Louis Vuitton Malletier referred to as Louis Vuitton, or shortened to LV, is a French fashion house and luxury retail company founded in 1854 by Louis Vuitton. The label's LV monogram appears on most of its products, ranging from luxury trunks and leather goods to ready-to-wear, watches, accessories and books. Louis Vuitton is one of the world's leading international fashion houses. For six consecutive years, Louis Vuitton was named the world's most valuable luxury brand, its 2012 valuation was US$25.9 billion. The 2013 valuation of the brand was US$28.4 billion with revenue of US$9.4 billion. The company operates in 50 countries with more than 460 stores worldwide; the Louis Vuitton label was founded by Vuitton in 1854 on Rue Neuve des Capucines in France. Louis Vuitton had observed that the HJ Cave Osilite trunk could be stacked. In 1858, Vuitton introduced his flat-topped trunks with trianon canvas, making them lightweight and airtight. Before the introduction of Vuitton's trunks, rounded-top trunks were used to promote water runoff, thus could not be stacked.
It was Vuitton's gray Trianon canvas flat trunk that allowed the ability to stack with ease for voyages. Many other luggage makers imitated LV's design; the company participated in the 1867 Universal Exhibition in Paris. In 1871, Ōyama Iwao became the first recorded Japanese customer, ordering a set of luggage while in Paris as a military observer during the Franco-Prussian War. To protect against the duplication of his look, Vuitton changed the Trianon design to a beige and brown stripes design in 1876. By 1885, the company opened its first store in London on Oxford Street. Soon thereafter, due to the continuing imitation of his look, in 1888, Vuitton created the Damier Canvas pattern, which bore a logo that reads "marque L. Vuitton déposée", which translates into "L. Vuitton registered trademark". In 1892, Louis Vuitton died, the company's management passed to his son. After the death of his father, Georges Vuitton began a campaign to build the company into a worldwide corporation, exhibiting the company's products at the Chicago World's Fair in 1893.
In 1896, the company made the worldwide patents on it. Its graphic symbols, including quatrefoils and flowers, were based on the trend of using Japanese Mon designs in the late Victorian era; the patents proved to be successful in stopping counterfeiting. In this same year, Georges traveled to the United States, where he toured cities such as New York and Chicago, selling Vuitton products. In 1901, the Louis Vuitton Company introduced the Steamer Bag, a smaller piece of luggage designed to be kept inside Vuitton luggage trunks. By 1913, the Louis Vuitton Building opened on the Champs-Elysees, it was the largest travel-goods store in the world at the time. Stores opened in New York, Washington, London and Buenos Aires as World War I began. Afterwards, in 1930, the Keepall bag was introduced. During 1932, LV introduced the Noé bag; this bag was made for champagne vintners to transport bottles. Soon thereafter, the Louis Vuitton Speedy bag was introduced. In 1936 Georges Vuitton died, his son, Gaston-Louis Vuitton, assumed control of the company.
During World War II, Louis Vuitton collaborated with the Nazis during the German occupation of France. The French book Louis Vuitton, A French Saga, authored by French journalist Stephanie Bonvicini and published by Paris-based Editions Fayard tells how members of the Vuitton family aided the puppet government led by Marshal Philippe Pétain and increased their wealth from their business affairs with the Germans; the family set up a factory dedicated to producing artifacts glorifying Pétain, including more than 2,500 busts. Caroline Babulle, a spokeswoman for the publisher, said: "They have not contested anything in the book, but they are trying to bury it by pretending it doesn't exist." Responding to the book's release in 2004, a spokesman for LVMH said: "This is ancient history. The book covers a period when it was family-run and long before it became part of LVMH. We are diverse and all the things a modern company should be." An LVMH spokesman told the satirical magazine Le Canard Enchaîné: "We don't deny the facts, but regrettably the author has exaggerated the Vichy episode.
