California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
Trade, intermarriage a
The Cell is a 2000 science fiction horror film directed by Tarsem Singh in his directorial debut, starring Jennifer Lopez, Vince Vaughn, Vincent D'Onofrio. It received mixed reviews upon its release, with critics praising its visuals, make-up, costumes and D'Onofrio's performance, while criticizing its Silence of the Lambs-inspired plot, an emphasis on style rather than substance, masochistic imagery. Child psychologist Catherine Deane is hired to conduct an experimental virtual reality treatment for coma patients: a "Neurological Cartography and Synaptic Transfer System" device managed by doctors Henry West and Miriam Kent that allows her to enter a comatose mind and attempt to coax them into consciousness; the technology is funded by the parents of her patient, Edward Baines, a young boy left comatose by a latent viral infection that causes an unusual form of schizophrenia. Despite Deane's lack of progress and Kent reject Deane's suggestion to reverse the feed to bring Baines into her mind, fearing the unknown consequences of him experiencing an unfamiliar world.
Serial killer Carl Rudolph Stargher traps his victims in a cell in the form of a glass enclosure that fills with water by means of an automatic timer uses a hoist in his basement to suspend himself above their bodies while watching the recorded video of their deaths. He succumbs to the same schizophrenic illness and falls into a coma just as the FBI identifies him, leaving them without any leads as to the location of his latest victim, Julia Hickson. After learning of this experimental technology, Agent Peter Novak persuades Deane to enter Stargher's mind and discover Hickson's location. Deane enters the dark dreamscape of Stargher's twisted psyche, filled with doll-like replicas of his victims. Stargher's innocent side manifests as Young Stargher and leads Deane through his memories of abuse he suffered at the hands of his sadistic father. Deane nurtures Young Stargher in hopes of getting Hickson's location but she is thwarted by another manifestation: King Stargher, a demonic idealization of his murderous side that dominates the dreamscape.
King Stargher torments Deane until she is mentally at his mercy, making her forget the world is not real. Dr. West discovers this while monitoring Deane's vitals, he warns that what happens to Deane while she is integrated into Stargher's mindscape will inflict neurological damage on her real body. Novak volunteers to enter Stargher's mind to make Deane remember herself. Inside Stargher's mind, Novak is captured and subjected to King Stargher's torture while Deane looks on as Stargher's servant. Novak reminds Deane of a painful memory to reawaken her awareness. Deane stabs King Stargher to free Novak. During their escape, Novak sees a version of the glass enclosure with the same insignia as the hoist in Stargher's basement. Novak's team discovers that after the hoist's previous owner went bankrupt, the government hired Stargher to seal up his property. Novak races to the property, where the enclosure is filled but Hickson is treading water and breathing through a pipe. Novak rescues Hickson. Deane, now sympathetic to Young Stargher, locks her colleagues out and reverses the feed of the device to pull Stargher's mind into her own.
She presents a comforting paradise to Young Stargher but he knows it is only a temporary reprieve from King Stargher. He shifts to Adult Stargher to relate a childhood story of when he drowned an injured bird as a mercy killing to prevent its torture at his father's hands. King Stargher intrudes as a scaly snake-man but this time, Deane is in control and she beats him to a bloody pulp before impaling him with a sword. However, Young Stargher exhibits the same injuries as King Stargher, killing either manifestation kills Stargher. Adult Stargher implores her to "save" him. Deane carries Young Stargher into a pool, putting him out of his misery as Stargher dies in the real world. In the aftermath and Novak meet outside of Stargher's house; the FBI has excluded the mind technology from their inquiry and Deane has gotten approval to use the reverse feed on Edward Baines. The final scene is of Baines walking to embrace Deane inside the paradise of Deane's mindscape. Jennifer Lopez as Dr. Catherine Deane Vincent D'Onofrio as Carl Rudolph Stargher Vince Vaughn as Special Agent Peter Novak Jake Weber as Special Agent Gordon Ramsey Dylan Baker as Henry West Marianne Jean-Baptiste as Dr. Miriam Kent Tara Subkoff as Julia Hickson Catherine Sutherland as Anne Marie Vicksey Colton James as Edward Baines Musetta Vander as Ella Baines Patrick Bauchau as Lucien Baines Jake Thomas as Young Carl Rudolph Stargher James Gammon as Teddy Lee Dean Norris as Cole Pruitt Taylor Vince as Dr. Reid Kim Chizevsky-Nicholls as Stargher's victim Fernando Colunga as Dr Carlos Manuel Director Tarsem Singh asked Tara Subkoff, during her interview, if she could swim, to which she responded that she could and that she had been a lifeguard.
