SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Dialectic

Dialectic or dialectics known as the dialectical method, is at base a discourse between two or more people holding different points of view about a subject but wishing to establish the truth through reasoned arguments. Dialectic resembles debate, but the concept excludes subjective elements such as emotional appeal and the modern pejorative sense of rhetoric. Dialectic may thus be contrasted with both the eristic, which refers to argument that aims to dispute another's argument, or the didactic method, wherein one side of the conversation teaches the other. Dialectic is alternatively known as minor logic, as opposed to major critique. Within Hegelianism, the word dialectic has the specialised meaning of a contradiction between ideas that serves as the determining factor in their relationship. Dialectic comprises three stages of development: first, a thesis or statement of an idea, which gives rise to a second step, a reaction or antithesis that contradicts or negates the thesis, third, the synthesis, a statement through which the differences between the two points are resolved.

Dialectical materialism, a theory or set of theories produced by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, adapted the Hegelian dialectic into arguments regarding traditional materialism. Dialectic tends to imply a process of evolution and so does not fit within formal logic; this process is marked in Hegelian dialectic and more so in Marxist dialectic which may rely on the evolution of ideas over longer time periods in the real world. In classical philosophy, dialectic is a form of reasoning based upon dialogue of arguments and counter-arguments, advocating propositions and counter-propositions; the outcome of such a dialectic might be the refutation of a relevant proposition, or of a synthesis, or a combination of the opposing assertions, or a qualitative improvement of the dialogue. Moreover, the term "dialectic" owes much of its prestige to its role in the philosophies of Socrates and Plato, in the Greek Classical period. Aristotle said that it was the pre-Socratic philosopher Zeno of Elea who invented dialectic, of which the dialogues of Plato are the examples of the Socratic dialectical method.

According to Kant, the ancient Greeks used the word "dialectic" to signify the logic of false appearance or semblance. To the Ancients, "it was nothing but the logic of illusion, it was a sophistic art of giving to one's ignorance, indeed to one's intentional tricks, the outward appearance of truth, by imitating the thorough, accurate method which logic always requires, by using its topic as a cloak for every empty assertion." The Socratic dialogues are a particular form of dialectic known as the method of elenchus whereby a series of questions clarifies a more precise statement of a vague belief, logical consequences of that statement are explored, a contradiction is discovered. The method is destructive, in that false belief is exposed and only constructive in that this exposure may lead to further search for truth; the detection of error does not amount to a proof of the antithesis. The principal aim of Socratic activity may be to improve the soul of the interlocutors, by freeing them from unrecognized errors.

In common cases, Socrates used enthymemes as the foundation of his argument. For example, in the Euthyphro, Socrates asks Euthyphro to provide a definition of piety. Euthyphro replies that the pious is that, loved by the gods. But, Socrates has Euthyphro agreeing that the gods are quarrelsome and their quarrels, like human quarrels, concern objects of love or hatred. Therefore, Socrates reasons, at least one thing exists. Again, Euthyphro agrees. Socrates concludes that if Euthyphro's definition of piety is acceptable there must exist at least one thing, both pious and impious —which Euthyphro admits is absurd. Thus, Euthyphro is brought to a realization by this dialectical method that his definition of piety is not sufficiently meaningful. For example, in Plato's Gorgias, dialectic occurs between Socrates, the Sophist Gorgias, two men and Callicles; because Socrates' ultimate goal was to reach true knowledge, he was willing to change his own views in order to arrive at the truth. The fundamental goal of dialectic, in this instance, was to establish a precise definition of the subject and with the use of argumentation and questioning, make the subject more precise.

In the Gorgias, Socrates reaches the truth by asking a series of questions and in return, receiving short, clear answers. There is another interpretation of the dialectic, as a method of intuition suggested in The Republic. Simon Blackburn writes that the dialectic in this sense is used to understand "the total process of enlightenment, whereby the philosopher is educated so as to achieve knowledge of the supreme good, the Form of the Good". Aristotle stresses that rhetoric is related to dialectic, he offers several formulas to describe this affinity between the two disciplines: first of all, rhetoric is said to be a “counterpart” to dialectic.

