A diaper or a nappy is a type of convenient underwear that allows the wearer to urinate or defecate without the use of a toilet, by absorbing or containing waste products to prevent soiling of outer clothing or the external environment. When diapers become wet or soiled, they require changing by a second person such as a parent or caregiver. Failure to change a diaper on a sufficiently regular basis can result in skin problems around the area covered by the diaper. Diapers are made of cloth or synthetic disposable materials. Cloth diapers are composed of layers of fabric such as cotton, bamboo, microfiber, or plastic fibers such as PLA or PU, can be washed and reused multiple times. Disposable diapers are thrown away after use. Diapers are worn by infants, toddlers who are not yet potty trained, by children who experience bedwetting, they are used by adults with incontinence, in certain circumstances where access to a toilet is unavailable, or as part of a sexual fetish. These can include those of advanced age, patients bed-bound in a hospital, individuals with certain types of physical or mental disability, people working in extreme conditions, such as astronauts.
It is not uncommon for people to wear diapers under dry suits. The Middle English word diaper referred to a type of cloth rather than the use thereof. According to the Oxford Dictionary, it is a piece of soft cloth or other thick material, folded around a baby’s bottom and between its legs to absorb and hold its body waste; the first cloth diapers consisted of a specific type of soft tissue sheet, cut into geometric shapes. This type of pattern was called diapering and gave its name to the cloth used to make diapers and to the diaper itself, traced back to 1590s England; this usage stuck in the United States and Canada following the British colonization of North America, but in the United Kingdom the word "nappy" took its place. Most sources believe nappy is a diminutive form of the word napkin, which itself was a diminutive. In the 19th century, the modern diaper began to take shape and mothers in many parts of the world used cotton material, held in place with a fastening—eventually the safety pin.
Cloth diapers in the United States were first mass-produced in 1887 by Maria Allen. In the UK, nappies were made out of terry towelling with an inner lining made out of soft muslin. Here is an extract from'The Modern Home Doctor' written by physicians in the UK in 1935. Nice old, soft bits of good Turkish towelling, properly washed, will make the softest of diaper coverings, inside which specially absorbent napkins, see below at 1A, soft and washed, are contained; these should be soiled once regular habits have been inculcated during the night period in which it is most important to prevent habit formation 1A - Wool pants, or, once available, rubber pants, were sometimes used over the cloth diaper to prevent leakage. Doctors believed that rubber pants were harmful because they thought the rubber acted as a poultice and damaged the skin of infants; the constant problem to be overcome was diaper rash, the infection thereof. The concern was. While lack of air circulation is a factor, it was found that poor hygiene involving inefficiently washed diapers and infrequent changes of diapers, along with allowing the baby to lie for prolonged periods of time with fecal matter in contact with the skin, were the two main causes of these problems.
In the 20th century, the disposable diaper was conceived. In the 1930s, Robinsons of Chesterfield had what were labeled "Destroyable Babies Napkins" listed in their catalogue for the wholesale market. In 1944, Hugo Drangel of the Swedish paper company Pauliström suggested a conceptual design which would entail the placing of sheets of paper tissue inside the cloth diaper and rubber pants. However, cellulose wadding was rough against the skin and crumbled into balls when exposed to moisture. In 1946, Marion Donovan used a shower curtain from her bathroom to create the "Boater", a diaper cover made from army surplus nylon parachute cloth. First sold in 1949 at Saks Fifth Avenue's flagship store in New York City, patents were issued in 1951 to Donovan, who sold the rights to the waterproof diaper for $1 million. Donovan designed a paper disposable diaper, but was unsuccessful in marketing it. In 1947, Scottish housewife Valerie Hunter Gordon started developing and making Paddi, a 2-part system consisting of a disposable pad worn inside an adjustable plastic garment with press-studs/snaps.