It turned out. Singh would have switched her role with Catherine Sutherland, but it was too late and there was not enough money or time to re-shoot; the scene where the Special Agents are trying to convince Dr. Catherine Deane to enter the killer's mind was recorded at the Barcelona Pavilion in Barcelona, Spain; some of the scenes in The Cell are inspired by works of art. A scene in which a horse is split into sections by falling glass panels was inspired by the works of British artist Damien Hirst; the film includes scenes based on the work of other late 20th century artists, including Odd Nerdrum, H. R
La Casa Alvarado
La Casa Alvarado known as the Alvarado Adobe, is a historic adobe structure built in 1840 and located on Old Settlers Lane in Pomona, California. It was declared a historic landmark in 1954 and added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1978; the Casa Alvarado is located on a portion of the 22,000-acre Rancho San Jose granted to Ygnacio Palomares and Ricardo Vejas in 1837. In 1840, Palomares invited his close friend, Ygnacio Alvarado, to live on the ranch and gave him a plot of land near Palomares' own home, La Casa Primera de Rancho San Jose; the land was given to Alvarado with the stipulation that Alvarado would build a chapel in his home to be used for church services when padres visited from the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel. The large 18-foot by 42-foot living room of the Casa Alvarado was used for church services for 45 years; the Alvarado's adobe living room was the site of the first public school classes in the Pomona Valley, starting in 1870 or 1871. For more than 120 years, the house had only three owners.
It remained in the Alvardo family from 1840 to 1886, when it was purchased and occupied by Dr. Benjamin S. Nichols and his family. Prior to 1900, Dr. Nichols added redwood frame additions to the house; the house remained in the Nichols family for 65 years. In 1951, Alphonse and Isabel Fages purchased the home. Alphonse was born in Pomona and a descendant of Ricardo Vejar, who in 1837 was the co-grantee of the Rancho San Jose along with Ygnacio Palomares. Isabel was the descendant of Spanish settlers and had served as the president of the Historical Society of Pomona Valley and the editor of the official publication of the Native Sons and Daughters of the Golden West; the Fages bought the adobe with plans to preserve it. The house included two-and-a-half acres of land, but the Fages sold several lots reducing it to one acre. In 1954, the Native Daughters of the Golden West declared the Casa Alvarado to be a historic landmark and dedicated a historical marker on the site; the site was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1978.
Though designated as a historic site, the Casa Alvarado remains a private home and is not open to the public. It is for sale. List of Registered Historic Places in Los Angeles County, California Rancho San Jose Ygnacio Palomares Adobe La Casa Primera de Rancho San Jose
Chino Hills, California
Chino Hills is a city located in the southwestern corner of San Bernardino County, United States. The city borders Los Angeles County on its northwest side, Orange County to its south, Riverside County to its southeast. After the Spanish founded Mission San Gabriel in 1771, the Chino Hills was used extensively for grazing by mission cattle. During the Mexican Republic era, the hills were used as spillover grazing from such surrounding Mexican ranchos as Santa Ana del Chino and Rancho La Sierra. After Mexico ceded California to the United States it was, still is, a swamp and subject to flooding annually. Most historical dwellings were demolished in the rush to build. A local state monument is present in the grass lawn area of the local fire department if one looks closely. Casa Colina, a well-known rehabilitation center now situated in Pomona California, began as a tubercular clinic in the Los Serranos sector; the well-known hospital, Loma Linda Hospital had its beginnings as a tubercular clinic.
