The Winter Palace was the official residence of the Russian Emperors from 1732 to 1917. Today, its precincts form the Hermitage Museum. Situated between Palace Embankment and Palace Square, in Saint Petersburg, adjacent to the site of Peter the Great's original Winter Palace, the present and fourth Winter Palace was built and altered continuously between the late 1730s and 1837, when it was damaged by fire and rebuilt; the storming of the palace in 1917, as depicted in Soviet paintings and Sergei Eisenstein's 1927 film October, became an iconic symbol of the Russian Revolution. The palace was constructed on a monumental scale, intended to reflect the might and power of Imperial Russia. From the palace, the Tsar ruled over 22,400,000 square kilometers and over 125 million subjects by the end of the 19th century, it was designed by many architects, most notably Bartolomeo Rastrelli, in what came to be known as the Elizabethan Baroque style. The green-and-white palace has the shape of an elongated rectangle, its principal façade is 215 metres long and 30 m high.
The Winter Palace has been calculated to contain 1,786 doors, 1,945 windows, 1,500 rooms and 117 staircases. Following a serious fire, the palace's rebuilding of 1837 left the exterior unchanged, but large parts of the interior were redesigned in a variety of tastes and styles, leading the palace to be described as a "19th-century palace inspired by a model in Rococo style". In 1905, the Bloody Sunday massacre occurred when demonstrators marched toward the Winter Palace, but by this time the Imperial Family had chosen to live in the more secure and secluded Alexander Palace at Tsarskoe Selo, returned to the Winter Palace only for formal and state occasions. Following the February Revolution of 1917, the palace was for a short time the seat of the Russian Provisional Government, led by Alexander Kerensky; that same year, the palace was stormed by a detachment of Red Army soldiers and sailors—a defining moment in the birth of the Soviet state. Upon returning from his Grand Embassy in 1698, Peter I of Russia embarked on a policy of Westernization and expansion, to transform the Tsardom of Russia into the Russian Empire and a major European power.
This policy was manifested in bricks and mortar by the creation of a new city, Saint Petersburg, in 1703. The culture and design of the new city was intended as a conscious rejection of traditional Byzantine-influenced Russian architecture, such as the then-fashionable Naryshkin Baroque, in favour of the classically inspired architecture prevailing in the great cities of Europe; the Tsar intended that his new city would be designed in a Flemish renaissance style known as Petrine Baroque, this was the style he selected for his new palace in the city. The first Royal residence on the site had been a humble log cabin known as the Domik Petra I, built in 1704, which faced the River Neva. In 1711 it was transported to the Petrovskaya Naberezhnaya. With the site cleared, the Tsar embarked on the building of a larger house between 1711 and 1712; this house, today referred to as the first Winter Palace, was designed by Domenico Trezzini. The 18th century was a period of great development in European royal architecture, as the need for a fortified residence lessened.
This process, which had begun in the late 16th century and great classical palaces replaced fortified castles throughout the more powerful European countries. One of the earliest and most notable examples was Louis XIV's Versailles. Completed by 1710, Versailles—with its size and splendour—heightened rivalry amongst the sovereigns of Europe. Peter the Great of Russia, keen to promote all western concepts, wished to have a modern palace like his fellow sovereigns. However, unlike some of his successors, Peter I never aspired to rival Versailles; the first Winter Palace was a modest building of two main floors under a slate roof. It seems that Peter soon tired of the first palace, for in 1721, the second version of the Winter Palace was built under the direction of architect Georg Mattarnovy. Mattarnovy's palace, though still modest compared to royal palaces in other European capitals, was on two floors above a rusticated ground floor, with a central projection underneath a pediment supported by columns.
