Diana (mythology)

Diana is a goddess in Roman and Hellenistic religion considered a patroness of the countryside, hunters and the Moon. She is equated with the Greek goddesses Artemis and Hecate, absorbed much of Artemis' mythology early in Roman history, including a birth on the island of Delos to parents Jupiter and Latona, a twin brother, though she had an independent origin in Italy. Diana is considered a virgin protector of childbirth. Diana made up a triad with two other Roman deities: Egeria the water nymph, her servant and assistant midwife. Diana is revered in modern Neopagan religions including Roman Neopaganism and Wicca. From the medieval to the modern period, as folklore attached to her developed and was adapted into neopagan religions, the mythology surrounding Diana grew to include a consort and daughter, figures sometimes recognized by modern traditions. In the ancient and modern periods, Diana has been considered a triple deity, merged with a goddess of the moon and the underworld. Dīāna is an adjectival form developed from an ancient *divios, corresponding to dīvus, dius, as in Dius Fidius, Dea Dia, in the neuter form dium'sky'.

It is derived from Proto-Indo-European *dyew-' sky'. On the tablets of Pylos a theonym di-wi-ja is supposed as referring to a deity precursor of Artemis. Modern scholars accept the identification; the ancient Latin writers Varro and Cicero considered the etymology of Dīāna as allied to that of dies and connected to the shine of the Moon.... People regard Diana and the moon as one and the same.... The moon is so called from the verb to shine. Lucina is identified with it, why in our country they invoke Juno Lucina in childbirth, just as the Greeks call on Diana the Light-bearer. Diana has the name Omnivaga, not because of her hunting but because she is numbered as one of the seven planets, she is invoked at childbirth because children are born after seven, or after nine, lunar revolutions... --Quintus Lucilius Balbus as recorded by Marcus Tullius Cicero and translated by P. G. Walsh. De Natura Deorum, Book II, Part ii, Section c The persona of Diana is complex, contains a number of archaic features.

Diana was considered to be a goddess of the wilderness and of the hunt, a central sport in both Roman and Greek culture. Early Roman inscriptions to Diana celebrated her as a huntress and patron of hunters. In the Hellenistic period, Diana came to be or more revered as a goddess not of the wild woodland but of the "tame" countryside, or villa rustica, the idealization of, common in Greek thought and poetry; this dual role as goddess of both civilization and the wild, therefore the civilized countryside, first applied to the Greek goddess Artemis. By the 3rd century CE, after Greek influence had a profound impact on Roman religion, Diana had been fully combined with Artemis and took on many of her attributes, both in her spiritual domains and in the description of her appearance; the Roman poet Nemesianus wrote a typical description of Diana: She carried a bow and a quiver full of golden arrows, wore a golden cloak, purple half-boots, a belt with a jeweled buckle to hold her tunic together, wore her hair gathered in a ribbon.

By the 5th century CE a millennia after her cult's entry into Rome, the philosopher Proclus could still characterize Diana as "the inspective guardian of every thing rural, represses every thing rustic and uncultivated." Diana was considered an aspect of a triple goddess, known as Diana triformis: Diana and Hecate. According to historian C. M. Green, "these were an amalgamation of different goddesses, they were Diana... Diana as huntress, Diana as the moon, Diana of the underworld." At her sacred grove on the shores of Lake Nemi, Diana was venerated as a triple goddess beginning in the late 6th century BCE. Andreas Alföldi interpreted an image on a late Republican coin as the Latin Diana "conceived as a threefold unity of the divine huntress, the Moon goddess and the goddess of the nether world, Hekate"; this coin, minted by P. Accoleius Lariscolus in 43 BCE, has been acknowledged as representing an archaic statue of Diana Nemorensis, it represents Artemis with the bow at one extremity, Luna-Selene with flowers at the other and a central deity not identifiable, all united by a horizontal bar.