Sadly, most patients admitted for tuberculosis, succumbed to the illness because of the ineffectiveness of pre-antibiotic treatments. This land was sold to Richard Gird, the founder of nearby Chino subdivision and from which the town of Chino sprung in 1910. With the building of the Carbon Canyon Mineral Springs in the modern-day Sleepy Hollow region of the city and the new Los Serranos Country Club in Los Serranos, Chino Hills, the area became a destination for both Los Angeles tourists and bootleggers during the prohibition because of its isolation. For the same reason, Sleepy Hollow became a destination for artists during the 1960s. During the late 1980s, an incorporation effort began and in 1991, the city was incorporated with a population of 42,000. Due to its topography of rolling hills, Chino Hills was rural prior to the mid-1970s. Rapid and extensive housing developments followed throughout the 1980s and early 1990s, only slowing down in recent years. Most neighborhoods are arranged in a village-type format with strategically placed shopping centers and parks designed to be within walking distance of nearby homes.
Chino Hills is home to the Vellano Country Club, a private golf course and housing development designed by golf champion Greg Norman, his first project in the Greater Los Angeles area. Chino Hills includes the developed golf course development neighborhood of Los Serranos. Other large master-planned subdivisions without amenities include Woodview/Village Crossing, Gordon Ranch, LaBand Village, Butterfield Ranch, Rolling Ridge, Fairfield Ranch, Payne Ranch. Chino Hills is the location of The Shoppes at Chino Hills; the mall features over 65 upscale restaurants. The Shoppes is designed to be "Main Street Chino Hills" featuring the Chino Hills Government Center and Library in addition to retail outlets. On July 29, 2008, a 5.4 magnitude earthquake occurred at 11:42:15 am PDT. It was the largest earthquake to affect the urbanized portion of Southern California since the 2004 Parkfield-San Bernardino earthquake; some incidents of damage were reported. The earthquake was felt as far south as San Diego and as far north as Las Vegas.
The quake was reported to have interrupted a taping of the show Judge Judy, as well as a first-day taping of the new show Judge Penny. The epicenter was located in the southeast portion of the Yorba Linda Fault. Chino Hills was ranked 30th in Money magazine's "Best places to live 2012." It is the 6th highest income place in the United States and was ranked as the 11th safest city in the United States in 2011 by the FBI. and 7th safest city overall in the U. S. in 2016 according to FBI crime data. Chino Hills is a part of the Chino Valley. Chino Hills' reputation is known in the national arena as well, as it was featured on the list of 57 of America's hottest towns in the January 2004 issue of Money magazine. Chino Hills was ranked 4th on the list of "best places in the west with a population under 100,000." The magazine reviewed a decade of data for communities with above average population growth and home prices "to see where people were most willing to devote a high multiple of their annual income to live ever after."
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 44.8 square miles, much of, undeveloped rolling hills, including the Chino Hills State Park. 44.7 square miles of it is land and 0.1 square miles of it is water. The city of Chino Hills is bounded by the Los Angeles County cities of Pomona and Diamond Bar to the north and to the northwest, the San Bernardino County city of Chino to the east, unincorporated Riverside County near Corona to the southeast, the Orange County cities of Brea and Yorba Linda to the west and southwest as well as an unincorporated area of Orange County between Brea and Yorba Linda and a small unincorporated area between Yorba Linda and Anaheim mistaken as part of the city of Anaheim, to the southwest and south, respectively; the eastern border of Chino Hills follows the Chino Valley Freeway, which offers access to the Pomona Freeway to the north and the Riverside Freeway to the south. Undeveloped hills form the western border, which serves as the San Bernardino – Orange County line.
Because this area is undeveloped, there is only one road directly connecting Chino Hills and Orange County, Carbon Canyon
Ygnacio Palomares Adobe
The Ygnacio Palomares Adobe known as Adobe de Palomares, is a one-story adobe brick structure in Pomona, built between 1850 and 1855 as a residence for Don Ygnacio Palomares. It was abandoned in the 1880s and was left to the elements until it was acquired by the City of Pomona in the 1930s. In 1939, the adobe was restored in a joint project of the City of Pomona, the Historical Society of Pomona Valley and the Works Project Administration. Since 1940, it has been open to the public as a museum on life in the Mexican ranchos, it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1971. Of the more than 400 sites in Los Angeles County that have been listed on the National Register, fewer than ten received the distinction prior to the Ygnacio Palomares Adobe; the Ygancio Palomares Adobe, built between 1850 and 1855, was once the center of the sprawling 22,000-acre Rancho San Jose. The Rancho San Jose consisted of land taken from the Mission San Gabriel in 1834 as part of the Mexican government's secularization decree.
