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Diatessaron

The Diatessaron is the most prominent early gospel harmony, was created by Tatian, an Assyrian early Christian apologist and ascetic. Tatian sought to combine all the textual material he found in the four gospels—Matthew, Mark and John—into a single coherent narrative of Jesus's life and death. However, in contradistinction to most gospel harmonists, Tatian appears not to have been motivated by any aspiration to validate the four separate canonical gospel accounts. Although used by early Syriac Christians, the original text has not survived, but was reconstructed in 1881 by Theodor Zahn from translations and commentaries. Tatian's harmony follows the gospels in terms of text but, in order to fit all the canonical material in, he created his own narrative sequence, different from both the synoptic sequence and John's sequence; this sequence is coherent and consistent within itself, but not consistent with that in all or any of the separate canonical gospels. Where the gospels differ from one another in respect of the details of an event or teaching, the Diatessaron resolves such apparent contradictions by selecting one or another alternative wording and adding consistent details from the other gospels.

Hence, in respect of the healing of the blind at Jericho the Diatessaron reports only one blind man, healed by Jesus when leaving the city according to the account in Mark 10:46ff. Otherwise, Tatian omitted altogether both of the different genealogies in Matthew and Luke, as well as Luke's introduction; this latter passage is, however considered to be a late addition to the Gospel of John, with the Diatessaron itself cited as an early textual witness in support of its omission. Most scholars agree that Tatian did, from the beginning, include the longer ending of Mark, correspondingly is amongst the earliest witnesses to this inclusion. Tatian added no significant wording to the textual material. Only 56 verses in the canonical Gospels do not have a counterpart in the Diatessaron the genealogies and the Pericope Adulterae; the final work is about 72 per cent. In the early Church, the gospels at first circulated independently, with Matthew the most popular; the Diatessaron is notable evidence for the authority enjoyed by the gospels by the mid- to late-2nd century.

Within twenty years after Tatian's harmony was written, Irenaeus was expressly arguing for the authoritative character of the Four Gospels. It is unclear whether Tatian intended the Diatessaron to supplement or replace the four separate gospels; the Diatessaron became adopted as the standard lectionary text of the gospels in some Syriac-speaking churches from the late 2nd to the 5th century, until it gave way to the four separate Gospels such as the Syriac Sinaitic gospels, or in the Peshitta version. At the same time, in the churches of the Latin west, the Diatessaron circulated as a supplement to the four gospels in the Latin translation. A number of recensions of the Diatessaron are extant; the earliest, part of the Eastern family of recensions, is preserved in Ephrem's Commentary on Tatian's work, which itself is preserved in two versions: an Armenian translation preserved in two copies, a copy of Ephrem's original Syriac text from the late 5th/early 6th century, edited by Louis Leloir.

Other translations include translations made into Arabic and Old Georgian. Tatian was an Assyrian, a pupil of Justin Martyr in Rome, Justin says, the apomnemoneumata of the Apostles, the gospels, were read every Sunday; when Justin quotes the synoptic Gospels, he tends to do so in a harmonised form, Helmut Koester and others conclude that Justin must have possessed a Greek harmony text of Matthew and Mark. If so, it is unclear how much Tatian may have borrowed from this previous author in determining his own narrative sequence of Gospel elements, it is unclear whether Tatian took the Syriac Gospel texts composited into his Diatessaron from a previous translation, or whether the translation was his own. Where the Diatessaron records Gospel quotations from the Jewish Scriptures, the text appears to agree with that found in the Syriac Peshitta Old Testament rather than that found in the Greek Septuagint—as used by the original Gospel authors; the majority consensus is that the Peshitta Old Testament preceded the Diatessaron, represents an independent translation from the Hebrew Bible.

Resolution of these scholarly questions remained difficult so long as no complete version of the Diatessaron in Syriac or Greek had been recovered.

Coastal-class ferry

Coastal-class ferries known as the "Super-C class", are the largest double-ended ferries in the world, while the two single-ended Spirit-class ferries are the largest in the BC Ferries fleet. These vessels are owned and operated by BC Ferries of British Columbia and were built at the Flensburger Schiffbau-Gesellschaft shipyard in Flensburg, Germany; the three ferries were acquired by BC Ferries to replace the aging V-class ferries. They operate on the three busiest routes connecting the Lower Mainland to Vancouver Island—Tsawwassen↔Swartz Bay, Tsawwassen↔Duke Point, Horseshoe Bay↔Departure Bay; the Coastal class of ferries is composed of three ships, Coastal Renaissance, Coastal Inspiration and Coastal Celebration. At launch they were the largest double-ended ferries in the world; the three ships are 160.0 metres long overall and 154.0 metres between perpendiculars with a beam of 28.2 metres. They have a maximum draught of 5.6 metres. All three vessels have varying tonnages. Coastal Renaissance has a deadweight tonnage of 2,366, Coastal Inspiration, a DWT of 1,770 and Coastal Celebration, a DWT of 2,350.

