The Legitimists are royalists in France who adhere to the rights of dynastic succession of the descendants of the elder branch of the Bourbon dynasty, which was overthrown in the 1830 July Revolution. They reject the claim of the July Monarchy of 1830–1848, whose king was a member of the junior Orléans line of the Bourbon dynasty, the other two right-wing factions are, according to historian René Rémond, the Orléanists and the Bonapartists. Legitimists hold that the king of France must be according to the traditional rules of succession based in the Salic law. The main current legitimist pretender is Louis Alphonse, Duke of Anjou, following the Bourbon Restoration in 1814, a strongly restricted census suffrage sent to the Chamber of Deputies an ultra-royalist majority in 1815–1816 and from 1824 to 1827. By the same token, Ultras opposed all liberal and their importance during the Restoration was in part due to electoral laws which largely favored them. Louis XVIIIs first ministers, who included Talleyrand, the duc de Richelieu, Louis XVIII finally decided to dissolve this chaotic assembly, but the new liberals who replaced them were no easier to govern.
The death in 1824 of the moderate Louis XVIII emboldened the Ultra faction, in January 1825, Villèles government passed the Anti-Sacrilege Act, which punished by death the theft of sacred vessels. This anachronistic law was in the end never applied and repealed in the first months of Louis Philippe Is reign, the Ultras wanted to create courts to punish Radicals, and passed laws restricting freedom of the press. They softened their views and made the restoration of the House of Bourbon their main aim, from 1830 on they became known as Legitimists. Until the deaths of Charles X and his son in 1836 and 1844, many Legitimists continued to each of them in turn as the rightful king. The fall of King Louis Philippe I in 1848 led to a strengthening of the Legitimist position, although the childlessness of Chambord weakened the hand of the Legitimists, they came back into political prominence during the Second Republic. Legitimists joined with Orleanists to form the Party of Order which dominated parliament from the elections of May 1849 until Bonapartes coup on December 2,1851, through much of this time there was discussion of fusion with the Orleanist Party so that the two could effect a monarchical restoration.
This prospect prompted several sons of Louis Philippe to declare their support for Chambord, but fusion was not actually achieved, and after 1850 the two parties again diverged. The period of the Second Empire saw the Legitimists once again cast out of political life. Nevertheless, the Legitimists remained a significant party within elite opinion, after the Siege of Paris in 1870 and the 1871 Paris Commune, the Legitimists returned for one final time to political prominence. This time, the Legitimists were able to agree with the Orleanists on a program of fusion, the liberal Orleanists agreed to recognize Chambord as king, and the Orleanist claimant himself, Louis-Philippe Albert dOrléans, count of Paris, recognized Chambord as head of the French royal house. In return, Legitimists in the Assembly agreed that, should Chambord die childless, the death of Chambord effectively dissolved the parti légitimiste as a political force in France. Those Legitimists who had rallied to the Republic in 1893, after the comte de Chambords death ten years before, but they changed their name in 1899, and entered the 1902 elections under the name Action libérale
Spanish transition to democracy
The Spanish transition to democracy, or simply the Transition refers to the restoration of democracy in Spain after the death of Francisco Franco in 1975. Though faced with political and economic crises at the time, the transition to democracy was one of the factors that allowed Spain to join the European Economic Community and NATO. Francisco Franco came to power in 1939 following the Spanish Civil War, in 1969, he designated Prince Juan Carlos, grandson of Spains former king, Alfonso XIII, as his official successor. For the next six years, Prince Juan Carlos initially remained in the background during public appearances, once in power as King of Spain, however, he facilitated the development of a constitutional monarchy as his father, Don Juan de Borbón, had advocated since 1946. The transition was a plan that counted on ample support both within and outside of Spain. Western governments, headed by the United States, now favoured a Spanish constitutional monarchy, as did many Spanish, the transition proved challenging, as the spectre of the Civil War still haunted Spain.
Francoists on the far right enjoyed considerable support within the Spanish Army, King Juan Carlos began his reign as head of state without leaving the confines of Francos legal system. Only in his speech before the Cortes did he indicate his support for a transformation of the Spanish political system, in this manner he would formally act within the Francoist legal system and thus avoid the prospect of military intervention in the political process. Suárez was appointed as the 138th Prime Minister of Spain by Juan Carlos on 3 July 1976, a call for democratic elections in June 1977 to elect a Cortes charged with drawing up a new democratic constitution. This program was clear and unequivocal, but its realization tested the capacity of Suárez. Despite these challenges, Suárezs project was carried out without delay between July 1976 and June 1977, in this short period of time Suárez had to act on many fronts to achieve his aims. The draft of the Law for Political Reform was written by Don Torcuato Fernández-Miranda, speaker of the Cortes, the project was approved by the Suarez Government in September 1976.