We haven't put any pressure on anyone. If the journalists want to censor themselves that suits us fine." That publication was the only French periodical to mention the book, LVMH is the country's biggest advertiser in the press. During this period, Louis Vuitton began to incorporate leather into most of its products, which ranged from small purses and wallets to larger pieces of luggage. In order to broaden its line, the company revamped its signature Monogram Canvas in 1959 to make it more supple, allowing it to be used for purses and wallets, it is believed that in the 1920s, counterfeiting returned as a greater issue to continue on into the 21st century. In 1966, the Papillon was launched. By 1977 with annual revenue up to 70 million Francs. A year the label opened its first stores in Japan: in Tokyo and Osaka. In 1983, the company joined with America's Cup to form the Louis Vuitton Cup, a preliminary competition for the yacht race. Louis Vuitton expanded its presence in Asia with the opening of a store in Taipei, Taiwan in 1983 and Seoul, South Korea in 1984.
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West Germany the Federal Republic of Germany, referred to by historians as the Bonn Republic, was a country in Central Europe that existed from 1949 to 1990, when the western portion of Germany was part of the Western bloc during the Cold War. It was created during the Allied occupation of Germany in 1949 after World War II, established from eleven states formed in the three Allied zones of occupation held by the United States, the United Kingdom and France, its capital was the city of Bonn. At the onset of the Cold War, Europe was divided among the Eastern blocs. Germany was de facto divided into two countries and two special territories, the Saarland and divided Berlin; the Federal Republic of Germany claimed an exclusive mandate for all of Germany, considering itself to be the democratically reorganised continuation of the 1871–1945 German Empire. It took the line. Though the GDR did hold regular elections, these were not fair. From the West German perspective, the GDR was therefore illegitimate.
Three southwestern states of West Germany merged to form Baden-Württemberg in 1952, the Saarland joined the Federal Republic of Germany in 1957. In addition to the resulting ten states, West Berlin was considered an unofficial de facto 11th state. While not part of the Federal Republic of Germany, as Berlin was under the control of the Allied Control Council, West Berlin politically-aligned itself with West Germany and was represented in its federal institutions; the foundation for the influential position held by Germany today was laid during the Wirtschaftswunder of the 1950s when West Germany rose from the enormous destruction wrought by World War II to become the world's third-largest economy. The first chancellor Konrad Adenauer, who remained in office until 1963, had worked for a full alignment with NATO rather than neutrality, he not only secured a membership in NATO but was a proponent of agreements that developed into the present-day European Union. When the G6 was established in 1975, there was no question whether the Federal Republic of Germany would be a member as well.
Following the collapse of communism in Central and Eastern Europe in 1989, symbolised by the opening of the Berlin Wall, there was a rapid move towards German reunification. East Germany voted to dissolve itself and accede to the Federal Republic in 1990, its five post-war states were reconstituted along with the reunited Berlin, which ended its special status and formed an additional Land. They formally joined the Federal Republic on 3 October 1990, raising the number of states from 10 to 16, ending the division of Germany; the reunion did not result in a brand-new country. The expanded Federal Republic retained West Germany's political culture and continued its existing memberships in international organisations, as well as its Western foreign policy alignment and affiliation to Western alliances like UN, NATO, OECD and the European Union; the official name of West Germany, adopted in 1949 and unchanged since is Bundesrepublik Deutschland. In East Germany, the terms Westdeutschland or westdeutsche Bundesrepublik were preferred during the 1950s and 1960s.
This changed once under its 1968 constitution, when the idea of a single German nation was abandoned by East Germany, as a result West Germans and West Berliners were considered foreigners. In the early 1970s, starting in the East German Neues Deutschland, the initialism "BRD" for the "Federal Republic of Germany" began to prevail in East German usage. In 1973, official East German sources adopted it as a standard expression and other Eastern Bloc nations soon followed suit. In reaction to this move, in 1965 the West German Federal Minister of All-German Affairs Erich Mende issued the Directives for the appellation of Germany, recommending avoiding the initialism. On 31 May 1974, the heads of West German federal and state governments recommended always using the full name in official publications. From on West German sources avoided the abbreviated form, with the exception of left-leaning organizations which embraced it. In November 1979 the federal government informed the Bundestag that the West German public broadcasters ARD and ZDF had agreed to refuse to use the initialism.
The ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 country code of West Germany was "DE", which has remained the country code of Germany after reunification. ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 are the most used country codes, the "DE" code is notably used as country identifier extending the postal code and as the Internet's country code top-level domain.de. Accordingly the less used ISO 3166-1 alpha-3 country code of West Germany was "DEU", which has remained the country code of reunified Germany; the now deleted codes for East Germany, on the other hand, was "DD" in ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 and "DDR" in ISO 3166-1 alpha-3. The colloquial term "West Germany" or its equivalent was used in many languages. "Westdeutschland" was a widespread colloquial form used in German-speaking countries without political overtones. On 4–11 February 1945 leaders from the United States, the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union held the Yalta Conference where future arrangements as regards post-war Europe and strategy against Japan in the Pacific were negotiated.
The conference agreed that post-war Germany would be divided into four occupation zones: a French Zone in the far west.
Unknown (2011 film)
Unknown is a 2011 action thriller film directed by Jaume Collet-Serra and starring Liam Neeson, Diane Kruger, January Jones, Aidan Quinn, Bruno Ganz, Frank Langella. The film is based on the 2003 French novel published in English as Out of My Head, by Didier Van Cauwelaert. Released in the United States on February 18, 2011, the film received mixed reviews from critics and grossed $136 million against its $30 million budget. Dr. Martin Harris and his wife Liz arrive in Berlin for a biotechnology summit. At their hotel, as Liz goes to check in, Harris realizes he left his briefcase at the airport and takes a taxi to retrieve it; the taxi is involved in crashes into the Spree, knocking him unconscious. The driver flees the scene. Harris learns he has been in a coma for four days. Desperate to find his wife, who he realizes doesn't know what happened to him, Harris returns to the hotel. There he discovers Liz with another man who she says is her husband and declares she does not know Harris; the police are called and he attempts to call a colleague, to no avail.
Stating he wants to go back to the hospital, he finds himself being followed. While on a train, he loses the man following him and writes down his schedule for the next day from memory. Harris is able to track Gina, the taxi driver who saved him, but she is an illegal immigrant and is afraid to help him, he goes to visit the office of Prof. Leo Bressler, whom he is scheduled to meet, only to find "Dr. Harris" is there; as Harris attempts to prove his identity, "Harris" provides identification and a family photo, both of which have his face. Overwhelmed by the identity crisis, Harris awakens back at the hospital. Smith, an apparent assassin sent to target Harris, kills Gretchen Erfurt, Harris's attending nurse, but Harris escapes. Harris seeks help from private investigator and former Stasi agent Ernst Jürgen. Harris's only clues are his father's book on botany and Gina, the taxi driver, a Bosnian illegal, working at a diner since the crash. While Harris persuades her to help him, Jürgen researches Harris and the biotechnology summit, discovering it is to be attended by Prince Shada of Saudi Arabia.
The prince is funding a secret project headed by Bressler, has survived numerous assassination attempts. Jürgen suspects. Harris and Gina are attacked in another assassin, Jones. In his book, Harris finds that Liz has written a series of numbers that correspond to words found on specific pages. Using his schedule, Harris confronts Liz alone. Meanwhile, Jürgen receives Cole at his office and reveals his findings about a secret assassination group known as Section 15. Jürgen soon deduces that Cole is a former member of the group. After retrieving his briefcase, Harris parts ways with Gina; when she sees him kidnapped by Cole and Jones, she follows them. When Harris awakes, Cole explains that "Martin Harris" is just a cover name created by Harris and Liz was his professional teammate, his head injury caused him to believe. He continues to explain. Gina drives up in time to save Harris, running over Jones before he can kill Harris rams the van Cole is in over a railing, killing him as well. During the commotion, Harris finds a hidden compartment in his briefcase containing two Canadian passports, remembering that he and Liz were in Berlin three months prior to plant a bomb in Prince Shada's suite.