It was here that Peter the Great died in 1725. The Winter Palace was not the only palace in the unfinished city, or the most splendid, as Peter had ordered his nobles to construct residences and to spend half the year there; this was an unpopular command. It was forbidden to fell trees for fuel, so hot water was permitted just once a week. Only Peter's second wife, Empress Catherine, pretended to enjoy life in the new city; as a result of pressed slave labour from all over the Empire, work on the city progressed quickly. It has been estimated. A diplomat of the time, who described the city as "a heap of villages linked together, like some plantation in the West Indies", just a few years called it "a wonder of the world, considering its magnificent palaces"; some of these new palaces in Peter's beloved Flemish Baroque style, such as the Kikin Hall and the Menshikov Palace, still stand. On Peter the Great's death in 1725, the city of Saint Petersburg was still far from being the centre of western culture and civilization that he had envisioned.
Many of the aristocrats, compelled by the Tsar to inhabit Saint Petersburg left. Wolves roame
Iran called Persia, the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th most populous country. Comprising a land area of 1,648,195 km2, it is the second largest country in the Middle East and the 17th largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, to the west by Turkey and Iraq; the country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE, it was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history.
The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE; the Islamization of Iran led to the decline of Zoroastrianism, by the country's dominant religion, Iran's major contributions to art and science spread within the Muslim rule during the Islamic Golden Age. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were conquered by the Seljuq Turks and the Ilkhanate Mongols; the rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses.
The Iranian Constitutional Revolution in the early 20th century led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing Western political influence. Subsequent widespread dissatisfaction and unrest against the monarchy led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for eight years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides; the sovereign state of Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy.
The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage sites, the third largest number in Asia and 11th largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians, Azeris and Lurs. Organizations including Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch have criticized Iran's women's rights record; the term Iran derives directly from Middle Persian Ērān, first attested in a third-century inscription at Rustam Relief, with the accompanying Parthian inscription using the term Aryān, in reference to the Iranians. The Middle Iranian ērān and aryān are oblique plural forms of gentilic nouns ēr- and ary-, both deriving from Proto-Iranian *arya-, recognized as a derivative of Proto-Indo-European *ar-yo-, meaning "one who assembles". In the Iranian languages, the gentilic is attested as a self-identifier, included in ancient inscriptions and the literature of the Avesta, remains in other Iranian ethnic names Alan and Iron.
Iran has been referred to as Persia by the West, due to the writings of Greek historians who referred to all of Iran as Persís, meaning "land of the Persians", while Persis itself was one of the provinces of ancient Iran, today defined as Fars. As the most extensive interaction the Ancient Greeks had with any outsider was with the Persians, the term persisted long after the Greco-Persian Wars. In 1935, Reza Shah requested the international community to refer to the country by its native name, effective March 22 that year; as The New York Times explained at the time, "At the suggestion of the Persian Legation in Berlin, the Tehran government, on the Persian New Year, March 21, 1935, substituted Iran for Persia as the official name of the country." Opposition to the name change led to the reversal of the decision, Professor Ehsan Yarshater, editor of Encyclopædia Iranica, propagated a move to use Persia and Iran interchangeably. Today, both Iran and Persia are used in cultural contexts, while Iran remains irreplaceab
The Russian Revolution was a pair of revolutions in Russia in 1917 which dismantled the Tsarist autocracy and led to the rise of the Soviet Union. The Russian Empire collapsed with the abdication of Emperor Nicholas II and the old regime was replaced by a provisional government during the first revolution of February 1917. Alongside it arose grassroots community assemblies which contended for authority. In the second revolution that October, the Provisional Government was toppled and all power was given to the Soviets; the February Revolution was a revolution focused around Petrograd, the capital of Russia at that time. In the chaos, members of the Imperial parliament assumed control of the country, forming the Russian Provisional Government, dominated by the interests of large capitalists and the noble aristocracy; the army leadership felt they did not have the means to suppress the revolution, resulting in Tsar Nicholas's abdication. The Soviets, which were dominated by soldiers and the urban industrial working class permitted the Provisional Government to rule, but insisted on a prerogative to influence the government and control various militias.
