Jakarta /dʒəˈkɑːrtə/, officially the Special Capital Region of Jakarta, is the capital and most populous city of the Republic of Indonesia. Located on the northwest coast of the worlds most populous island of Java, Jakarta is the economic, cultural and political centre. The official metropolitan area, known as Jabodetabek, is the second largest in the world, established in the fourth century, the city became an important trading port for the Kingdom of Sunda. It was the de facto capital of the Dutch East Indies, today, the city has continued as the capital of Indonesia since the countrys independence was declared in 1945. Jakarta is listed as a city in the 2012 Globalization and World Cities Study Group. Based on the global metro monitor by the Brookings Institution, in 2014, Jakarta has grown more rapidly than Kuala Lumpur, Beijing, and Bangkok. Jakarta has been home to multiple settlements along with their names, Sunda Kelapa, Jayakarta, Batavia, Djakarta. Its current name derives from the word Jayakarta, the origins of this word can be traced to the Old Javanese and ultimately to the Sanskrit language. Jayakarta translates as victorious deed, complete act, or complete victory, Jakarta is nicknamed the Big Durian, the thorny strongly-odored fruit native to the region, as the city is seen as the Indonesian equivalent of the US city of New York. In the colonial era, the city was known as Koningin van het Oosten, initially in the 17th century for the urban beauty of downtown Batavias canals, mansions. After expanding to the south in the 19th century, this came to be more associated with the suburbs, with their wide lanes, many green spaces. The area in and around modern Jakarta was part of the fourth century Sundanese kingdom of Tarumanagara, following the decline of Tarumanagara, its territories, including the Jakarta area, became part of the Hindu Kingdom of Sunda. From 7th to early 13th century port of Sunda was within the sphere of influence of the Srivijaya maritime empire. According to the Chinese source, Chu-fan-chi, written circa 1225, Chou Ju-kua reported in the early 13th century Srivijaya still ruled Sumatra, the source reports the port of Sunda as strategic and thriving, pepper from Sunda being among the best in quality. The people worked in agriculture and their houses were built on wooden piles, the harbour area became known as Sunda Kelapa and by the fourteenth century, it was a major trading port for Sunda kingdom. The first European fleet, four Portuguese ships from Malacca, arrived in 1513 when the Portuguese were looking for a route for spices, in 1527, Fatahillah, a Javanese general from Demak attacked and conquered Sunda Kelapa, driving out the Portuguese. Sunda Kelapa was renamed Jayakarta, and became a fiefdom of the Sultanate of Banten which became a major Southeast Asia trading centre, through the relationship with Prince Jayawikarta from the Sultanate of Banten, Dutch ships arrived in Jayakarta in 1596. In 1602, the English East India Companys first voyage, commanded by Sir James Lancaster, arrived in Aceh and this site became the centre of English trade in Indonesia until 1682
Indonesia, officially the Republic of Indonesia, is a unitary sovereign state and transcontinental country located mainly in Southeast Asia with some territories in Oceania. Situated between the Indian and Pacific oceans, it is the worlds largest island country, with more than seventeen thousand islands. At 1,904,569 square kilometres, Indonesia is the worlds 14th-largest country in terms of area and worlds 7th-largest country in terms of combined sea. It has an population of over 260 million people and is the worlds fourth most populous country. The worlds most populous island, Java, contains more than half of the countrys population, Indonesias republican form of government includes an elected legislature and president. Indonesia has 34 provinces, of which five have Special Administrative status and its capital and countrys most populous city is Jakarta, which is also the most populous city in Southeast Asia and the second in Asia. The country shares land borders with Papua New Guinea, East Timor, other neighbouring countries include Singapore, Vietnam, the Philippines, Australia, Palau, and the Indian territory of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Despite its large population and densely populated regions, Indonesia has vast areas of wilderness that support the second highest level of biodiversity. The country has abundant natural resources like oil and natural gas, tin, copper, agriculture mainly produces rice, palm oil, tea, coffee, cacao, medicinal plants, spices and rubber. Indonesias major trading partners are Japan, United States, China, the Indonesian archipelago has been an important region for trade since at least the 7th century, when Srivijaya and then later Majapahit traded with China and India. Local rulers gradually absorbed foreign cultural, religious and political models from the early centuries CE, Indonesian history has been influenced by foreign powers drawn to its natural resources. Indonesia consists of hundreds of native ethnic and linguistic groups. The largest – and politically dominant – ethnic group are the Javanese, a shared identity has developed, defined by a national language, ethnic diversity, religious pluralism within a Muslim-majority population, and a history of colonialism and rebellion against it. Indonesias national motto, Bhinneka Tunggal Ika, articulates the diversity that shapes the country, Indonesias economy is the worlds 16th largest by nominal GDP and the 8th largest by GDP at PPP, the largest in Southeast Asia, and is considered an emerging market and newly industrialised country. Indonesia has been a member of the United Nations since 1950, Indonesia is a member of the G20 major economies and World Trade Organization. The name Indonesia derives from the Greek name of the Indós, the name dates to the 18th century, far predating the formation of independent Indonesia. In 1850, George Windsor Earl, an English ethnologist, proposed the terms Indunesians—and, his preference, in the same publication, one of his students, James Richardson Logan, used Indonesia as a synonym for Indian Archipelago. However, Dutch academics writing in East Indies publications were reluctant to use Indonesia, they preferred Malay Archipelago, the Netherlands East Indies, popularly Indië, the East, and Insulinde
Ada Apa dengan Cinta?