Now aware of his own role in the assassination plot, Martin seeks to redeem himself by thwarting it. Hotel security hold Martin and Gina, but Martin proves his earlier visit to the hotel. After being convinced of the bomb's presence, security evacuates the hotel. Harris realizes that Prince Shada is not Section 15's target, but rather Bressler, who has developed a genetically modified breed of corn capable of surviving harsh climates. Knowing with Bressler's death and the theft of his research, his findings would be worth billions of dollars should they fall into the wrong hands. Liz, who accessed Bressler's laptop and stole the data. Unable to disarm it in time, Liz is blown up. During the evacuation, Harris stops "Harris" from killing Bressler, killing "Harris", the last remaining Section 15 assassin. Gina finds Harris and they escape during the aftermath of the bombing; as the bombing is identified as a failed assassination of the Prince Shada, Bressler announces he is making his corn available to the world for free.
As the announcement is televised and Gina board a train together with new identities. Many German actors were cast for the film. Bock had starred in Inglourious Basterds and The White Ribbon. Other cast includes Adnan Maral as a Turkish taxi driver and Petra Schmidt-Schaller as an immigration officer. Kruger herself is German, despite playing a non-German character. Principal photography took place in early February 2010 in Berlin, in the Studio Babelsberg film studios; the bridge the taxi plunges from is the Oberbaumbrücke. The Friedrichstraße was blocked for several nights for the
Dolce & Gabbana
Dolce & Gabbana is an Italian luxury fashion house founded in 1985 in Legnano by Italian designers Domenico Dolce and Stefano Gabbana. The two designed for the same fashion house. In 1982, they established a designer consulting studio, they presented their first women's collection in 1985 in Milan, where a year their store would open its doors. In 1988, they launched a leotard line, in 1989 they began designing underwear and swimming costumes. Dolce & Gabbana started to export their products to Japan and other countries including the United States, where they founded their own showroom in 1990. In 1992, the same year they presented their men's collection, they launched their first perfume Dolce & Gabbana, they won the Woolmark award in 1991, Perfume's Academy "Most Feminine Flavor of the Year" in 1993 for their fragrance Dolce & Gabbana Parfum. By the end of the 1990s, the company's revenues were around US$500 million and in 2003 their revenue reached $633 million. By 2005, their turnover was €600 million.
The first collection from the design duo was shown in October 1985 alongside five other up-and-coming Italian labels as part of Milan Fashion Week. The two did not have enough money to hire models or provide accessories for them, so they sought help from their friends; the models wore their personal items to complement the clothing. They used a bed sheet; the pair labeled their first collection Real Women, due in part to the use of local women as models on the runway. Sales from their first collection were disappointing enough for Gabbana to cancel the fabric order they'd put in to create their second collection. However, Dolce's family offered to help meet their costs when the two visited them in Sicily over Christmas, while incidentally, the fabric company did not receive the cancellation notice in time so the fabric was ready for them back in Milan upon their return, they opened their first store that same year. Michael Gross wrote of their third collection in a 1992 interview, "They were a secret known only to a handful of Italian fashion editors.
Their few models changed behind a rickety screen. They called their collection of T-shirt-cotton and elastic-silk pieces, Transformation." The clothing in this collection came with instructions on the seven different ways a piece could be worn in an outfit, as the wearer could use Velcro and snaps to alter the clothing's form. Their fourth collection was the first to make a significant impact on the Italian fashion market. In this collection, Dolce drew upon his Sicilian roots; the collection's advertising campaign was shot by photographer Ferdinando Scianna in Sicily, featured Dutch model Marpessa Hennink in black and white pictures inspired by the Italian cinema of the 1940s. They continued the use of Italian cinema as inspiration in their fifth collection, drawing on the work of filmmaker Luchino Visconti and his film The Leopard. One of the pieces from their fourth collection was labeled "The Sicilian Dress" by the fashion press, was named by author Hal Rubenstein as one of the 100 most important dresses designed.