Throughout the month of November the Cortes, under the presidency of Fernández-Miranda, debated this law, which it ultimately approved with 425 votes in favor,59 against. The Suárez government sought to gain legitimacy for the changes through a popular referendum. On 15 December 1976, with a 77. 72% participation rate, with this part of his plan fulfilled, Suárez had to resolve a crucial issue, should he include the opposition groups who had not participated at the beginning of the transition. Suárez had to deal with another issue, coming to terms with the anti-Francoist opposition. Suárez adopted a series of measured policies to add credibility to his project, in July 1976 he issued a partial political amnesty, freeing 400 prisoners. He extended this in March 1977, and finally granted an amnesty in May of the same year
Demonstrations against the Shah commenced in October 1977, developing into a campaign of civil resistance that included both secular and religious elements and which intensified in January 1978. Between August and December 1978 strikes and demonstrations paralyzed the country, the Shah left Iran for exile on 16 January 1979, as the last Persian monarch, leaving his duties to a regency council and an opposition-based prime minister. Ayatollah Khomeini was invited back to Iran by the government, the royal reign collapsed shortly after on 11 February when guerrillas and rebel troops overwhelmed troops loyal to the Shah in armed street fighting, bringing Khomeini to official power. It was a relatively non-violent revolution, and helped to redefine the meaning, the Shahs regime became increasingly oppressive, brutal and extravagant. It suffered from basic functional failures that brought economic bottlenecks, the Shah was perceived by many as beholden to – if not a puppet of – a non-Muslim Western power whose culture was affecting that of Iran.
The Shia clergy had a significant influence on Iranian society, the clergy first showed itself to be a powerful political force in opposition to the monarchy with the 1891 Tobacco Protest. On 20 March 1890, Nasir al-Din Shah granted a concession to Major G. F. Talbot for a monopoly over the production, sale. The boycotts and protests against it were widespread and extensive because of Mirza Hasan Shirazis fatwa, finally Nasir al-Din Shah found himself powerless to stop the popular movement and cancelled the concession. The Tobacco Protest was the first significant Iranians resistance against the Shah and foreign interests, and revealed the power of the people, the growing discontent continued until the Constitutional Revolution. The revolution led to the establishment of a Parliament and approval of the first constitution, although the constitutional revolution was successful in weakening the autocracy of the Qajar regime, it failed to provide a powerful alternative government. Consequently, within the following the establishment of the new parliament.
Many of these events can be viewed as a continuation of the struggle between the constitutionalists and the Shahs of Persia, many of whom were backed by foreign powers against the parliament. He established a monarchy, deposing the last of the Qajar shah in 1925 and introduced many social, economic. A number of reforms led to public discontent which provides circumstances for an Iranian revolution. Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavis father, Reza Shah, replaced Islamic laws with Western ones, police forcibly removed and tore chadors off women who resisted his ban on the public hijab. In 1935, dozens were killed and hundreds injured in the Goharshad Mosque rebellion, on the other hand, in the early rise of Reza Shah, Abdul-Karim Haeri Yazdi founded the Qom Seminary and created important changes in seminaries. However, he would avoid entering into political issues, as did other leaders who followed him. Hence, no widespread anti-government attempts were organized by clergy during the Reza Shah Rule, the future Ayatollah Khomeini was a student of Sheikh Abdul Karim Ha’eri
313, when internecine conflict eliminated most of the claimants to power, leaving Constantine in control of the western half of the empire, and Licinius in control of the eastern half. Although the term tetrarch was current in antiquity, it was never used of the college under Diocletian. Instead, the term was used to describe independent portions of a kingdom that were ruled under separate leaders, the tetrarchy of Judaea, established after the death of Herod the Great, is the most famous example of the antique tetrarchy. The term was understood in the Latin world as well, where Pliny the Elder glossed it as follows, each is the equivalent of a kingdom, and part of one. As used by the ancients, the term not only different governments. Only Lactantius, a contemporary of Diocletian and an ideological opponent of the Diocletianic state. Much modern scholarship was written without the term, although Edward Gibbon pioneered the description of the Diocletianic government as a New Empire, he never used the term tetrarchy, neither did Theodor Mommsen.