Ada Apa Dengan Cinta. is a 2002 Indonesian Film directed by Rudy Soedjarwo. The Indonesian title is a play on words, as Cinta is also the name of the main character, as such, the title can be translated as Whats Up with Love. as well as Whats Up with Cinta. The film is coloured with Indonesian mainstream as well as values, elements of classical culture and politics. The film raised censorship controversies among conservative Muslims in Indonesia, being the first Indonesian teen movie that featured a scene of a passionate kiss, the movie is known as Beautiful Days in Japan. Shortly after its success, Whats Up with Love. was adapted into a sinetron version, in 2014, Japanese chatting application LINE released a promotional short film featuring the cast of Whats Up with Love. 2014 that portrays Rangga contacting Cinta via LINE after 12 years, the shorts success led to a full-length feature film sequel, Ada Apa Dengan Cinta. 2 in 2016 that serves as a follow up to this movie. The sequel was met with much success, Cinta is a popular teenage girl living a comfortable lifestyle. She is gifted and accomplished, surrounded by a group of friends consisting of the wise Alya the tomboyish Karmen, the sassy Maura. She also has caring and supportive parents, the story begins with Cinta and her four best friends crying on each others shoulders for Alya, who was the victim of domestic abuse by her father. Cinta recites the groups pledge to the buku curhat, a diary or scrapbook shared by the girls, that a problem one of them is going through is to be shared with all of them. Cinta is a poet who has been honored for her work. However, much to the surprise, Cinta didnt win. The grand prize in the contest is awarded to a boy named Rangga, however, Rangga, rather than going to the podium to receive his prize, took offence and retreated to a hiding spot. Cinta is somewhat jealous of Ranggas unexpected victory, but is not to show it. This leads Cinta to search for Rangga and request an interview for the school bulletin, however, Rangga immediately detects insincerity in Cintas congratulations and walks away, leaving Cinta to be irritated by his perceived arrogance. As it turns out, Rangga never entered his poem for the contest, it was submitted on his behalf by his only best friend, Cinta and Rangga starts to dislike each other ever since, and so does her friends. They briefly warm up to each other after Rangga thank Cinta for returning his book and it didnt last long since Rangga offends Cinta in a bookstore
Citra Award for Best Leading Actress
The Citra Award for Best Leading Actress is an award given at the Indonesian Film Festival to Indonesian actresses for their achievements in lead roles. The Citra Awards, described by Screen International as Indonesias equivalent to the Oscars, are the countrys most prestigious film awards and they are intended to recognise Indonesian achievements in film and draw the publics interest to the cinema industry. The Citra Awards, then known as the Indonesian Film Festival Awards, were first given at the IFF in early 1955, succeeding festivals were held in 1960 and 1967. From 1973 the IFF was held annually and this continued uninterrupted until after the 1992 IFF, when a sharp decline in film production led the festival to be discontinued. It was reinstated as an event in 2004, after receiving funds from the Indonesian government. The most recent winner is Tara Basro, who won a Citra Award at the 2015 IFF for her acting in A Copy of My Mind, a total of 74 actresses have been nominated for a Citra Award,24 of whom have won at least one. Four other actresses have won multiple Citra Awards, Jenny Rachman, Lydia Kandou, Meriam Bellina, Mieke Wijaya, noer, Nurul Arifin, Paramitha Rusady, and Zoraya Perucha – have received three nominations without winning. Four films have seen multiple cast members receive nominations, of these, only Mengejar Mas-Mas earned a win, with Dinna Olivia receiving the award
Both the role of the physician and the meaning of the word itself vary around the world. Degrees and other qualifications vary widely, but there are common elements, such as medical ethics requiring that physicians show consideration, compassion. Around the world the term refers to a specialist in internal medicine or one of its many sub-specialties. This meaning of physician conveys a sense of expertise in treatment by drugs or medications and this term is at least nine hundred years old in English, physicians and surgeons were once members of separate professions, and traditionally were rivals. Henry VIII granted a charter to the London Royal College of Physicians in 1518 and it was not until 1540 that he granted the Company of Barber/Surgeons its separate charter. In the same year, the English monarch established the Regius Professorship of Physic at the University of Cambridge, newer universities would probably describe