Joaquim José da Silva Xavier, known as Tiradentes, was a leading member of the Brazilian revolutionary movement known as Inconfidência Mineira, whose aim was full independence from Portuguese colonial power and creation of a Brazilian republic. When the separatists' plot was uncovered by authorities, Tiradentes was arrested and publicly hanged. Since the advent of the Brazilian Republic, Xavier has been considered a national hero of Brazil and patron of the Military Police. Xavier was born to a poor family in Pombal, Ritápolis, near Minas Gerais, he was moved to Vila Rica after his parents' deaths. He was raised by a tutor, a surgeon, his lack of formal education didn't stop him from working in several fields, including dental medicine: "Tiradentes" means "tooth puller", a pejorative denomination adopted during the trial against him. He practiced other varied professions, like miner. Xavier used knowledge he acquired about minerals while working as a miner to enter the public service as a terrain surveyor.
He joined the Minas Gerais Dragoon Regiment, where he was given command of a detachment and sent on missions to cities along "Caminho Novo", a road between Vila Rica and Rio de Janeiro through which gold was sent to the coast to be shipped to Portugal. Over time, witnessing the transit of goods along Caminho Novo, Xavier started to perceive the massive exportation of gold and other valuable resources to the metropolis as exploitation to which Brazilians were subjected, he grew dissatisfied with his low rank and a dismissal from his commanding post. His trips to Rio put him in contact with people who had lived in Europe and brought liberal ideas from there. In 1788, Xavier met José Alvares Maciel, a son of Vila Rica's army's commandant who had just returned from England. Contrasting British industrial progress with Brazilian colonial poverty, the two decided to create a group of freedom aspirants. Led by clerics and other Brazilians with some social presence, like Cláudio Manuel da Costa, Tomás Antônio Gonzaga and Alvarenga Peixoto, the group propagated their ideas among the people.
At the time, Portugal's demand for gold was high. However, productivity of Brazilian mines was declining; the colony was failing to meet the quinto – the quota of gold demanded by the Crown – and pressure from the metropolis rose. This culminated in the creation of the derrama, a confiscatory tribute that, in turn, further stirred seditious sentiments. Influenced by the writings of Jean-Jacques Rousseau and the American Revolution, Xavier joined a number of like-minded citizens in the Inconfidência Mineira, a revolutionary movement, they envisioned an independent Brazilian republic, with São João del Rei as its capital and the conversion of Vila Rica to a university town. The proposed flag for the new republic had a green triangle over a white background, surrounded by the Latin motto "Libertas Quae Sera Tamen". Xavier's plan was to take to the streets of Vila Rica and proclaim a Brazilian Republic on the day of the derrama, in February 1789, when tax was due to Portugal and the sentiment of revolt among Brazilians would be stronger.
Joaquim Silvério dos Reis, one of the conspirators, exposed the plot in exchange for a tax waiver. The governor of Minas Gerais ordered the imprisonment of the rebels. A trial was carried, lasting three years. Xavier was sentenced to death, along with ten other inconfidentes. Queen Maria I of Portugal commuted the sentences of capital punishment to perpetual banishment for all convicts, except those whose activities involved aggravated circumstances; such was the case of Xavier. He was imprisoned in Rio hanged on April 21st, 1792. Afterwards, his body was quartered and the pieces were sent to Vila Rica, to be displayed in places where he used to propagate his liberal ideas. Xavier began to be considered a national hero by the republicans in the late 19th century. After the institution of the Republic, in 1889, the anniversary of his death became a national holiday, his moniker, "Tiradentes", became the namesake of a city in the state of Minas Gerais, of city squares in Belo Horizonte, Curitiba, São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Ouro Preto, as well as of a major avenue in the Dominican Republic.
Zica family, descendants of Tiradentes Maxwell, Kenneth R, Conflicts and Conspiracies: Brazil & Portugal 1750-1808 ISBN 0-521-20053-9 Museu da Inconfidência Tiradentes at about.com Tiradentes at e-Biografias
Mariana, Minas Gerais
Mariana is the oldest city in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. It is a tourist city, founded on July 16, 1696, retains the characteristics of a baroque city, with its churches and museums, it was the first capital of Minas Gerais. It has an area of 1,194.208 square kilometres. The municipality contains a small part of the 31,270 hectares of Serra do Gandarela National Park, created in 2014. In 2015 it suffered a major dam disaster
Sabará is a Brazilian municipality located in the state of Minas Gerais. The city belongs to the mesoregion Metropolitana de Belo Horizonte and to the microregion of Belo Horizonte. List of municipalities in Minas Gerais
A folk hero or national hero is a type of hero – real, fictional or mythological – with the sole salient characteristic being the imprinting of his or her name and deeds in the popular consciousness of a people. This presence in the popular consciousness is evidenced by its historical frequency in folk songs, folk tales and other folklore. Although some folk heroes are historical public figures, many are not; the lives of folk heroes are fictional, their characteristics and deeds exaggerated to mythic proportions. The folk hero begins life as a normal person, but is transformed into someone extraordinary by significant life events in response to social injustice, sometimes in response to natural disasters. One major category of folk hero is the defender of the common people against the oppression or corruption of the established power structure. Members of this category of folk hero but not live outside the law in some way. List of folk heroes Culture hero Seal, Graham. Encyclopedia of Folk Heroes.