It did not appear in the literature until used in 1887 by schoolmaster Hermann Schiller in a handbook on the Roman Empire, to wit. Even so, the term did not catch on in the literature until Otto Seeck used it in 1897. The first phase, sometimes referred to as the Diarchy, involved the designation of the general Maximian as co-emperor—firstly as Caesar in 285, Diocletian took care of matters in the eastern regions of the empire while Maximian similarly took charge of the western regions. In 305, the senior emperors jointly abdicated and retired, allowing Constantius and Galerius to be elevated in rank to Augustus. They in turn appointed two new Caesars — Severus II in the west under Constantius, and Maximinus in the east under Galerius — thereby creating the second Tetrarchy and these centres are known as the tetrarchic capitals. Sirmium was the capital of Galerius, the eastern Caesar, this was to become the Balkans-Danube prefecture Illyricum, mediolanum was the capital of Maximian, the western Augustus, his domain became Italia et Africa, with only a short exterior border.
Augusta Treverorum was the capital of Constantius Chlorus, the western Caesar, near the strategic Rhine border and this quarter became the prefecture Galliae. Aquileia, a port on the Adriatic coast, and Eboracum, were significant centres for Maximian. In terms of jurisdiction there was no precise division between the four tetrarchs, and this period did not see the Roman state actually split up into four distinct sub-empires. Each emperor had his zone of influence within the Roman Empire, for a listing of the provinces, now known as eparchy, within each quarter, see Roman province. In the West, the Augustus Maximian controlled the provinces west of the Adriatic Sea and the Syrtis, in the East, the arrangements between the Augustus Diocletian and his Caesar, were much more flexible
Second French Empire
The Second French Empire was the Imperial Bonapartist regime of Napoleon III from 1852 to 1870, between the Second Republic and the Third Republic, in France. The structure of the French government during the Second Empire was little changed from the First, but Emperor Napoleon III stressed his own imperial role as the foundation of the government. He had so often, while in prison or in exile and his answer was to organize a system of government based on the principles of the Napoleonic Idea. This meant that the emperor, the elect of the people as the representative of the democracy, ruled supreme. He himself drew power and legitimacy from his role as representative of the great Napoleon I of France, the anti-parliamentary French Constitution of 1852 instituted by Napoleon III on 14 January 1852, was largely a repetition of that of 1848. All executive power was entrusted to the emperor, who, as head of state, was responsible to the people. The people of the Empire, lacking democratic rights, were to rely on the benevolence of the rather than on the benevolence of politicians.
He was to nominate the members of the council of state, whose duty it was to prepare the laws, and of the senate, a body permanently established as a constituent part of the empire. One innovation was made, that the Legislative Body was elected by universal suffrage and this new political change was rapidly followed by the same consequence as had attended that of Brumaire. The press was subjected to a system of cautionnements and avertissements, in order to counteract the opposition of individuals, a surveillance of suspects was instituted. In the same way public instruction was strictly supervised, the teaching of philosophy was suppressed in the lycées, for seven years France had no democratic life. The Empire governed by a series of plebiscites, up to 1857 the Opposition did not exist, from till 1860 it was reduced to five members, Darimon, Émile Ollivier, Hénon, Jules Favre and Ernest Picard. On 2 December 1851 Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte, who had been elected President of the Republic and he thus became sole ruler of France, and re-established universal suffrage, previously abolished by the Assembly.
His decisions and the extension of his mandate for 10 years were popularly endorsed by a referendum that month that attracted an implausible 92 percent support. A new constitution was enacted in January 1852 which made Louis-Napoléon president for 10 years, however, he was not content with merely being an authoritarian president. Almost as soon as he signed the new document into law, in response to officially-inspired requests for the return of the empire, the Senate scheduled a second referendum in November, which passed with 97 percent support. As with the December 1851 referendum, most of the yes votes were manufactured out of thin air, the empire was formally re-established on 2 December 1852, and the Prince-President became Napoléon III, Emperor of the French. The constitution concentrated so much power in his hands that the only changes were to replace the word president with the word emperor
Legalism (Chinese philosophy)
Fǎ-Jiā or Legalism is one of the six classical schools of thought in Chinese philosophy that developed during the Warring States period. Much of Legalism was principally the development of ideas that lay behind his reforms. The grouping together of thinkers that would eventually be dubbed Fa-Jia or Legalists can be traced to Han Fei, written around 240 BC, the Han Feizi is commonly thought of as the greatest of all Legalist texts, bringing together his predecessors ideas into a coherent ideology. They attracted the attention of the First Emperor, and are believed to contain the first commentaries on the Tao te Ching in history and it is often said that succeeding emperors followed the template set by Han Fei. The Han dynasty took over the institutions of the Qin dynasty almost unchanged. Endorsement for this school of thought peaked under Mao Zedong, hailed as a progressive intellectual current and they owed allegiance to the local prince, who owed allegiance to the Son of Heaven. The Zhou operated according to the principles of Li and punishment, the earliest Zhou kings kept a firm personal hand on the government, depending on their personal capacities, personal relations between ruler and minister, and upon military might.