She used old parachutes for the garment. She applied for the patent in April 1948, it was granted for the UK in October 1949; the big manufacturers were unable to see the commercial possibilities of disposable nappies. In 1948, Gordon made over 400 Paddis herself using her sewing machine at the kitchen table, her husband had unsuccessfully approached several companies for help until he had a chance meeting with Sir Robert Robinson at a business dinner. In November 1949 Valerie Gordon signed a contract with Robinsons of Chesterfield who went into full production. In 1950, Boots UK agreed to sell Paddi in all their branches. In 1951 the Paddi patent was granted for t
Latest & Greatest is an album released by the American hard rock band Great White in 2000. It includes re-recordings of many of the bands' hits, with the exception of the live cover of Led Zeppelin's "In the Light", recorded on December 14, 1996 at the Galaxy Theatre in Santa Ana and the October 2, 1999 live recording of "The Angel Song", taken at the House of Blues in Myrtle Beach, South Carolina and "Rollin' Stoned", presented in its original form. "In the Light" - 6:08 "Rock Me" -7:08 "Face the Day" - 5:58 "Once Bitten, Twice Shy" - 5:24 "Rollin' Stoned" - 4:10 "Call It Rock n' Roll" - 4:13 "Save Your Love" - 4:41 "Can't Shake It" - 5:10 "House of Broken Love" - 5:57 "Mista Bone" - 5:07 "The Angel Song" - 5:07 "Lady Red Light" - 4:38 Jack Russell - lead vocals, percussion Mark Kendall - lead guitar, backing vocals Michael Lardie - rhythm guitar, percussion, backing vocals Sean McNabb - bass Audie Desbrow - drums
Dr. Jessie Kabwila-Kapasula is an academic, feminist and activist, her scholarship focuses on African feminism. Kabwila-Kapasula was the acting president of the Chancellor College Academic Staff Union, fired during the standoff to ensure academic freedom at the University of Malawi that hasn't been resolved, she is one of the fired lecturers at the center of the standoff for academic freedom that occurred at University of Malawi that resulted in her dismissal. This prompted protests from the UNIMA students and faculty that stood in solidarity with Kabwila-Kapasula and the eventual closure of the university, it led to a standoff between the lecturers. Her dismissal centering academic freedom was one of the events that led to the July 20th, 2011 protests. Kabwila-Kapasula earned a doctorate in comparative literature from Binghamton University, where she served as President of the Graduate Student Organization in 2008-2009; the standoff began when Dr Blessings Chinsinga, an associate political science professor, was interrogated by Peter Mukhito, Malawi’s Inspector General of Police, about a parallel he drew in a lecture between Malawi’s fuel crisis and popular uprisings in Tunisia and Egypt during the Arab Spring.
He was fired for drawing comparisons between the economic conditions in Egypt and Malawi in a political science class. This prompted protests from the UNIMA students and faculty that stood in solidarity with Chisanga including Kabwila-Kapasula, it led to the eventual closure of the universities at Chancellor College and Polytechnic. As a condition to return to class, the academics asked for an official apology from the police chief, Peter Mukhito and assurances of respect for academic freedom. Mukhito declared; this statement was backed by President Bingu wa Mutharika. Mutharika ordered them to return to work but the lecturers refused since there was no grantee of freedom; the government was unable to provide this under the leadership of The Minister of Education, Peter Mutharika. The students stood in solidarity with the fired faculty which resulted in the use of teargas to disperse students; the failure to resolve this matter and a standoff occurred between lecturers and students on one side, the President of Malawi, Bingu wa Mutharika.
Since the incident she has reported that she has been denied a passport renewal by the government and has received harassing phone calls and death threats. The lecturers have taken the government to court in order to ensure academic freedom and non interference by the police in academia. Many Malawian organizations are showing their support to guarantee academic freedom including the Malawi Law Society and Malawi Congress of Trade Unions. Students at Binghamton University, Dr. Kabwila-Kapasula's alma mater, have urged Amnesty International to take up this case, she attended the funeral of Polytechnic student Robert Chasowa, a Malawian student at the same university, an active student activist Youth for Freedom and Democracy, a student activist group. Kabwila-Kapasula dressed in red clothes with a red cloth around his mouth to symbolize the silencing of students under the Bingu wa Mutharika administration, she is current member of parliament for Salima North west constituency under Malawi Congress Party.
Member of parliament for MCP