In 1837, Mexican Governor Juan Bautista Alvarado granted the land to Ygnacio Palomares and Ricardo Vejar, both Californio sons of New Spain natives. The Rancho San Jose operated by Dons Palomares and Vejar covered land that now forms the communities of Pomona, LaVerne, San Dimas, Diamond Bar, Covina, Walnut and Claremont. Palomares lived in "La Casa Primera", an earlier adobe, operated by the Historical Society of Pomona Valley. Between 1850 and 1855, Palomares built a new home, the present historic site; the 13-room adobe was built in a T-shape with a courtyard. The living room and master bedroom were located at the stem of the T, the adobe had four more bedrooms, a dining room, storeroom and storage chambers; the kitchen was located at the north end of the T, close to the outdoor oven. The house has been said to represent the blending of Mexican adobe construction and American styles, with the use of wood-shake roofing and milled-wood flooring on the adobe structure; the Palomares Adobe was used for a time as an overnight stagecoach stop at the midway point between Los Angeles and San Bernardino.
The Palomares home was "the heart of the rancho," with its doors open to travelers and a store that provided goods to settlers. The large living room served for many years as a meeting place and a chapel where padres from the San Gabriel Mission would travel once a month to say mass. Ygnacio Palomares and his wife operated the land as a sheep and cattle ranch, grew their own crops, raised five children at the adobe; the ranch prospered for many years. Smallpox claimed the lives of three of the Palomares' children, Don Ygnacio died in 1864. Don Ygnacio's widow, Dona Concepcion Lopez de Palomares, began selling off the ranch land in 1865. In 1874, another of the Palomares' children died, Dona China sold the remaining 2,000 acres, including the adobe, at $8 an acre, to John R. Loop and Alvin R. Meserve; the new owners, the Meserve family, continued to maintain the adobe as a community gathering place after acquiring it in 1874. Prominent Los Angeles attorney Edwin A. Meserve recalled coming to the adobe as "a sickly youngster of 13" in 1877, regaining his health while living in the old adobe.
However, by the mid-1880s, the old adobe had been deserted. From the 1880s through the 1920s, the adobe was left to the elements and fell into severe disrepair, with whole wings of the house being washed away and the walls and roof crumbling; the dilapidated condition of the adobe is shown in 1938 photographs seen here. In 1934, the City of Pomona purchased the land for a reservoir, the Historical Society of Pomona Valley began plans for restoration of the old adobe. In the spring and summer of 1939, 70 WPA workers began the process of restoring the adobe; the workers used dirt from the Ganesha Gills for adobe mud to build new adobe bricks. The adobe bricks were made using straw as the only binder, molding the bricks in forms by hand, curing the bricks in the sun. 25,000 new adobe bricks were used in the restoration process. The cost of the restoration was placed at $54,000. Many of the bricks were made from the broken original adobe bricks, the new bricks can be distinguished by the short lengths of straw used to mix with the mud, while marsh grass can be seen in the old adobe bricks.
The restoration was completed in December 1939, the restored house was furnished with period furniture typical of the California ranchos, much of it donated by Mrs. Harry Walker of San Dimas; the original landscaping was restored with wisteria vines, wild cherry, black walnut and poplar trees. Charles Gibbs Adams oversaw the landscaping restoration, planting trees and rosebushes in the same locations where they had been in the mid-19th Century; the adobe was dedicated and opened to the public in April 1940 as a museum focusing on life in the early California ranchos. At the dedication ceremony, the keys were presented by Pomona's mayor to the Historical Society of Pomona Valley, Ygancio Palomares, grandson of Don Ygnacio, "danced the dances taught him by his grandmother, his granddaughter Hilda Ramirez, being his dancing partner." The restoration was well-received, with one writer in the Los Angeles Times writing: "The example of this restoration ought to inspire other communities and families to do the same.