The technique of centralized government being so little developed, they deputed authority to feudal lords, when the Zhou kings could no longer grant new fiefs, their power began to decline, vassals began to identify with their own regions, and schismatic hostility occurred between the Chinese states. Aristocratic families became very important, by virtue of their ancestral prestige wielding great power, for the Confucians, the Classics provided the preconditions for knowledge. For Xun Kuang they contained the logical categories on which knowledge of things was based, orthodox Confucians tended to consider organizational details beneath both minister and ruler, leaving such matters to underlings, and furthermore wanted ministers to control the ruler. Concerned with goodness, the Confucians became the most prominent, followed by the Taoists and reformers that Sima Tan termed the Fa-Jia. But the Taoists focused on the development of powers. A new type of ruler emerged intent on breaking the power of the aristocrats and those that failed were conquered or deposed.
As disenfranchised or opportunist aristocrats were increasingly attracted by the reform-oriented rulers, Shang Yang was a leading reformer of his time, concerned largely with administrative and sociopolitical innovation. Considering the power struggle between ruler and minister irreconcilable, they insist on impersonal norms and regulations in their relations, though Han Fei considers people naturally self-interested, he suggests that “Once law and decrees prevail, the way of selfishness collapses. Han Feis prince must make use of Fa, surround himself with an aura of wei and shi, the ruler who follows Tao moves away from benevolence and righteousness, and discards reason and ability, subduing the people through Fa. Only an absolute ruler can restore the world, the belief in the necessity of an absolute monarch for the attainment of stability and order is common to most political theorists of the Warring States period. Successful reforms made the Fa-Jia significant, promoting the growth of the Qin state that applied reforms most thoroughly
A non-sovereign monarchy is one in which the head of the monarchical polity, and the polity itself, are subject to a temporal authority higher than their own. The constituent states of the German Empire provide a historical example, like sovereign monarchies, there exist both hereditary and elective non-sovereigns. Systems of both formal and informal suzerainty were common before the 20th century, when systems were used by most states. During the last century, many monarchies have become republics, sub-national monarchies exist in a few states which are, in and of themselves, not monarchical. The degree to which the monarchs have control over their polities varies greatly—in some they may have a degree of domestic authority. In some, the position might be purely traditional or cultural in nature. Wallis and Futuna is an overseas collectivity of the French Republic in Polynesia consisting of three islands and a number of tiny islets. The current co-claimant to the title King of Uvea are Felice Tominiko Halagahu and Patalione Kanimoa, the current King of Alo is Filipo Katoa and they have been reigning since 2016.
The territory was annexed by the French Republic in 1888, and was placed under the authority of another French colony, the inhabitants of the islands voted in a 1959 referendum to become an overseas collectivity of France, effective in 1961. The collectivity is governed as a republic, the citizens elect a Territorial Assembly. His cabinet, the Council of the Territory, is made up of the three Kings and three appointed ministers, in addition to this limited parliamentary role the Kings play, the individual kingdoms customary legal systems have some jurisdiction in areas of civil law. The first to establish colonies were the Portuguese, but they were displaced by the more powerful Dutch. The 1824 Anglo-Dutch Treaty defined the borders between British possessions and the Dutch East Indies, the British controlled the Eastern half of modern Malaysia through a system of protectorates, in which native states had some domestic authority, checked by the British government. The eastern half of Malaysia was part of the independent Sultanate of Brunei until 1841, the two halves were united for the first time with the formation of Malaysia in 1963.