It is considered to be the most representative piece of this era for the brand. Rubenstein described the piece in 2012 by writing, "The Sicilian dress is the essence of Dolce & Gabbana, the brand's sartorial touchstone; the dress takes its cue from a slip—but it's a slip that's adorned Anna Magnani, it's a silhouette that has graced Anita Ekberg, Sophia Loren. The straps fit tight to the body; the slip doesn't just slide down, but comes in at the waist to hold the figure but not too and widens to emphasise the hips, only to fall with a slight taper at the knees to guarantee that the hips will sway when the wearer walks." In 1987, the two launched a separate knitwear line and in 1989, they started designing a lingerie line and a beachwear line. Two years they launched their leotard line. In 1989, Dolce & Gabbana opened their first store in Japan in partnership with Kashiyama Co, they started to export their products to the United States, where they founded their own showroom in 1990. In 1992, the same year that they presented their men’s collection, they launched their first perfume Dolce & Gabbana.
They won an “Oscar des Parfums” for best male perfume in 1996 from the French Parfum Academy, the first time that the title has been awarded to an Italian brand. Towards the end of the 1990s their sales were around $500 million and in 2003 alone, their revenue reached $633.2 million. In 1990, they launched their first men's collection; that year, they moved the design house into its first official offices and began to design gowns and other more expensive pieces in addition to their original clothing. Their 1990 Spring/Summer women's collection referenced the mythological painting of Raphael, the duo began to build a reputation for crystal-encrusted clothing; the 1991 Fall/Winter women's collection was adorned by trinkets, including filigree medals and embellished corsets. The 1992 Fall/Winter women's collection was inspired by the silver screen of the 1950s, though the collection still included crystal embellished body suits. In 1991, their men's collection was awarded the Woolmark Award for the most innovative men's collection of the year.
What is considered to be their first foray into international recognition came when Madonna wore a corset made of gemstones and an accompanying jacket fr
Royal Ballet School
The Royal Ballet School is one of the world's greatest centres of classical ballet training. Founded by the Anglo-Irish ballerina and choreographer Ninette de Valois, the school's aim is to train and educate outstanding classical ballet dancers for the Royal Ballet and Birmingham Royal Ballet. Admission to the School is based purely on talent and potential, regardless of academic ability or personal circumstances, 90% of current students rely on financial support to attend the school; the school is based over two sites, White Lodge, Richmond Park and Covent Garden based in purpose-built studios on Floral Street, adjacent to the Royal Opera House. The Royal Ballet School has, since 1926, produced dancers and choreographers of international renown, including Dame Margot Fonteyn, Dame Beryl Grey, Sir Kenneth MacMillan, Dame Darcey Bussell, Alessandra Ferri and Viviana Durante, as well as current Director of The Royal Ballet Kevin O'Hare. Graduates of the school have achieved employment in musical theatre and jazz dance and film.
In 1926, the Irish-born dancer Ninette de Valois founded the Academy of Choreographic Art, a dance school for girls and the predecessor of today's Royal Ballet School. Her intention was to form a repertory ballet company and school, leading her to collaborate with theatrical producer and theatre owner Lilian Baylis. Baylis owned the Old Vic theatre and acquired Sadler's Wells theatre in 1925. In 1928, she engaged de Valois to stage dance performances at both theatres and she re-opened Sadler's Wells theatre in 1931, with de Valois' school moving into studios on the site as the Sadler's Wells Ballet School, teaching both boys and girls. At the same time, the Vic-Wells Ballet Company was formed using students of the school and other notable dancers of the era. Both the school and the ballet company developed and after ballet performances ceased at the Old Vic, the ballet company was renamed the Sadler's Wells Ballet. In 1946, the company moved to become the resident ballet company at the newly re-opened Royal Opera House in Covent Garden and as a result, in 1947 the school moved from Sadler's Wells to premises in Barons Court, with academic education being introduced for younger students.