The February Revolution took place in the context of heavy military setbacks during the First World War, which left much of the Russian Army in a state of mutiny. A period of dual power ensued, during which the Provisional Government held state power while the national network of Soviets, led by socialists, had the allegiance of the lower classes and the left-leaning urban middle class. During this chaotic period there were frequent mutinies and many strikes. Many socialist political organizations were engaged in daily struggle and vied for influence within the Duma and the Soviets, central among which were the Bolsheviks led by Vladimir Lenin who campaigned for an immediate end to the war, land to the peasants, bread to the workers; when the Provisional Government chose to continue fighting the war with Germany, the Bolsheviks and other socialist factions were able to exploit universal disdain towards the war effort as justification to advance the revolution further. The Bolsheviks turned workers' militias under their control into the Red Guards over which they exerted substantial control.
In the October Revolution, the Bolsheviks led an armed insurrection by workers and soldiers in Petrograd that overthrew the Provisional Government, transferring all its authority to the Soviets with the capital being relocated to Moscow shortly thereafter. The Bolsheviks had secured a strong base of support within the Soviets and, as the now supreme governing party, established a federal government dedicated to reorganizing the former empire into the world's first socialist republic, practicing Soviet democracy on a national and international scale; the promise to end Russia's participation in the First World War was honored promptly with the Bolshevik leaders signing the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with Germany in March 1918. To further secure the new state, the Cheka was established which functioned as a revolutionary security service that sought to weed out and punish those considered to be "enemies of the people" in campaigns consciously modeled on similar events during the French Revolution.
Soon after, civil war erupted among the "Reds", the "Whites", the independence movements and the non-Bolshevik socialists. It continued for several years, during which the Bolsheviks defeated both the Whites and all rival socialists and thereafter reconstituted themselves as the Communist Party. In this way, the Revolution paved the way for the creation of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in 1922. While many notable historical events occurred in Moscow and Petrograd, there was a visible movement in cities throughout the state, among national minorities throughout the empire and in the rural areas, where peasants took over and redistributed land; the Russian Revolution of 1905 was said to be a major factor contributing to the cause of the Revolutions of 1917. The events of Bloody Sunday triggered nationwide protests and soldier mutinies. A council of workers called. While the 1905 Revolution was crushed, the leaders of the St. Petersburg Soviet were arrested, this laid the groundwork for the Petrograd Soviet and other revolutionary movements during the lead up to 1917.
The 1905 Revolution led to the creation of a Duma, that would form the Provisional Government following February 1917. The outbreak of World War I prompted general outcry directed at Tsar Nicholas II and the Romanov family. While the nation was engaged in a wave of nationalism, increasing numbers of defeats and poor conditions soon flipped the nation's opinion; the Tsar attempted to remedy the situation by taking personal control of the army in 1915. This proved to be disadvantageous for the Tsar, as he was now held responsible for Russia's continuing defeats and losses. In addition, Tsarina Alexandra, left to rule in while the Tsar commanded at the front, was German born, leading to suspicion of collusion, only to be exacerbated by rumors relating to her relationship with the controversial mystic Grigori Rasputin. Rasputin's influence led to disastrous ministerial appointments and corruption, resulting in a worsening of conditions within Russia; this led to general dissatisfaction with the Romanov family, was a major factor contributing to the retaliation of the Russian Communists against th
The Shah Diamond was found at the Golconda mines in what is now Andhra Pradesh, Central India in 1450, it is held in the Moscow Kremlin. The Shah Diamond is not of the first water, since it has a yellowish tinge due to a little iron oxide at the surface, it is said to have weighed 95 carat, that it lost 9 carats when being cut. Its present weight is 88.7 carats. It is an elongated octahedron, the eight original faces of which have been replaced by fifteen facets, it is described as the shape of a coffin. The cut of the diamond is technically called a lasque cut. A groove has been cut round the stone to accommodate the thread by which it was worn round the neck, its most remarkable feature is that on three of its original faces the names of three of the rulers who owned it have been engraved in Persian, along with the Hijrī year. The names and dates of these three rulers are as follows: Nizām Shāh: 1000. Jahān Shāh: 1051. Fath'Alī Shāh: 1242, it does not rank as one of the top diamonds of the world in beauty or size, but the inscriptions on it testify to its history and provenance.
