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Diamagnetism

Diamagnetic materials are repelled by a magnetic field. In contrast and ferromagnetic materials are attracted by a magnetic field. Diamagnetism is a quantum mechanical effect. In paramagnetic and ferromagnetic substances, the weak diamagnetic force is overcome by the attractive force of magnetic dipoles in the material; the magnetic permeability of diamagnetic materials is the permeability of vacuum. In most materials, diamagnetism is a weak effect which can only be detected by sensitive laboratory instruments, but a superconductor acts as a strong diamagnet because it repels a magnetic field from its interior. Diamagnetism was first discovered when Anton Brugmans observed in 1778 that bismuth was repelled by magnetic fields. In 1845, Michael Faraday demonstrated that it was a property of matter and concluded that every material responded to an applied magnetic field. On a suggestion by William Whewell, Faraday first referred to the phenomenon as diamagnetic later changed it to diamagnetism. A simple rule of thumb is used in chemistry to determine whether a particle is paramagnetic or diamagnetic: If all electrons in the particle are paired the substance made of this particle is diamagnetic.

Diamagnetism is a property of all materials, always makes a weak contribution to the material's response to a magnetic field. However, other forms of magnetism are so much stronger that when multiple different forms of magnetism are present in a material, the diamagnetic contribution is negligible. Substances where the diamagnetic behaviour is the strongest effect are termed diamagnetic materials, or diamagnets. Diamagnetic materials are those that some people think of as non-magnetic, include water, most organic compounds such as petroleum and some plastics, many metals including copper the heavy ones with many core electrons, such as mercury and bismuth; the magnetic susceptibility values of various molecular fragments are called Pascal's constants. Diamagnetic materials, like water, or water-based materials, have a relative magnetic permeability, less than or equal to 1, therefore a magnetic susceptibility less than or equal to 0, since susceptibility is defined as χv = μv − 1; this means.

However, since diamagnetism is such a weak property, its effects are not observable in everyday life. For example, the magnetic susceptibility of diamagnets such as water is χv = −9.05×10−6. The most diamagnetic material is bismuth, χv = −1.66×10−4, although pyrolytic carbon may have a susceptibility of χv = −4.00×10−4 in one plane. These values are orders of magnitude smaller than the magnetism exhibited by paramagnets and ferromagnets. Note that because χv is derived from the ratio of the internal magnetic field to the applied field, it is a dimensionless value. In rare cases, the diamagnetic contribution can be stronger than paramagnetic contribution; this is the case for gold, which has a magnetic susceptibility less than 0, but when measured with X-ray magnetic circular dichroism, has an weak paramagnetic contribution, overcome by a stronger diamagnetic contribution. Superconductors may be considered perfect diamagnets, because they expel all magnetic fields due to the Meissner effect. If a powerful magnet is covered with a layer of water the field of the magnet repels the water.

This causes a slight dimple in the water's surface. Diamagnets may be levitated in stable equilibrium with no power consumption. Earnshaw's theorem seems to preclude the possibility of static magnetic levitation. However, Earnshaw's theorem applies only to objects with positive susceptibilities, such as ferromagnets and paramagnets; these are attracted to field maxima. Diamagnets are attracted to field minima, there can be a field minimum in free space. A thin slice of pyrolytic graphite, an unusually strong diamagnetic material, can be stably floated in a magnetic field, such as that from rare earth permanent magnets; this can be done with all components at room temperature, making a visually effective demonstration of diamagnetism. The Radboud University Nijmegen, the Netherlands, has conducted experiments where water and other substances were levitated. Most spectacularly, a live frog was levitated. In September 2009, NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California announced it had levitated mice using a superconducting magnet, an important step forward since mice are closer biologically to humans than frogs.

JPL said it hopes to perform experiments regarding the effects of microgravity on bone and muscle mass. Recent experiments studying the growth of protein crystals have led to a technique using powerful magnets to allow growth in ways that counteract Earth's gravity. A simple homemade device for demonstration can be constructed out of bismuth plates and a few permanent magnets that levitate a permanent magn

Church of Santa Sofia, Lendinara

The Church of Santa Sofia is a Roman Catholic church in the city of Lendinara, in the Province of Rovigo, region of Veneto, Italy. The church was built in 1070 atop the ruins of a pagan temple as an oratory of the Cattaneo family. Around 1550, it became property of the Molin family, by 1674 was in a dilapidated state. In 1760 the Molin-Minio family commissioned the architect Angelo Santini to restore the church. Refurbishment took years; the facade and bell-tower were designed by Francesco Antonio Baccari and construction took decades. Two bell-towers were planned; the frescoes in the apse and cupola, depicting a Transfiguration in the former and a Triumph of the Church and the Four Doctors in the latter, were painted by Giorgio Anselmi. In 1938 Poloni and Casanova restored the murals; the first altar on left has a canvas of St Antony of Padua by the painter Casanova. The second altar on the left houses a Virgin of the Saints by Giovanni Battista Albrizzi; this painting was the main altarpiece of the church of San Giuseppe.