such an academic as a professor of internal medicine. Hence, in the 16th century, physic meant roughly what internal medicine does now, currently, a specialist physician in the United States may be described as an internist. Another term, hospitalist, was introduced in 1996, to describe US specialists in internal medicine who work largely or exclusively in hospitals, such hospitalists now make up about 19% of all US general internists, who are often called general physicians in Commonwealth countries. In such places, the more general English terms doctor or medical practitioner are prevalent, in Commonwealth countries, specialist pediatricians and geriatricians are also described as specialist physicians who have sub-specialized by age of patient rather than by organ system. Around the world, the term physician and surgeon is used to describe either a general practitioner or any medical practitioner irrespective of specialty. This usage still shows the meaning of physician and preserves the old difference between a physician, as a practitioner of physic, and a surgeon. The term may be used by state medical boards in the United States of America, in modern English, the term physician is used in two main ways, with relatively broad and narrow meanings respectively. This is the result of history and is often confusing and these meanings and variations are explained below. In the United States and Canada, the term physician describes all medical practitioners holding a professional medical degree, the American Medical Association, established in 1847, as well as the American Osteopathic Association, founded in 1897, both currently use the term physician to describe members. However, the American College of Physicians, established in 1915, does not, its title uses physician in its original sense. A physician trained in the United States has either a Doctor of Medicine degree, all boards of certification now require that physicians demonstrate, by examination, continuing mastery of the core knowledge and skills for a chosen specialty. Recertification varies by particular specialty between every seven and every ten years, graduates of osteopathic medical schools in the United States should not be confused with osteopaths, who are trained in the European and Commonwealth nations. Their training is similar to physical therapy and they are not licensed to prescribe medications or perform surgeries, also in the United States, the American Podiatric Medical Association defines podiatrists as physicians and surgeons that fall under the department of surgery in hospitals
Soenario, also spelled Sunario, was Indonesias minister of foreign affairs from 1953 to 1955. He returned to Java in the late 1920s and established a law practice in Bandung, while becoming active in Sukarnos Perserikatan Nasional Indonesia. In 1928, he was Bandungs delegate to the Second Indonesian Youth Congress in Batavia, on 30 July 1953, Soenario was appointed minister of foreign affairs in the cabinet of the prime minister Ali Sastroamidjojo. Soenario had a key role in the formation of the Non-Aligned Movement and was a participant in the Asian-African Conference in 1955. On 23 April 1955, Soenario and Zhou Enlai, premier of the Peoples Republic of China, under the treaty, citizens of Chinese origin would have to choose within two years whether they have Chinese or Indonesian nationality. From 1956 to 1961, Soenario was Indonesias ambassador to the Court of St. Jamess, on 15 August 1985, he was awarded the Bintang Mahaputra Adipradana, Second Class, one of Indonesias highest civilian awards. Then-President Suharto spoke at Soenarios funeral in 1997, in 2002, the hundredth anniversary of his birth was commemorated at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Jakarta. His wife, Dina, preceded him in death in 1995, a daughter, Astrid Susanto, deputy chair of the Peoples Representative Councils Commission I, died in 2006. A granddaughter, Maya Sunario, is a member of the Indonesian-Irish Association based in Dublin, Sastrowardoyo, of the staff of the Consulate General of Indonesia in New York City. Two nephews, Rahadyan Sastrowardoyo and Hartriono B, the actress Dian Sastrowardoyo is a grandniece. Like many Javanese, Mr. Soenario had just one name, the family name was derived from sastra and wardaya, so literally meant writings of the heart. His father, Sutejo Sastrowardoyo, traced the familys ancestry back to 15th century Java, sunaryati Hartono, Hendarmin Djarab, and Lili Irahali, eds. Semangat Kebangsaan Dan Politik Luar Negeri Indonesia, Peringatan 100 Tahun Prof, Mr. Sunario, Mantan Menteri Luar Negeri, Perintis Kemerdekaan,28 Agustus 1902-28 Agustus 2002. Jakarta, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Republic of Indonesia,1955, the Asian-African Conference, Bandung, Indonesia, April 1955. Bandung 1955, Non-alignment And Afro-Asian Solidarity