Poços de Caldas
Poços de Caldas is a municipality in southwestern Minas Gerais state, Brazil, in the microregion of the same name. Its estimated population in 2009 was 151,449 inhabitants; the city has hot springs. Poços was founded in 1872; the region had been inhabited by the Cataguases Indians, who were expelled from their lands by the Bandeiras Unidas Paulistas during their quest for gold. The place was first called Freguesia de Nossa Senhora da Saúde das Águas de Caldas. In 1874 it became a district in 1875 it was elevated to the category of city, it became famous after the discovery of the hot springs, many important people began to visit the spa in search of cures provided by the water. The name comes from a spa town in central Portugal, it lies on the boundary of the state of São Paulo at 1186 meters elevation and is the main socio-economic nucleus of its region, having an area of 544 km² in the municipality. The physical area is made up for the most part of a high plateau formed by mountains and valleys with an area of 750 km².
The average elevation is 1200 m, with the highest point, at 1686 m. The topography is suggestive of a volcanic crater and, given that the region's rocks are indeed igneous and there are hot springs, this gave rise to a common misconception that Poços de Caldas would be located inside the crater of a large extinct volcano. In reality, Poços de Caldas is inside a caldera, formed by the collapse of a central portion of terrain amid elevated areas, while the latter have volcanic origin, the process that formed the supposed "crater" had nothing to do with volcanic activity. Poços de Caldas occupies a strategic geographical location, due to its proximity to São Paulo, Belo Horizonte and Rio de Janeiro, whose connections are made with good highways, due to its integration into the routes of the hydro-mineral spas of Serra Negra, Águas de Lindóia, Monte Alegre do Sul, Águas da Prata, Cambuquira, Caxambu and São Lourenço. Poços de Caldas is close to the most developed regions of the interior of the state of São Paulo, such as Ribeirão Preto, Campinas and São José dos Campos.
The climate is characterized by mild summers. The winter is from April to September and has an average temperature of 15 °C and rainfall of 315 mm; the summer is from October to March and has an average temperature of 21 °C with rainfall of 1,430 mm. The annual rainfall is 1,745 mm; the average annual temperature is 17 °C with minima of -6 °C and maxima of 31.7 °C. Known principally for its thermal baths, there are several resorts in the city. Due to its wealth in hydro-mineral resources, Poços de Caldas is known for the quality of the soap that it produces. There are four factories in the city: Raízes, Antares and Terra Brasil. Poços is famous for its glass, known internationally; the founders of the factories were descendants of the artistic glassmakers who lived on the Island of Murano, near Venice, in Italy. In the city there are four glass factories: Ca'D'oro, São Marcos and Bonora; the local soils are rich in minerals that yield zirconium. One rare zirconium ore, was named for the area; the city has Brazil's first uranium-ore concentration plant, for use in the Angra Nuclear Power Plant in Angra dos Reis.
Poços is the home of one of the largest bauxite mines in the world, owned by Alcoa. Bauxite is an ore that contains at least 45% alumina, extracted to make aluminum; the smelting operations at Poços de Caldas have an annual capacity of 90,000 tons/year of primary aluminum. The facility is the largest aluminum-powder production facility in Latin America, the second largest in the world; the plant has a capacity of 14,000 tonnes/year of aluminum powder and meets the market demand for ferroalloys, pigments, chemicals and solid fuel for rockets. The facility began production of hydrated aluminas and hard-burned calcined aluminas in 1985; the city gets most of its electricity from hydroelectric power plants and administrated with local resources, leading to independence from the state's power system. The city is well taken care of, with several green areas, among parks, gardens and São Domingos mountain, which has trails for walking; the sulphurous water is the main attraction and can be consumed in several fountains and at the Thermas Antônio Carlos.