In the third altar on left is a canvas depicting the Sacred Heart of Jesus painted in 20th century by B. Biagetti; the fourth altar on left has a canvas depicting an Enthroned Virgin with Shield and Angelic Musicians by Domenico Mancini. Another work is an Enthroned Madonna and child with St Lawrences and Anthony of Padua by Francesco Bissolo. In the first altar on the right is a Madonna and Child with souls of Purgatory by Antonio Zanchi, commissioned by the Confraternity della Morte, the sponsors of the chapel. On the second altar on right is a canvas depicting the Descent of the Holy Spirit by Domenico Maggiotto. On the 3rd altar of right is a canvas depicting Saints Apostles Peter and James by Zanchi; the main altarpiece depicts the Martyrdom of Santa Sofia and her daughters Faith and Charity by Carlo Alvise Fabris. On the walls of the presbytery, next to the busts of the Scipioni and the Cappellini, are two paintings depicting the Saints Augustine, Scolastica and Placido and a Madonna and Child in Glory with Saints Andrea Avellino and Valentine by Agostino Ugolini.

In the sacristy is a wooden scale model of the bell-tower. There is a canvas depicting the Life of St Costanzo by Bartolomeo Litterini, two 17th-century canvases by Pietro Vecchia, some portraits, a copy of Titian and a poorly conserved altarpiece by Matteo dei Pitocchi

Julia Mallam

Julia Mallam is an English actress. She is known portraying the roles of Dawn Woods in the ITV soap opera Emmerdale and Tracy Trickster in the CITV series Captain Mack. Mallam made her professional acting debut in an episode of Peak Practise, playing the role of Jane Greenwood. In 2003, she began portraying the role of Dawn Hope in the ITV soap opera Emmerdale, she continued the role until 2006. In 2007, she appeared in Soapstar Superchef with Sherrie Hewson, they got into the final, where they lost out to Hayley Tamaddon and Mathew Bose.. That year, she appeared in an episode of the ITV drama The Bill. In 2008, she appeared in the children's television series Captain Mack. Julia Mallam on IMDb

Israel Curling Federation

The Israel Curling Federation is a nonprofit organization founded in 2007 which nationally represents curling, the winter world sport which played on ice surfaces. On 2009, the ice surface was marked in "Canada Centre" in town of Metulla; the Curling Federation in Israel continuously expands its activities and now gives sponsors to Olympic pistol shooting clubs. As of 2013 Israeli shooting Olympian Alex Tripolski was heading the sport of curling in Israel, that year the World Curling Federation reinstated Israel as a full member. In 2015 Tripolski was President of the Israel Curling Federation. In 2014, the Israeli national men's team won the silver metal in Group C at the 2014 European Curling Championships. While the men's team did not win a spot into Group A out of Group B, they placed sufficiently high to remain in Group B for the 2015 European Curling Championships. In 2015, the Israeli national mixed curling team competed in the 2015 World Mixed Curling Championship in Bern, Switzerland.

The men's team competed in the Group B of the 2015 European Curling Championships, finishing fourth with a record of 4-3. In 2016, Israel was represented at 2016 World Mixed Doubles Curling Championship in Karlstad, going 1-5. Israel was represented at the 2016 World Senior Curling Championships in Karlstad and went 3-5 to finish fifth in their pool. In the fall, the men's team returned to the 2016 European Curling Championships, finishing fourth in Group B with a 5-2 record, after losing in the semi-final to eventual group champion the Netherlands. In 2017, Israel was represented at the 2017 World Mixed Doubles Curling Championship in Lethbridge, Canada, going 2-5 in their group. Israel was represented at the 2017 World Senior Curling Championships in Lethbridge, going 5-2 in their pool to finish in a 3-way tie for second place; the senior men proceeded to win the tie-breaker with Switzerland to qualify for play-offs, lost in the qualification game for the spot in the quarter-finals against Wales, finishing ninth overall.