It was rendered to the Nizām Shāhī court in Ahmednagar. In 1591, Shāh Nizām ordered carving on one of the facets of the diamond: "Burhān Nizām Shāh the Second. Year 1000"; that same year, Akbar the Great, the Emperor of Mughal India occupied the Ahmadnagar Sultanate and seized the diamond. A number of years Akbar's grandson, Shāh Jahān, came to the throne, commanded that another inscription be carved: "Shāh Jahān, The son of Shāh Jehangir. Year 1051"; the son of Shah Jahān Aurangzēb hung the diamond above his throne and encircled it with rubies and emeralds. After visiting the court of Aurangzēb, the famous French jeweller Tavernier wrote: "On the side of the throne, opposite the court there is to be seen a jewel consisting of a diamond of about 80 to 90 carats weight, with rubies and emeralds around it, when the king is seated he has the jewel in full view." Because of its proximity to the throne, the diamond was known as the "Throne Diamond". It was transferred to Lahore in 1715 and kept here until 1738.
In 1738, Nādir Shāh attacked India, seized the diamond, took it back with him to Persia. The diamond stayed in Persia for nearly a century until, in 1826, the third inscription was engraved on the third facet: "The ruler of the Qājār Fath'Alī Shāh Sultān. Year 1242". In 1829, the Russian diplomat and writer Alexandr Griboyedov was murdered in the capital of Persia, Tehran; the Russian government demanded severe punishment of those responsible. In fear, the court of Fath'Alī Shāh sent the Shāh's grandson Khusro Mirzā to Saint Petersburg, where he gave the diamond to the Russian Tsar Nicholas I as a present, it was kept among the Russian Crown Jewels in the Diamond Room at the Winter Palace in St. Petersburg, until the Russian Revolution and the overthrow of the Romanov Dynasty on 2 March 1917; the diamond, along with the other treasures, was removed, taken to Moscow and placed in the Kremlin Diamond Fund. It remains there today in the Kremlin, where it is exhibited as one of the seven famous gems
Moscow Kremlin Museums
Moscow Kremlin Museums is a major state-run museum in Moscow Kremlin. Its roots lie in the Kremlin Armoury museum founded in 1806, the current form of the museum started in 1991; the Head of the museum is daughter of cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin. There were 2,746,405 visitors in the Kremlin Museums in 2017. Moscow Kremlin Museums have the following parts: Kremlin Armoury Diamond Fund Dormition Cathedral Cathedral of the Archangel Cathedral of the Annunciation Residence of Patriarchs and Church of the Twelve Apostles Church of the Deposition of the Robe Ivan the Great Bell Tower List of most visited art museums Moscow Kremlin Museums Official Site
"Gold nugget" may refer to the catfish Baryancistrus xanthellus or the mango cultivar Gold Nugget. A gold nugget is a occurring piece of native gold. Watercourses concentrate nuggets and finer gold in placers. Nuggets are recovered by placer mining, but they are found in residual deposits where the gold-bearing veins or lodes are weathered. Nuggets are found in the tailings piles of previous mining operations those left by gold mining dredges. Nuggets are gold fragments weathered out of an original lode, they show signs of abrasive polishing by stream action, sometimes still contain inclusions of quartz or other lode matrix material. A 2007 study on Australian nuggets ruled out speculative theories of supergene formation via in-situ precipitation, cold welding of smaller particles, or bacterial concentration, since crystal structures of all of the nuggets examined proved they were formed at high temperature deep underground. Other precious metals such as platinum form nuggets in the same way. A study of native gold from Arizona, US, based on lead isotopes indicates that a significant part of the mass in alluvial gold nuggets in this area formed within the placer environment.