Cerro de los Santos

Cerro de los Santos is an Iberian religious sanctuary built in the 4th century BCE, during the Iberian period, with evidence of continued use into the Roman period. The site lies in southeastern Spain near an ancient road. Little remains of the original structures at the site. Nineteenth century excavations documented some features of a temple but only an outline now remains; the site is known for its many votive sculptures, numbering about 300. Most of the sculptures depict women including the most notable find, the Dama del Cerro de los Santos. In addition to the women, statues of men dating from a period, a few statues of animals have been found; the site is located outside of the municipality of Montealegre del Castillo in the province of Albacete, Spain. The site, marked by a commemorative obelisk erected in 1929, is near the highway to Yecla; the site would have been along the Via Heraclea, in the territory of the Bastetani near the Contestani. The site is a few kilometres from Llano de la Consolación.

Few visible remains survive. The outline of the temple, visible in the eighteenth century, has disappeared completely; the temple had a 2.6 m wide doorway with access by two flights of steps. Based on the 19th century excavations, the walls were formed by a double course of square blocks secured by lead clamps; the roof was tiled and the floor may have been paved with rhomboidal terracotta tiles. The site does not have the usual characteristics of an Iberian sanctuary. Excavations uncovered about 300 stone sculptures. Most of the sculptures are votives of human figures, although a few animal sculptures have been found. Sculptures of women dominate; the sculptures are individual pieces with only one example of a group sculpture being found. The sculptures accumulated over time with the earliest being dated to the 4th century BCE while examples have Latin letter inscriptions or appear more Roman in style. A lack of artifacts from the Imperial Roman period suggests; the sculptures are similar in hair and dress, but the eyes differ in size and position.

Jaeggi believes this may be an attempt to differentiate otherwise similar statues to better represent unique donors. According to Jaeggi, the votive statues represent their donors who receive protection from the a deity when their avatars are permanently placed in the sanctuary; the sculptures are now housed at the National Archaeological Museum of Spain in Madrid. The female statues have tiara-like headdresses. Most of these figures are standing. Folds in cloth tend to be depicted with stylized zig-zag lines; the best known of the statues is the Dama del Cerro de los Santos. The statue stands holding an offering cup, she is dated to the 3rd or 2nd century BCE, but has a stylized form reminiscent of earlier Iberian sculpture. According to Jaeggi, the sculpture does not show Greek influence; the male statues tend to be similar with all wearing the same dress, a pallium held in the right hand. A few have earrings or pendant bullae. There is only one sculpture. There are no complete male statues preserved.

Hair on the male figures is depicted as a compact mass with curls depicted with notched lines. Truszkowski argues that the female sculptures date to the period prior to the Punic Wars and that the shift to male statues, with more Hellenistic styling, occurred during the conflicts. Balil, A.. "Cerro de Los Santos". In Stillwell, Richard; the Princeton encyclopedia of classical sites. Princeton, N. J.: Princeton University Press. Jaeggi, Othmar. "Hellenistic Influences in Iberian Sculpture". Bollettino di Archeologia On Line. ISSN 2039-0076. Truszkowski, Elizabeth. "La sculpture votive du III e au II e siècle dans la péninsule ibérique: le cas du grand sanctuaire du Cerro de los Santos". Pallas: 395–413. JSTOR 43684944. de la Rada y Delgado, Juan de Dios. Antigüedades del Cerro de los Santos en término de Montealegre. Imprenta de T. Fortanet. Cerro de Los Santos – Museo Arqueológico de Yecla

Grace Paterson

Grace Chalmers Paterson was a campaigner, temperance activist and educationalist. Paterson was born in Glasgow to William Paterson, a merchant, she campaigned for the improvement of domestic education for working class girls. She was a friend and supporter of Janet Galloway and Christian Guthrie Wright, founder of the Edinburgh School of Cookery, she was one of the first women elected to a school board in Glasgow, in 1885. She founded the Glasgow school of cookery, alongside Margaret Black, she was the "driving force" behind this institution. She was involved in the temperance movement in Scotland, she was a founder member of the West of Scotland Association for Women's Suffrage. She joined the WSPU in 1907