The ships are powered by four 8-cylinder MaK 8M32C diesel engines driving two 11 MW electric motors turning two controllable pitch propellers. The engines are split into two main compartments and each compartment can run independently; the engines are rated at 21,444 horsepower. The ferries have a cruising speed of 18 knots; the vessel has seven decks, with the passenger deck on Deck 6, above the two bridges on Deck 5, with additional passenger spaces on Deck 5, between the two bridges. The class has a capacity of 1,604 passengers and crew and 2,001 metres lane space for 310 full-sized family vehicles. Initial reports stated the vessels could carry crew and 370 cars. Amenities aboard each ferry include a Coastal Cafe, a Coast Cafe Express, Sitka Coffee Place, gift shop, children's and pet areas; the vessels were ordered from Flensburger Schiffbau-Gesellschaft shipyard in Flensburg, Germany in September 2004 for €206.4 million. According to BC Ferries at this time, this was 40 percent lower than the lowest Canadian shipyard's bid.

This was a controversial decision. The first new Coastal-class vessel, Coastal Renaissance, departed for British Columbia on October 27, 2007, arrived on December 13, 2007, she entered service on the Departure Bay to Horseshoe Bay run on March 8, 2008. She was followed by Coastal Inspiration, which left Germany on February 9 and arrived March 25, Coastal Celebration, which departed on May 9 and arrived on June 18; the vessels' names were based on submissions received during a "naming contest" in late 2005. Coastal Renaissance operates on the Swartz Bay to Tsawassen route in winter and Departure Bay to Horseshoe Bay during the summer. Coastal Inspiration operates on the Duke Point to Tsawassen route. Coastal Celebration travels along the Swartz Bay to Tsawassen route. On December 20, 2011, Coastal Inspiration collided with the terminal at Duke Point while travelling at 5 knots, damaging the lower vehicle ramp at the terminal and causing damage to the vessel. 16 were injured in the collision and the bow door, the starboard side shell, the rubbing plate on the ship were damaged.

Coastal Inspiration was redirected to the Departure Bay terminal with the assistance of a tugboat to disembark passengers and vehicles. The ship was out of service for 122 days; the cause of the crash was found to be crew error. BC Ferries Newbuild Program

Springer Publishing

Springer Publishing is an American publishing company of academic journals and books, focusing on the fields of nursing, psychology, social work, public health, rehabilitation. It was established in 1950 by Bernhard Springer, a great-grandson of Julius Springer, is based on the 15th floor of the Salmon Tower in Midtown Manhattan, New York City. Springer Publishing Company was founded in 1950 by Bernhard Springer, the Berlin-born great-grandson of Julius Springer, who founded Springer-Verlag. Springer Publishing's first landmark publications included Livestock Health Encyclopedia by R. Seiden and the 1952 Handbook of Cardiology for Nurses; the company's books soon branched into other fields, including psychology. Nursing publications grew in number, as Modell's Drugs in Current Use, a small annual paperback, sold over 150,000 copies over several editions. Solomon Garb's Laboratory Tests for Nurses, first published in 1954, sold nearly 240,000 copies over six editions in 25 years. In its second decade, the firm expanded into new publishing areas to reflect the expanding health care industry.

Gerontology was a growing topic of interest, in the 1960s Bernhard Springer published six titles on aging. Meanwhile, publications in psychiatry and psychology continued to grow. After Bernhard Springer's death in 1970, his wife Ursula assumed responsibility for the company, the firm continued to expand, adding titles in social work, counseling and public health, in addition to publishing journals, annual reviews. In 2004, Ursula Springer sold Springer Publishing Company to Mannheim Holdings, LLC, a subsidiary of the Mannheim Trust. In 2015, Demos Medical Publishing merged into Springer Publishing. Springer Publishing publishes the following academic journals: Ursula; the History of Springer Publishing Company. Springer Publishing. ISBN 0826111122. Official website