Nuggets are 20.5K to 22K purity. Gold nuggets in Australia are 23K or higher, while Alaskan nuggets are at the lower end of the spectrum. Purity can be assessed by the nugget color, the richer and deeper the orange-yellow the higher the gold content. Nuggets are referred to by their fineness, for example "865 fine" means the nugget is 865 parts per thousand in gold by mass; the common impurities are copper. Nuggets high in silver content constitute the alloy electrum. Two gold nuggets are claimed as the largest in the world: the Welcome Stranger and the Canaã nugget, the latter being the largest surviving natural nugget. Considered by most authorities to be the biggest gold nugget found, the Welcome Stranger was found at Moliagul, Australia in 1869 by John Deason and Richard Oates, it returned over 2,284 troy ounces net. The Welcome Stranger is sometimes confused with the named Welcome Nugget, found in June 1858 at Bakery Hill, Australia by the Red Hill Mining Company; the Welcome weighed 2,218 troy ounces.
It was melted down in London in November 1859. The Canaã nugget known as the Pepita Canaa, was found on September 13, 1983 by miners at the Serra Pelada Mine in the State of Para, Brazil. Weighing 1,955 troy ounces gross, containing 1,682.5 troy ounces of gold, it is among the largest gold nuggets found, is, the largest in existence. The main controversy regarding this nugget is that the excavation reports suggest that the existing nugget was part of a nugget weighing 5,291.09 troy ounces that broke during excavations. The Canaã nugget is displayed at the Banco Central Museum in Brazil along with the second and third largest nuggets remaining in existence, weighing 1,506.2 troy ounces and 1,393.3 troy ounces, which were found at the Serra Pelada region. The largest gold nugget found using a metal detector is the Hand of Faith, weighing 875 troy ounces, found in Kingower, Australia in 1980. Historic large specimens include the crystalline "Fricot Nugget", weighing 201 troy ounces – the largest one found during the California Gold Rush.
It is on display at the California State Mineral Museum. The largest gold nugget found in California weighed 1,593 troy ounces, it was found in August 1869 in Sierra Buttes by five partners – W. A. Farish, A. Wood, J. Winstead, F. N. L. Clevering and Harry Warner; the Victoria, Australia gold rush of the early 1850s produced a number of large nuggets. They include the Welcome Nugget which weighed 68.98 kilograms, considered to be the second largest gold nugget found. Another find, the Lady Hotham, which weighed 98.5 pounds, was found by a group of nine miners on September 8, 1854 in Canadian Gully, Ballarat at a depth of 135 feet. The Lady Hotham was named after the wife of the Governor, Sir Charles Hotham who happened to be visiting the area when the nugget was found. Eighteen months earlier, in January and early February 1853, three other large nuggets weighing 134 pounds, 93.125 pounds, 83.5 pounds were found in Canadian Gully at a depth of 55 to 60 feet. Another nugget, the Heron, was found in 1855 in Golden Gully in the Mount Alexander goldfield.
It weighed 1,008 troy ounces and was found by a group of inexperienced miners who had received a empty claim. The miners found the nugget on their second day of digging. On 16 January 2013, a large gold nugget was found near the city of Ballarat in Victoria, Australia by an amateur gold prospector; the Y-shaped nugget weighed more than 5 kilograms, measured around 22 cm high by 15 cm wide, has a market value below 300,000 Australian dollars, though opinions have been expressed that it could be sold for much more due to its rarity. The discovery has cast doubt on the common rumour that Victoria's goldfields were exhausted in the 19th century. Gold mining Gold prospecting Gold rush Beyers-Holtermann Specimen, the largest specimen of native gold found. Reef gold thus with quartz and therefore not a nugget, it contained ap
Moscow is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits, 17 million within the urban area and 20 million within the metropolitan area. Moscow is one of Russia's federal cities. Moscow is the major political, economic and scientific center of Russia and Eastern Europe, as well as the largest city on the European continent. By broader definitions, Moscow is among the world's largest cities, being the 14th largest metro area, the 18th largest agglomeration, the 14th largest urban area, the 11th largest by population within city limits worldwide. According to Forbes 2013, Moscow has been ranked as the ninth most expensive city in the world by Mercer and has one of the world's largest urban economies, being ranked as an alpha global city according to the Globalization and World Cities Research Network, is one of the fastest growing tourist destinations in the world according to the MasterCard Global Destination Cities Index. Moscow is the coldest megacity on Earth.