There is an aerial tram to get to the Statue of Christ the Redeemer. At the top of the mountain there is a great view of the nearby mountains; the city offers options such as a Japanese tea garden, a theme park, museums and other cultural events, including the yearly Music in the Mountains Festival. The city is served by Emb. Walther Moreira Salles Airport. Caldas da Rainha, Portugal Mount Vernon, New York, United States Official city government site Music in the Mountains Festival
Brazil the Federative Republic of Brazil, is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers and with over 208 million people, Brazil is the world's fifth-largest country by area and the fifth most populous. Its capital is Brasília, its most populated city is São Paulo; the federation is composed of the union of the 26 states, the Federal District, the 5,570 municipalities. It is the largest country to have Portuguese as an official language and the only one in the Americas. Bounded by the Atlantic Ocean on the east, Brazil has a coastline of 7,491 kilometers, it borders all other South American countries except Ecuador and Chile and covers 47.3% of the continent's land area. Its Amazon River basin includes a vast tropical forest, home to diverse wildlife, a variety of ecological systems, extensive natural resources spanning numerous protected habitats; this unique environmental heritage makes Brazil one of 17 megadiverse countries, is the subject of significant global interest and debate regarding deforestation and environmental protection.
Brazil was inhabited by numerous tribal nations prior to the landing in 1500 of explorer Pedro Álvares Cabral, who claimed the area for the Portuguese Empire. Brazil remained a Portuguese colony until 1808, when the capital of the empire was transferred from Lisbon to Rio de Janeiro. In 1815, the colony was elevated to the rank of kingdom upon the formation of the United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves. Independence was achieved in 1822 with the creation of the Empire of Brazil, a unitary state governed under a constitutional monarchy and a parliamentary system; the ratification of the first constitution in 1824 led to the formation of a bicameral legislature, now called the National Congress. The country became a presidential republic in 1889 following a military coup d'état. An authoritarian military junta came to power in 1964 and ruled until 1985, after which civilian governance resumed. Brazil's current constitution, formulated in 1988, defines it as a democratic federal republic. Due to its rich culture and history, the country ranks thirteenth in the world by number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
Brazil is considered an advanced emerging economy. It has the ninth largest GDP in the world by nominal, eight and PPP measures, it is one of the world's major breadbaskets, being the largest producer of coffee for the last 150 years. It is classified as an upper-middle income economy by the World Bank and a newly industrialized country, with the largest share of global wealth in Latin America. Brazil is a regional power and sometimes considered a great or a middle power in international affairs. On account of its international recognition and influence, the country is subsequently classified as an emerging power and a potential superpower by several analysts. Brazil is a founding member of the United Nations, the G20, BRICS, Union of South American Nations, Organization of American States, Organization of Ibero-American States and the Community of Portuguese Language Countries, it is that the word "Brazil" comes from the Portuguese word for brazilwood, a tree that once grew plentifully along the Brazilian coast.
In Portuguese, brazilwood is called pau-brasil, with the word brasil given the etymology "red like an ember", formed from brasa and the suffix -il. As brazilwood produces a deep red dye, it was valued by the European textile industry and was the earliest commercially exploited product from Brazil. Throughout the 16th century, massive amounts of brazilwood were harvested by indigenous peoples along the Brazilian coast, who sold the timber to European traders in return for assorted European consumer goods; the official Portuguese name of the land, in original Portuguese records, was the "Land of the Holy Cross", but European sailors and merchants called it the "Land of Brazil" because of the brazilwood trade. The popular appellation eclipsed and supplanted the official Portuguese name; some early sailors called it the "Land of Parrots". In the Guarani language, an official language of Paraguay, Brazil is called "Pindorama"; this was the name the indigenous population gave to the region, meaning "land of the palm trees".
Some of the earliest human remains found in the Americas, Luzia Woman, were found in the area of Pedro Leopoldo, Minas Gerais and provide evidence of human habitation going back at least 11,000 years. The earliest pottery found in the Western Hemisphere was excavated in the Amazon basin of Brazil and radiocarbon dated to 8,000 years ago; the pottery was found near Santarém and provides evidence that the tropical forest region supported a complex prehistoric culture. The Marajoara culture flourished on Marajó in the Amazon delta from 800 CE to 1400 CE, developing sophisticated pottery, social stratification, large populations, mound building, complex social formations such as chiefdoms. Around the time of the Portuguese arrival, the territory of current day Brazil had an estimated indigenous population of 7 million people semi-nomadic who subsisted on hunting, fishing and migrant agriculture; the indigenous population of Brazil comprised several large indigenous ethnic groups. The Tupí people were subdivided into the Tupiniquins and Tupinambás, there were many subdivisions of the other gro
Ouro Preto Vila Rica, is a city in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, a former colonial mining town located in the Serra do Espinhaço mountains and designated a World Heritage site by UNESCO because of its outstanding Baroque Portuguese colonial architecture. Ouro Preto is located in one of the main areas of the Brazilian Gold Rush. 800 tons of gold were sent to Portugal in the eighteenth century, not to mention what was circulated in an illegal manner, nor what remained in the colony, such as gold used in the ornamentation of the churches. The municipality became the most populous city of Latin America, counting on about 40 thousand people in 1730 and, decades after, 80 thousand. At that time, the population of New York was less than half of that number of inhabitants and the population of São Paulo did not surpass 8 thousand. Population: Data from the 2010 Census Resident population: 70,227 Urban area: 56,293 Rural area: 9,985 Area of the municipality: 1,245 km² Temperature: between 6 and 28 degrees Celsius.