This adobe has now become an imperishable glorification of early California, an irresistible lure for modern visitors." Two years the Times reported: "The structure has become famous throughout the nation as a per
Modernism is a philosophical movement that, along with cultural trends and changes, arose from wide-scale and far-reaching transformations in Western society during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Among the factors that shaped modernism were the development of modern industrial societies and the rapid growth of cities, followed by reactions of horror to World War I. Modernism rejected the certainty of Enlightenment thinking, many modernists rejected religious belief. Modernism, in general, includes the activities and creations of those who felt the traditional forms of art, literature, religious faith, social organization, activities of daily life, sciences, were becoming ill-fitted to their tasks and outdated in the new economic and political environment of an emerging industrialized world; the poet Ezra Pound's 1934 injunction to "Make it new!" was the touchstone of the movement's approach towards what it saw as the now obsolete culture of the past. In this spirit, its innovations, like the stream-of-consciousness novel and twelve-tone music, divisionist painting and abstract art, all had precursors in the 19th century.
A notable characteristic of modernism is self-consciousness and irony concerning literary and social traditions, which led to experiments with form, along with the use of techniques that drew attention to the processes and materials used in creating a painting, building, etc. Modernism explicitly rejected the ideology of realism and made use of the works of the past by the employment of reprise, rewriting, recapitulation and parody; some commentators define modernism as a mode of thinking—one or more philosophically defined characteristics, like self-consciousness or self-reference, that run across all the novelties in the arts and the disciplines. More common in the West, are those who see it as a progressive trend of thought that affirms the power of human beings to create and reshape their environment with the aid of practical experimentation, scientific knowledge, or technology. From this perspective, modernism encouraged the re-examination of every aspect of existence, from commerce to philosophy, with the goal of finding that which was'holding back' progress, replacing it with new ways of reaching the same end.
Others focus on modernism as an aesthetic introspection. This facilitates consideration of specific reactions to the use of technology in the First World War, anti-technological and nihilistic aspects of the works of diverse thinkers and artists spanning the period from Friedrich Nietzsche to Samuel Beckett. While some scholars see modernism continuing into the twenty first century, others see it evolving into late modernism or high modernism. Postmodernism refutes its basic assumptions. According to one critic, modernism developed out of Romanticism's revolt against the effects of the Industrial Revolution and bourgeois values: "The ground motive of modernism, Graff asserts, was criticism of the nineteenth-century bourgeois social order and its world view the modernists, carrying the torch of romanticism." While J. M. W. Turner, one of the greatest landscape painters of the 19th century, was a member of the Romantic movement, as "a pioneer in the study of light and atmosphere", he "anticipated the French Impressionists" and therefore modernism "in breaking down conventional formulas of representation.
The dominant trends of industrial Victorian England were opposed, from about 1850, by the English poets and painters that constituted the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, because of their "opposition to technical skill without inspiration." They were influenced by the writings of the art critic John Ruskin, who had strong feelings about the role of art in helping to improve the lives of the urban working classes, in the expanding industrial cities of Britain. Art critic Clement Greenberg describes the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood as proto-Modernists: "There the proto-Modernists were, of all people, the pre-Raphaelites; the Pre-Raphaelites foreshadowed Manet, with whom Modernist painting most begins. They acted on a dissatisfaction with painting as practiced in their time, holding that its realism wasn't truthful enough." Rationalism has had opponents in the philosophers Søren Kierkegaard and Friedrich Nietzsche, both of whom had significant influence on existentialism. However, the Industrial Revolution continued.
Influential innovations included steam-powered industrialization, the development of railways, starting in Britain in the 1830s, the subsequent advancements in physics and architecture associated with this. A major 19th-century engineering achievement was The Crystal Palace, the huge cast-iron and plate glass exhibition hall built for The Great Exhibition of 1851 in London. Glass and iron were used in a similar monumental style in the construction of major railway terminals in London, such as Paddington Station and King's Cross station; these technological advances led to the building of structures like the Brooklyn Bridge and the Eiffel Tower. The latter broke all previous limitations on; these engineering marvels radically altered the 19th-century urban environment and the daily lives of people. The human experience of time itself was altered, with the development of the electric telegraph from 1837, the adoption
Thom Mayne is an American architect. He is based in Los Angeles. In 1972, Mayne helped found the Southern California Institute of Architecture, where he is a trustee. Since he has held teaching positions at SCI-Arc, the California State Polytechnic University and the University of California, Los Angeles, he is principal of an architectural firm in Culver City, California. Mayne received the Pritzker Architecture Prize in March 2005. Mayne was born in Connecticut, he studied architecture at the University of Southern California and studied at the Harvard University Graduate School of Design in 1978, with a social agenda and urban planning focus, receiving his bachelor's degree, he began working as an urban planner under Korean-born architect Ki Suh Park. During that time he recalls that "policy and planning were not going to work for me" and that he "needed a more tangible resolution." Mayne found himself living on a commune with the grass-roots group Campaign for Economic Democracy, many of whom became his earliest clients.