Following rapid expansion, in 1955 the school secured the premises at White Lodge in Richmond Park, London. This was established at the time as the Royal Ballet'Lower School', a residential boarding school for children aged 11–16, combining general education and vocational ballet training; the Royal Ballet School'Upper School' was established at the school's existing premises in Barons Court with students studying ballet on a full-time basis between the ages of 16–19. In October 1956, a Royal Charter was granted linking the ballet company and school and they became The Royal Ballet School and Royal Ballet Company. A second smaller company still performed at Sadler's Wells and toured around the UK and this became the Sadler's Wells Royal Ballet. De Valois retired as Director in 1970. In 1990, the Sadler's Wells company moved to become the resident ballet company at the Birmingham Hippodrome, in Birmingham, where it was renamed Birmingham Royal Ballet, forming a new association with the Elmhurst School for Dance in 2002.
In January 2003, The Royal Ballet School's older students moved to a newly constructed studio complex in Floral Street, adjacent to the Royal Opera House in Covent Garden, where The Royal Ballet remains the resident ballet company. A bridge was constructed between the school and the Opera House, linking the school with the theatre and The Royal Ballet Company's own studios; the designer of the bridge received an architectural award and it is known as the Bridge of Aspiration. The Royal Ballet School's younger students moved to White Lodge, Richmond Park in Richmond, London in 1955 when the school was split for the first time; the Georgian building is a former royal residence and hunting lodge built during the reign of King George II. It is the School's permanent premises and there has been extensive redevelopment of the site to provide dance and academic facilities and accommodation for students. Children attend the school between entry to the school is by audition only; the school receives over twenty thousand applications every year and holds auditions in major UK cities.
Having an international reputation, the school receives applications from other countries. As a boarding school, the majority of students live on site, although there are a small number of day-students. In dance, students study classical ballet, character dance, gymnastics, Irish and Scottish dancing. In their training, students study ballet repertoire and pas de deux and boys undertake upper body conditioning; the school offers academic study at the level of a typical secondary school, both at Key Stage 3 and Key Stage 4, with all students sitting GCSE examinations. The Royal Ballet School's Covent Garden base was established in 1955, when the younger students were moved to White Lodge; the school remained at existing studios in Barons Court, with academic studies introduced for the first time. In 2003, the school relocated to new premises, the former Baron's Court site now houses the London Academy of Music and Dramatic Art; the school relocated to new, purpose-built premises in Covent Garden in January 2003.
The complex is a four-storey building with six dance studios, including a studio theatre with retractable raked seating for an audience of 200. The building houses changing rooms and showers for male and female students, a gym and fitness room, a pilates studio, physiotherapy suite and students common room. Facilities for academic educa
Christian Dior was a French fashion designer, best known as the founder of one of the world's top fashion houses called Christian Dior, now owned by Groupe Arnault. His fashion houses are now all around the world. Christian Dior was born in a seaside town on the coast of Normandy, France, he was the second of five children born to Maurice Dior, a wealthy fertilizer manufacturer, his wife Madeleine Martin. He had four siblings: Raymond, Jacqueline and Catherine Dior; when Christian was about five years old, the family moved to Paris, but still returned to the Normandy coast for summer holidays. Dior's family had hoped he would become a diplomat, but Dior was artistic and wished to be involved in art. To make money, he sold his fashion sketches outside his house for about 10 cents each. In 1928, Dior left school and received money from his father to finance a small art gallery, where he and a friend sold art by the likes of Pablo Picasso. Three years after the death of Dior's mother and brother and a financial disaster in the family's fertilizer business, during the Great Depression, that resulted in his father losing control of Dior Frères, the gallery had to be closed.