In June and July the temperature can reach -2 degrees Celsius. Average elevation: 1,116 m; the highest point is Pico de Itacolomi with 1,722 meters. The city has twelve districts: Amarantina, Antônio Pereira, Cachoeira do Campo, Engenheiro Correia, Lavras Novas, Miguel Burnier, Santa Rita, Santo Antônio do Leite, Santo Antônio do Salto, São Bartolomeu and Rodrigo Silva. Rivers: sources for the Velhas, Gualaxo do Norte, Gualaxo do Sul, Mainart e Ribeirão Funil. Per Capita Income: R$23,622 HDI: 0.788 The city is linked by unlit winding roads to highways for: Belo Horizonte 100 km Rio de Janeiro 475 km São Paulo 675 km Brasília 840 kmBordering municipalities are: North: Itabirito and Santa Bárbara South: Ouro Branco, Catas Altas da Noruega and Itaverava East: Mariana West: Belo Vale and Congonhas Located at 1,179 m above sea level, Ouro Preto has a subtropical highland climate, with warm and humid summers and mild, dry winters. Frost occur in June and July. There is a report of snow in the city in the year of 1843.
Founded at the end of the 17th century, Ouro Preto was called Vila Rica, or "rich village", the focal point of the gold rush and Brazil's golden age in the 18th century under Portuguese rule. The city centre contains well-preserved Portuguese colonial architecture, with few signs of modern urban development. New construction must keep with the city's historical aesthetic. 18th- and 19th-century churches decorated with gold and the sculptured works of Aleijadinho make Ouro Preto a tourist destination. The tremendous wealth from gold mining in the 18th century created a city which attracted the intelligentsia of Europe. Philosophy and art flourished, evidence of a baroque revival called the "Barroco Mineiro" is illustrated in architecture as well as by sculptors such as Aleijadinho, painters such as Mestre Athayde, composers such as Lobo de Mesquita, poets such as Tomás António Gonzaga. At that time, Vila Rica was the largest city in Brazil, with 100,000 inhabitants. In 1789, Ouro Preto became the birthplace of the Inconfidência Mineira, a failed attempt to gain independence from Portugal.
The leading figure, was hanged as a threat to any future revolutionaries. In 1876, the Escola de Minas was created; this school established the technological foundation for several of the mineral discoveries in Brazil. Ouro Preto was capital of Minas Gerais from 1720 until 1897, when the needs of government outgrew this town in the valley; the state government was moved to the planned city of Belo Horizonte. Although Ouro Preto now relies on the tourism industry for part of its economy, there are important metallurgic and mining industries located in town, such as Novelis Alcan, the most important aluminum factory in the country, the Companhia Vale do Rio Doce, others. Main economic activities are tourism, transformation industries, mineral riches such as deposits of iron, manganese and marble. Minerals of note are: gold, dolomite, pyrite, muscovite and imperial topaz; the imperial topaz is a stone only found in Ouro Preto. Soapstone handicraft items are a popular souvenir among tourists, can be found in many shops in the town centre and street fairs.
Jewelry made of local precious and semi-precious gemstones can be found in abundance for sale. Ouro Preto is a university town with an intense student life; the Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto has 10,000 students in the city. Many of them live in communal houses that are somewhat similar to fraternity houses as found in North American colleges; these communal or shared houses are called repúblicas, of which 66 belong to the university, called repúblicas federais, 250 are owned. The repúblicas system of Ouro Preto is unique in Brazil. No other university city in the country has the same characteristics of the student lodgings found there, it shares traits with the repúblicas of the Portuguese University of Coimbra, where the tradition originated. Before universities were founded in Brazil, Coimbra was where most of the rich students who could afford an overseas education went to; each república has its own different history. There are repúblicas in which the freshmen known as "bixos", have to undergo a hazing period, called batalha, before being accepted permanently as residents of the houses.
The final choice