In 1972, Mayne abruptly left Cal Poly Pomona and collaborated with five other students and educators whom he met at while at USC, to create the Southern California Institute of Architecture, or SCI-Arc. The rift was due to differences between the dean at Cal Poly at the time and Ray Kappe, who headed the school's architecture department; the goal of the new institute was to reinvigorate formal architectural education with a keener sense of social conscience. SCI-Arc was "to bring to Los Angeles the critical attitude toward the profession, being practiced at Cooper Union in New York and the Architectural Association in London." Mayne and some others founded Morphosis in 1972. The firm's design philosophy arises from an interest in producing work with a meaning that can be understood by absorbing the culture for which it was made, their goal was to develop an architecture that would eschew the normal bounds of traditional forms. Beginning as an informal collaboration of designers that survived on non-architectural projects, its first official commission was a school in Pasadena, attended by Mayne's son.
Publicity from this project led to a number of residential commissions, including the Lawrence Residence. Mayne describes the early days of the group as more of a "garage band" than a practice, they spent their free time experimenting with new inventions for their clients, whom consisted of friends and parents of students. When work was at a standstill, Mayne took a year off to earn his Master of Architecture degree from Harvard University, he graduated in 1978 and returned to work for Morphosis where he became the principal architect, lead designer and principal in charge for all of Morphosis' projects. The firm has grown with completed projects worldwide. Under the Design Excellence program of the United States government's General Service Administration, Thom Mayne has become a primary architect for federal projects. Recent commissions include: graduate housing at the University of Toronto; the work of Morphosis has a layered quality. Visually, the firm's architecture includes sculptural forms.
In recent years, such visual effect has been made possible through computer design techniques, which simplify the construction of complex forms. Mayne remains a presence in the academic world, he teaches at the University of Pennsylvania and has held teaching positions at many institutions including Columbia University, Harvard University, Yale University, the Berlage Institute in the Netherlands and the Bartlett School of Architecture in London. He is a tenured faculty member at the UCLA School of Arts and Architecture. In 2013, he contributed a foreword to the book "Never Built Los Angeles" by Sam Lubell and Greg Goldin. Kate Mantilini / Beverly Hills, CA, 1986 6th Street Residence, Santa Monica, CA, 1988 Cedar Sinai Comprehensive Cancer Center, Los Angeles, CA, 1988 Crawford Residence, Montecito, CA, 1990 Salick Healthcare Office Building, Los Angeles, CA, 1991 Blades Residence, Santa Barbara, California, 1995 Sun Tower in Seoul, Korea 1997 Diamond Ranch High School, California, 1999 University of Toronto Graduate House, Ontario, Canada, 2000 Hypo Alpe-Adria Center, Austria, 2002 Caltrans District 7 Headquarters, Los Angeles, California, 2004 Science Center School, Los Angeles, California, 2004 University of Cincinnati Student Recreation Center, Ohio, 2006 Public housing in Madrid, Spain, 2006 Wayne L. Morse United States Courthouse, Oregon, 2006 San Francisco Federal Building, San Francisco, California, 2006 Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics at the California Institute of Technology, California, 2009 National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration Satellite Operation Facility, Maryland, 2007 New Academic Building at 41 Cooper Square, The Cooper Union for the Advancement of Science and Art, New York, New York, 2009 Perot Museum of Nature & Science, Victory Park, Texas, 2012 Bill and Melinda Gates Hall, Cornell University, New York, 2013 Emerson College Los Angeles Center, Los Angeles, California, 2014 Vialia Vigo, Galicia, Spain, 2016 Phare Tower known as "Le Phare" and "The Lighthouse", "green" wind-powered office building, La Défense, France, 2017 Cornell NYC Tech, Roosevelt Island, New York, 2017 A. Alfred Taubman Engineering and Life Sciences Complex, Lawrenc