connection.

Internet service providers will set a limit on connection durations to allow sharing of resources, will disconnect the user—requiring reconnection and the costs and delays associated with it. Technically inclined users find a way to disable the auto-disconnect program such that they can remain connected for more days than one. A 2008 Pew Research Center study stated that only 10% of US adults still used dial-up Internet access; the study found. Users cited lack of infrastructure as a reason less than stating that they would never upgrade to broadband; that number had fallen to 6% by 2010, to 3% by 2013. The CRTC estimated that there were 336,000 Canadian dial-up users in 2010. Broadband Internet access via cable, digital subscriber line, satellite and FTTx has replaced dial-up access in many parts of the world. Broadband connections offer speeds of 700 kbit/s or higher for two-thirds more than the price of dial-up on average. In addition broadband connections are always on, thus avoiding the need to connect and disconnect at the start and end of each session.

Broadband does not require exclusive use of a phone line, thus one can access the Internet and at the same time make and receive voice phone calls without having a second phone line. However, many rural areas remain without high speed Internet despite the eagerness of potential customers; this can be attributed to population, location, or sometimes ISPs' lack of interest due to little chance of profitability and high costs to build the required infrastructure. Some dial-up ISPs have responded to the increased competition by lowering their rates and making dial-up an attractive option for those who want email access or basic web browsing. Dial-up Internet access has undergone a precipitous fall in usage, approaches extinction as modern users turn towards broadband. In contrast to the year 2000 when about 34% of the U. S. population used dial-up, this dropped to 3% in 2013. One contributing factor to the extinction of dial-up is the bandwidth requirements of newer computer programs, like antivirus software, which automatically download sizable updates in the background when a connection to the Internet is first made.

These background downloads can take several minutes or longer and, until all updates are completed, they can impact the amount of bandwidth available to other applications like web browsers. Since an "always on" broadband is the norm expected by most newer applications being developed, this automatic upload trend in the background is expected to continue to eat away at dial-up's available bandwidth to the detriment of dial-up users' applications. Many newer websites now assume broadband speeds as the norm and when confronted with slower dial-up speeds may drop these slower connections to free up communication resources. On websites that are designed to be more dial-up friendly, use of a reverse proxy prevents dial-ups from being dropped as but can introduce long wait periods for dial-up users caused by the buffering used by a reverse proxy to bridge the different data rates. Modern dial-up modems have a maximum theoretical transfer speed of 56 kbit/s, although in most cases, 40–50 kbit/s is the norm.

Factors such as phone line noise as well as the quality of the modem itself play a large part in determining connection speeds. Some connections may be as low as 20 kbit/s in noisy environments, such as in a hotel room where the

Islander 24 Bahama

The Islander 24 Bahama is an American sailboat, designed by Joseph McGlasson and first built in 1964. The Islander 24 Bahama is a development of the 1961 Islander 24 which itself is a fiberglass development of the wooden-hulled Catalina Islander. McGlasson approached Glas Laminates to build a version of his wooden Catalina Islander in fiberglass; the mold was created by using the hull of one of the wooden boats and the resulting fiberglass boats retained the distinctive wooden board imprints from the mold. The 1961 Islander 24 features a trunk cabin, but the raised deck Islander 24 Bahama version proved a bigger commercial success and, as a result the Islander 24 had a short production run; the design was built by McGlasson Marine/Islander Yachts in the United States from 1964 to 1970, with 500 boats completed, but it is now out of production. The Islander 24 Bahama is a recreational keelboat, built predominantly of fiberglass, with wood trim, it has a masthead sloop rig, a spooned raked stem, a raised transom, a keel-mounted rudder controlled by a tiller and a fixed fin keel.

It carries 1,700 lb of lead ballast. It has a raised deck, rather than a trunk cabin; the boat has a draft of 3.42 ft with the standard keel fitted. List of sailing boat typesRelated development Islander 24Similar sailboats Achilles 24 C&C 24 Challenger 24 Columbia 24 Dana 24 MacGregor 24 Mirage 24 Nutmeg 24 San Juan 24 Seidelmann 245 Shark 24 Tonic 23

John Stewart of Bonkyll

Sir John Stewart of Bonkyll was a son of Alexander Stewart, 4th High Steward of Scotland. He was a military commander during the First Scottish War of Independence, he was killed during the Battle of Falkirk. Stewart is interred in the churchyard of the Falkirk Old Parish Church, he was an uncle to the James Douglas, Lord of Douglas known as the Black Douglas. John married Margaret de Bonkyl, the heiress daughter of Sir Alexander de Bonkyll of that Ilk, so placed "on a bend Sable three buckles Or" for difference upon the coat of arms of his paternal line, "Or a fess chequey Argent and Azure", they had issue: Sir Alexander Stewart of Bonkyll died in 1319. He had issue: John Stewart, 1st Earl of Angus Sir Alan Stewart of Dreghorn died on 19 July 1333 during the battle of Halidon Hill. Ancestor of the Earls of Lennox, James VI and I and through him the present royal family of the United Kingdom. Sir Walter Stewart of Garlies and Dalswinton, his great-granddaughter, Marion Stewart, married a Stewart of Jedworth.

They were the ancestors of the Stewarts of Garlies — Earls of Galloway and Lords Blantyre Sir James Stewart of Pearston died on 19 July 1333 during the battle of Halidon Hill. Ancestor of the Stewart Lords of Lorne, Earls of Atholl, Earls of Buchan, Earls of Traquair and Clan Stewart of Appin. Sir John Stewart of Daldon died on 19 July 1333 during the battle of Halidon Hill. Isabella Stewart, married Thomas Randolph, 1st Earl of Moray, son of Sir Thomas Randolph, she died sometime after 15 July 1351. Sir Robert Stewart of Daldowie, ancestor of Sir James Steuart, 2nd Baronet of Coltness. Sir Hugh Stewart. Lady Margaret appears to have remarried, as she is named as wife to Sir David, Lord of Brechin in 1304, he is the direct paternal ancestor of Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley, the second husband of his brother's descendant, Queen of Scots, of their son, James VI of Scotland, who became James I of England in 1603. Bonkyl Kirk Calendar of documents relating to Scotland preserved in Her Majesty's Public Record Office.

V vols. ed Bain. London 1881. Http://