Modern Malaysia is a monarchy, consisting of 13 states. Of the Malay states, seven are sultanates, one is a kingdom, one an elective monarchy, while the four states. The head of state of the federation is a constitutional monarch styled Yang di-Pertuan Agong. The Yang di-Pertuan is elected to a term by the Conference of Rulers, made up of the nine state monarchs
The Meiji Restoration, known as the Meiji Ishin, Revolution, Reform, or Renewal, was an event of change that restored practical imperial rule to Japan in 1868 under Emperor Meiji. Although there were Emperors before the Meiji Restoration, the events restored practical abilities, Meiji government made education compulsory for both boys and girls at minimal fees. The goals of the government were expressed by the new emperor in the Charter Oath. The Restoration led to changes in Japans political and social structure. In Japan however, unlike China, foreign ideas were not associated with opium addiction. Figures like Shimazu Nariakira concluded that if we take the initiative, we can dominate, if we do not, we will be dominated, leading Japan to throw open its doors to foreign technology. Observing Japans response to the powers, Li Hongzhang considered Japan Chinas principal security threat as early as 1863. The word Meiji means enlightened rule and the goal was to modern advances with traditional eastern values.
The main leaders of this were Itō Hirobumi, Matsukata Masayoshi, Kido Takayoshi, Itagaki Taisuke, Yamagata Aritomo, Mori Arinori, Ōkubo Toshimichi, and Yamaguchi Naoyoshi. The foundation of the Meiji restoration was the 1866 Satsuma-Chōshū Alliance between Saigō Takamori and Kido Takayoshi, leaders of the reformist elements in the Satsuma Domain and Chōshū Domain. These two leaders supported the Emperor Kōmei and were brought together by Sakamoto Ryōma for the purpose of challenging the ruling Tokugawa shogunate, after Emperor Kōmeis death on January 30,1867, Emperor Meiji ascended the throne on February 3. This period saw Japan change from being a society to having a market economy. The Tokugawa Shogunate came to its end on November 9,1867, when Tokugawa Yoshinobu. Shortly thereafter in January 1868, the Boshin War started with the Battle of Toba–Fushimi in which Chōshū and this forced the Emperor to strip Yoshinobu of all power, setting the stage for official restoration. We shall henceforward exercise supreme authority in all the internal and external affairs of the country, consequently the title of Emperor must be substituted for that of Taikun, in which the treaties have been made.
Officers are being appointed by us to the conduct of foreign affairs and it is desirable that the representatives of the treaty powers recognize this announcement. All Tokugawa lands were seized and placed under control, thus placing them under the prerogative of the new Meiji government. With Fuhanken sanchisei, the areas were split into three types, urban prefectures, rural prefectures and the already existing domains
The broad definition of regicide is the deliberate killing of a monarch, or the person responsible for the killing of a person of royalty. In a narrower sense, in the British tradition, it refers to the execution of a king after a trial, reflecting the historical precedent of the trial. More broadly, it can refer to the killing of an emperor or any other reigning sovereign. Before the Tudor period, English kings had been murdered while imprisoned or killed in battle by their subjects, elizabeth had originally been excommunicated by Pope Pius V, in Regnans in Excelsis, for converting England to Protestantism after the reign of Mary I of England. The defeat of the Spanish Armada and the Protestant Wind convinced most English people that God approved of Elizabeths action, after the First English Civil War, King Charles I was a prisoner of the Parliamentarians. They tried to negotiate a compromise with him, but he stuck steadfastly to his view that he was King by Divine Right, on 13 December 1648, the House of Commons broke off negotiations with the King.
In the middle of December, the King was moved from Windsor to London, the House of Commons of the Rump Parliament passed a Bill setting up a High Court of Justice in order to try Charles I for high treason in the name of the people of England. From a Royalist and post-restoration perspective this Bill was not lawful, the Parliamentary leaders and the Army pressed on with the trial anyway. At his trial in front of The High Court of Justice on Saturday 20 January 1649 in Westminster Hall, I would know by what authority, I mean lawful. In view of the issues involved, both sides based themselves on surprisingly technical legal grounds. Charles did not dispute that Parliament as a whole did have some powers, but he maintained that the House of Commons on its own could not try anybody. At that time under English law if a prisoner refused to plead this was treated as a plea of guilty and he was found guilty on Saturday 27 January 1649, and his death warrant was signed by 59 Commissioners. To show their agreement with the sentence of death, all of the Commissioners who were present rose to their feet.
On the day of his execution,30 January 1649, Charles dressed in two shirts so that he would not shiver from the cold, in case it was said that he was shivering from fear. Charles was escorted through the Banqueting House in the Palace of Whitehall to a scaffold where he would be beheaded. He forgave those who had passed sentence on him and gave instructions to his enemies that they should learn to know their duty to God, the King - that is, my successors - and the people. He gave a speech outlining his unchanged views of the relationship between the monarchy and the monarchs subjects, ending with the words I am the martyr of the people. His head was severed from his body with one blow, one week later, the Rump, sitting in the House of Commons, passed a bill abolishing the monarchy