From 1937, Dior was employed by the fashion designer Robert Piguet, who gave him the opportunity to design for three Piguet collections. Dior would say that'Robert Piguet taught me the virtues of simplicity through which true elegance must come.' One of his original designs for Piguet, a day dress with a short, full skirt called "Cafe Anglais", was well received. Whilst at Piguet, Dior worked alongside Pierre Balmain, was succeeded as house designer by Marc Bohan – who would, in 1960, become head of design for Christian Dior Paris. Dior left Piguet. In 1942, when Dior left the army, he joined the fashion house of Lucien Lelong, where he and Balmain were the primary designers. For the duration of World War II, Dior, as an employee of Lelong — who labored to preserve the French fashion industry during wartime for economic and artistic reasons — designed dresses for the wives of Nazi officers and French collaborators, as did other fashion houses that remained in business during the war, including Jean Patou, Jeanne Lanvin, Nina Ricci.
His sister, served as a member of the French Resistance, was captured by the Gestapo, sent to the Ravensbrück concentration camp, where she was incarcerated until her liberation in May 1945. In 1946 Marcel Boussac, a successful entrepreneur known as the richest man in France, invited Dior to design for Philippe et Gaston, a Paris fashion house launched in 1925. Dior refused. On 8 December 1946, with Boussac's backing, Dior founded his fashion house; the actual name of the line of his first collection, presented on 12 February 1947, was Corolle, but the phrase New Look was coined for it by Carmel Snow, the editor-in-chief of Harper's Bazaar. Dior's designs were more voluptuous than the boxy, fabric-conserving shapes of the recent World War II styles, influenced by the rations on fabric, he was a master at creating silhouettes. His look employed fabrics lined predominantly with percale, bustier-style bodices, hip padding, wasp-waisted corsets and petticoats that made his dresses flare out from the waist, giving his models a curvaceous form.
Women protested because his designs covered up their legs, which they had been unused to because of the previous limitations on fabric. There was some backlash to Dior's designs due to the amount of fabrics used in a single dress or suit. Of the “New Look”, Gabrielle “Coco” Chanel said the following, “Look how ridiculous these women are, wearing clothes by a man who doesn’t know women, never had one, dreams of being one.” During one photo shoot in a Paris market, the models were attacked by female vendors over this profligacy, but opposition ceased as the wartime shortages ended. The "New Look" revolutionized women's dress and reestablished Paris as the centre of the fashion world after World War II. Christian Dior died while on holiday in Montecatini, Italy, on 24 October 1957; some reports say. Time's obituary stated. However, one of Dior's acquaintances, the Paris socialite Baron de Redé, wrote in his memoirs that contemporary rumor was that the heart attack had been caused by a strenuous sexual encounter.
As of 2019, the exact circumstances of Dior's death remain undisclosed. Dior was nominated for the 1955 Academy Award for Best Costume Design in black and white for the Terminal Station directed by Vittorio De Sica. Dior was nominated in 1967 for a BAFTA for Best British Costume for the Arabesque directed by Stanley Donen. Nominated in 1986 for his contributions to the 1985 film, Bras de fer, he was up for Best Costume Design during the 11th Cesar Awards; the Paul Gallico novella Mrs'Arris Goes to Paris tells the story of a London charwoman who falls in love with her employer's couture wardrobe and decides to go to Paris to purchase herself a Dior ballgown. A perfume named Christian Dior is used in Haruki Murakami's novel The Wind-Up Bird Chronicle as an influential symbol placed at critical plot points throughout; the English singer-so
The French edition of Vogue magazine, Vogue Paris, is a fashion magazine, published since 1920. The French edition of Vogue was first issued on 15 June 1920. Michel de Brunhoff was the magazine's editor-in-chief from 1929 until 1954. Edmonde Charles-Roux, who had worked at Elle and France-Soir, became the magazine’s editor-in-chief in 1954. Charles-Roux was a great supporter of Christian Dior's "New Look", of which she said, "It signalled that we could laugh again - that we could be provocative again, wear things that would grab people's attention in the street." In August 1956, the magazine issued a special ready-to-wear issue, signaling a shift in fashion's focus from couture production. She left Vogue in 1966, as the result of a conflict for wanting to place a black woman on the cover of the magazine; when asked about her departure, Charles-Roux refused to confirm or deny this account. Francine Crescent, whose editorship would be described as prescient and courageous, took the helm of French Vogue in 1968.