The iconographical analysis allows the dating of this image to the 6th century at which time there are Etruscan models. The coin shows that the triple goddess cult image still stood in the lucus of Nemi in 43 BCE. Lake Nemi was called Triviae lacus by Virgil, while Horace called Diana montium custos nemoremque virgo and diva triformis. Two heads found in the sanctuary and the Roman theatre at Nemi, which have a hollow on their back, lend support to this interpretation of an archaic triple Diana; the earliest epithet of Diana was Trivia, she was addressed with that title by Virgil and many others. "Trivia" comes from the Latin trivium, "triple way", refers to Diana's guardianship over roadways Y-junctions or three-way crossroads. This role carried a somewhat dark and dangerous connotation, as it metaphorically

List of first minority male lawyers and judges in Tennessee

This is a list of the first minority male lawyer and judge in Tennessee. It includes the year. Included are other distinctions such as the first minority men in their state to obtain a law degree or become a political figure. William F. Yardley: First African American male lawyer to argue a case before the Tennessee Supreme Court Fredrick McGhee: First African American male lawyer in Tennessee Benjamin Hooks: First African American male judge in Tennessee since Reconstruction Era George H. Brown: First African American male appointed as a Justice of the Tennessee Supreme Court A. A. Birch Jr.: First African American male appointed as the Chief Justice of the Tennessee Supreme Court Odell Horton: First African American male appointed as a Judge of the U. S. District Court for the Western District of Tennessee William Joseph Haynes Jr.: First African American male appointed as a Judge of the U. S. District Court for the Middle District of Tennessee Odell Horton: First African American male to serve as the Assistant U.

S. Attorney for Tennessee Alphabetized by county name Prince Albert Ewing: First African American male lawyer in Nashville, Davidson County, Tennessee A. A. Birch Jr.: First African American male to serve as a prosecutor and judge in Davidson County, Tennessee Gerald Webb: First African American male judge in Hamilton County, Tennessee William Francis Yardley: First African American male lawyer in Knoxville, Knox County, Tennessee General Quarles Boyd: First African American male lawyer in Clarksville, Montgomery County, Tennessee List of first minority male lawyers and judges in the United States List of first women lawyers and judges in the United States List of first women lawyers and judges in Tennessee

Church of Conscious Living

The Church of Conscious Living is a "fake" or "sham" church according to the NSW Government and the media, established by "anti-vaccine zealots" founded by Stephanie Messenger and promoted by the Australian Vaccination Network in order to exploit religious exemptions in Australian "No Jab, No Play" policies for publicly supported childcare and play schemes. Mainstream churches have denounced it as the "cult of anti-vaccine"; the Church of Conscious Living is not registered as a church or charity with the Australian federal government's Charities and Not-for-profits Commission. According to the Sydney Morning Herald: An AVN newsletter in December 2007 said the church was being created to make sure people's rights to refuse vaccination are not eroded. "We have decided to create a'religion', so, amongst other things, we can claim'religious exemption', if the need arises, for ourselves and our children," it says, adding that it costs $25 to join. Virologist Dr David Hawkes described the group as a "devious sham", investigation by the Telegraph found that no real church in Australia had any doctrinal objection to vaccination.

It was denounced as "a scam" by NSW opposition health spokesman Andrew McDonald. McDonald identified the Church of Conscious Living, describing "spurious religious exemptions" as being open to abuse and exploitation in the legislation as proposed, saying: "Today, sadly, we have seen an attempt by the Australian Vaccination Network—it should be called the Australian anti-vaccination network—to exploit the loophole in these new vaccination laws by encouraging their supporters to join the Church of Conscious Living and avoid the New South Wales Government's vaccination legislation". Minister for Health Jillian Skinner noted that the "church" was promoted by the Australian Vaccination Network, commented that recent changes to legislation permitted the Health Care Complaints Commission to scrutinise this activity. Tony Abbott pledged, as federal opposition leader, to restrict religious exemptions to "clear religious reasons" and as Prime Minister in April 2015 he announced that family and childcare payments worth thousands of dollars per year would be stripped from vaccine refusers unless supported by a religious exemption formally approved by the Government.

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