It is home to the Ostankino Tower, the tallest free standing structure in Europe. By its territorial expansion on July 1, 2012 southwest into the Moscow Oblast, the area of the capital more than doubled, going from 1,091 to 2,511 square kilometers, resulting in Moscow becoming the largest city on the European continent by area. Moscow is situated on the Moskva River in the Central Federal District of European Russia, making it Europe's most populated inland city; the city is well known for its architecture its historic buildings such as Saint Basil's Cathedral with its colorful architectural style. With over 40 percent of its territory covered by greenery, it is one of the greenest capitals and major cities in Europe and the world, having the largest forest in an urban area within its borders—more than any other major city—even before its expansion in 2012; the city has served as the capital of a progression of states, from the medieval Grand Duchy of Moscow and the subsequent Tsardom of Russia to the Russian Empire to the Soviet Union and the contemporary Russian Federation.
Moscow is a seat of power of the Government of Russia, being the site of the Moscow Kremlin, a medieval city-fortress, today the residence for work of the President of Russia. The Moscow Kremlin and Red Square are one of several World Heritage Sites in the city. Both chambers of the Russian parliament sit in the city. Moscow is considered the center of Russian culture, having served as the home of Russian artists and sports figures and because of the presence of museums and political institutions and theatres; the city is served by a transit network, which includes four international airports, nine railway terminals, numerous trams, a monorail system and one of the deepest underground rapid transit systems in the world, the Moscow Metro, the fourth-largest in the world and largest outside Asia in terms of passenger numbers, the busiest in Europe. It is recognized as one of the city's landmarks due to the rich architecture of its 200 stations. Moscow has acquired a number of epithets, most referring to its size and preeminent status within the nation: The Third Rome, the Whitestone One, the First Throne, the Forty Soroks.
Moscow is one of the twelve Hero Cities. The demonym for a Moscow resident is "москвич" for male or "москвичка" for female, rendered in English as Muscovite; the name "Moscow" is abbreviated "MSK". The name of the city is thought to be derived from the name of the Moskva River. There have been proposed several theories of the origin of the name of the river. Finno-Ugric Merya and Muroma people, who were among the several Early Eastern Slavic tribes which inhabited the area, called the river Mustajoki, it has been suggested. The most linguistically well grounded and accepted is from the Proto-Balto-Slavic root *mŭzg-/muzg- from the Proto-Indo-European *meu- "wet", so the name Moskva might signify a river at a wetland or a marsh, its cognates include Russian: музга, muzga "pool, puddle", Lithuanian: mazgoti and Latvian: mazgāt "to wash", Sanskrit: májjati "to drown", Latin: mergō "to dip, immerse". In many Slavic countries Moskov is a surname, most common in Bulgaria, Russia and North Macedonia. There exist as well similar place names in Poland like Mozgawa.
The original Old Russian form of the name is reconstructed as *Москы, *Mosky, hence it was one of a few Slavic ū-stem nouns. As with other nouns of that declension, it had been undergoing a morphological transformation at the early stage of the development of the language, as a result the first written mentions in the 12th century were Московь, Moskovĭ, Москви, Moskvi, Москвe/Москвѣ, Moskve/Moskvě. From the latter forms came the modern Russian name Москва, a result of morphological generalisation with the numerous Slavic ā-stem nouns. However, the form Moskovĭ has left some traces in many other languages, such as English: Moscow, German: Moskau, French: Moscou, Georgian: მოსკოვი, Latvian: Maskava, Ottoman Turkish: Moskov, Tatar: Мәскәү, Mäskäw, Kazakh: Мәскеу, Mäskew, Chuvash: Мускав, etc. In a similar manner the Latin name Moscovia has been formed it became a collo