In the fall, Israel was represented at the 2017 World Mixed Curling Championship in Champéry, returning after a one year absence in the event. The team qualified for the playoffs with a 4-3 record in round-robin play, with wins over Hong Kong, Switzerland and Slovaka, losses to Norway, the Czech Republic, Finland, before losing to Russia in the round of 16. At the 2017 European Curling Championships, Israel's men's team returned to compete in Group B, finishing with a 5-2 record in the round-robin in Pool A and in third place in the pool; the team lost in the playoffs against Poland, 5-4. In 2018, Israel was represented at the 2018 World Mixed Doubles Curling Championship in Oestersund Sweden, going 1-6 in Group D. Israel participated at the 2018 World Senior Curling Championships at the same venue, going 3-3 in Pool D to finish in fourth out of seven. ICF Official Site

Neustadt (urban district)

An urban district named Neustadt exists in many cities in Germany and other countries where the administrative language was German for centuries. "Neustadt" means "new town", but often this district is not new. In many places the founders, for political reasons, placed a second urban nucleus beneath the first one. Examples are Bielefeld in Elbing in the territory of the Teutonic Order. In Bielefeld, the Altstadt concentrated on trade, the Neustadt concentrated on logistics for the ruler and government of the County of Ravensberg, seated at Sparrenburg Castle above the town. In Wrocław, the Neustadt was the German foundation beneath the original Polish Altstadt. In some places the "Neustadt" was a late medieval enlargement, sometimes the consequence of a growth of population, sometimes of modernized fortifications. Prague, with the foundation of the Nové Město by Charles IV in 1348, became one of the first widespread cities north of the Alps. In mediaeval tradition it became a separate municipality, the fourth one in Prague.

The Neustadt in Bremen was built in the 17th century in order to keep distance between the new city wall and the city's harbour. Neustadt, for a list of places called Neustadt History of Bielefeld Ein Streifzug durch die Geschichte Bremens A Brief History of Prague

Star Awards for Top 10 Most Popular Male Artistes

The Star Awards for Top 10 Most Popular Male Artistes is an award presented annually at the Star Awards, a ceremony, established in 1994. The category was introduced at the 1st Star Awards ceremony; the winners are determined and selected by a majority vote from the public via telephone or online voting. Between 1994–1996, only the top five male artistes were given the award. From 1997 onwards, the award winners were increased from five to ten and hence the award was renamed as Top 10 Most Popular Male Artistes. In 2017, the award nominees were increased from 20 to 24, where four artistes will be eliminated after the prelude shows while the other 20 continue to compete in the category the week up to the main presentation. Before 1997, only Mediacorp actors were eligible to be nominated for the award; this rule was removed in 1997 onwards to allow the Mediacorp male artistes from the variety sector to contest for the award. Between 1994 and 1995, the Most Popular Male Artiste award was awarded.

It was a separate award from the Top 5 Most Popular Male Artistes award and was given out to the male artiste who topped the votes of the latter award. Li Nanxing and Chen Hanwei were the recipients of this award in 1995, respectively. Since its inception, the award has been given to 50 male artistes. Shaun Chen, Chen Shucheng, Dennis Chew, Dasmond Koh, Pierre Png, Desmond Tan, Romeo Tan, Zheng Geping, Zhu Houren are the most recent winners in this category. Since the ceremony held in 2019, Dennis Chew and Zheng Geping remain as the only male artistes to have the most wins without achieving the All-Time Favourite Artiste award, with nine. In addition, Terence Cao has been nominated on 21 occasions, more than any other male artiste. Richard Low holds the record for the most nominations without a win, with 12. 11 male artistes have received the award for ten times and were given the All-Time Favourite Artiste award, are no longer eligible for the running of the award. Colour key^ Each year is linked to the article about the Star Awards held that year.

Notes: "✔" indicates the male artiste will not be nominated/win in this category from this year onwards after receiving the All-Time Favourite Artiste award "†" indicates the male artiste was not nominated/did not win in this category from this year onwards "§" indicates the male artiste's first nomination/win in this category "R–" indicates the male artiste reentered this category in the future year, together with the year of reenter Italic indicates the male artiste reentered this category after being eliminated Bold indicates the male artiste is one of the top 10 male artistes of the same year