Under her leadership, the magazine became the global leader in fashion photography. Crescent gave Helmut Newton and Guy Bourdin, the magazine's two most influential photographers, complete creative control over their work. During the 1970s, Bourdin and Newton competed to push the envelope of erotic and decadent photography. At times, Bourdin's work was so scandalous that Crescent "laid her job on the line" to preserve his artistic independence; the two photographers influenced the late-20th-century image of womanhood and were among the first to realize the importance of image, as opposed to product, in stimulating consumption. By the late 1980s, however and Bourdin's star power had faded, the magazine was "stuck in a rut". Colombe Pringle replaced Crescent as the magazine's editor-in-chief in 1987. Under Pringle’s watch, the magazine recruited new photographers such as Peter Lindbergh and Steven Meisel, who developed their signature styles in the magazine’s pages. Still, the magazine struggled, remaining dull and reliant on foreign stories.
When Pringle left the magazine in 1994, word spread. Joan Juliet Buck, an American, was named Pringle's successor effective 1 June 1994, her selection was described by The New York Times as an indication that Conde Nast intended to "modernize the magazine and expand its scope" from its circulation of 80,000. Buck's first two years as editor-in-chief were controversial. Though rumors circulated in 1996 that the magazine was on the verge of a shutdown, Buck persevered. Buck remade the magazine in her own cerebral image, tripling the amount of text in the magazine and devoting special issues to art, music and science. Juliet Buck announced her decision to leave the magazine in December 2000, after her return from a two-month leave of absence; the Sydney Morning Herald compared her departure, which took place during Milan's fashion week, to the firing of a football coach during a championship game. Carine Roitfeld, the magazine's creative director, was named as Buck's successor the next April. Roitfeld aimed to restore the magazine's place as a leader in fashion journalism and to its French identity.
Her appointment, which coincided with the ascendance of young designers at several of the most important Paris fashion houses, "brought a youthful energy" to the magazine. By April 2002, she had rid the magazine of foreign staffers, making it "all French for the first time in many years"; the magazine underwent a redesign by the Paris-based design firm M/M. It aimed to make the title appear more hand-crafted and organic through the use of collage and hand-drawn fonts. Continuity was created through the use of loose theming for each issue, smooth pacing, visual uniformity in the shopping pages; the magazine’s aesthetic evolved to resemble Roitfeld's. Roitfeld has periodically drawn criticism for the magazine's use of sexuality and humor, which she employs to disrupt fashion's conservatism and pretension. Roitfeld's Vogue is unabashedly elitist, "unconcerned with making fashion wearable or accessible to its readers". Models, not actresses promoting movies, appear on its cover, its party pages focus on the magazine's own staff Roitfeld and her daughter Julia Restoin Roitfeld.
Its regular guest-editorships are given to it-girls like Kate Moss, Sofia Coppola, Charlotte Gainsbourg. According to The Guardian, "what distinguishes French Vogue is its natural assumption that the reader must have heard of these beautiful people already, and if we haven't? The implication is that that's our misfortune, the editors aren't about to busy themselves helping us out." Advertising revenue rose 60 percent in 2005, resulting in the best year for ad sales since the mid-1980s. On 17 December 2010, Carine announced her departure from Vogue Paris effective 31 January 2011. On 7 January 2011, it was announced that Emmanuelle Alt, the magazine fashion director for the last 10 years, would become the new editor-in-chief effective February 1st. List of Vogue Paris cover models List of women's magazines List of men's magazines Vogue Paris Vogue Paris in English Vogue Paris – magazine profile at Fashion Model Directory Digitized issues of Vogue Paris in Gallica