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In optics, a dichroic material is either one which causes visible light to be split up into distinct beams of different wavelengths, or one in which light rays having different polarizations are absorbed by different amounts. The original meaning of dichroic, from the Greek dikhroos, two-coloured, refers to any optical device which can split a beam of light into two beams with differing wavelengths; such devices include mirrors and filters treated with optical coatings, which are designed to reflect light over a certain range of wavelengths, transmit light, outside that range. An example is the dichroic prism, used in some camcorders, which uses several coatings to split light into red and blue components for recording on separate CCD arrays, however it is now more common to have a Bayer filter to filter individual pixels on a single CCD array; this kind of dichroic device does not depend on the thong of the light. The term dichromatic is used in this sense; the second meaning of dichroic refers to the property of a material, in which light in different polarization states traveling through it experiences a different absorption coefficient.

When the polarization states in question are right and left-handed circular polarization, it is known as circular dichroism. Since the left- and right-handed circular polarizations represent two spin angular momentum states, in this case for a photon, this dichroism can be thought of as Spin Angular Momentum Dichroism. In some crystals, the strength of the dichroic effect varies with the wavelength of the light, making them appear to have different colours when viewed with light having differing polarizations; this is more referred to as pleochroism, the technique can be used in mineralogy to identify minerals. In some materials, such as herapathite or Polaroid sheets, the effect is not dependent on wavelength. Dichroism, in the second meaning above, occurs in liquid crystals due to either the optical anisotropy of the molecular structure or the presence of impurities or the presence of dichroic dyes; the latter is called a guest–host effect. Birefringence Dichromatism Pleochroism

Elkhart, Iowa

Elkhart is a city in Polk County, United States. The population was 683 at the 2010 census, it is part of the Des Moines–West Des Moines Metropolitan Statistical Area. Elkhart was founded in 1853 by settlers from Indiana. After a decline in the population of the original town, the Elkhart Post Office was moved to the nearby town of Ottawa. In a few years, the name would be moved once again to its current location, it was incorporated as a city on July 27, 1904. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 1.58 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2010, there were 683 people, 256 households, 175 families living in the city; the population density was 432.3 inhabitants per square mile. There were 269 housing units at an average density of 170.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 95.6% White, 1.0% African American, 0.3% Native American, 3.1% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.8% of the population. There were 256 households of which 46.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.3% were married couples living together, 8.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.9% had a male householder with no wife present, 31.6% were non-families.

25.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.67 and the average family size was 3.27. The median age in the city was 30.6 years. 32.7% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 48.5 % female. As of the census of 2000, there were 362 people, 158 households, 91 families living in the city; the population density was 306.3 people per square mile. There were 163 housing units at an average density of 137.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 98.07% White, 1.38% African American, 0.28% Native American, 0.28% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.28% of the population. There were 158 households out of which 24.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.8% were married couples living together, 8.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 41.8% were non-families. 34.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.

The average household size was 2.29 and the average family size was 2.96. 22.9% are under the age of 18, 11.6% from 18 to 24, 32.3% from 25 to 44, 16.3% from 45 to 64, 16.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 96.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.5 males. The median income for a household in the city was $33,000, the median income for a family was $51,042. Males had a median income of $37,500 versus $23,438 for females; the per capita income for the city was $20,397. None of the families and 4.7% of the population were living below the poverty line, including no under eighteens and 8.6% of those over 64


Teli is a caste traditionally occupied in the pressing of oil in India and Pakistan. Members may be either Muslim; the Jewish community of Maharashtra was known to be a sub-group in the Teli caste called Shanivar Teli meaning Saturday oil pressers for their Jewish custom of abstention from work on Shabbat. The Teli are sometimes considered to belong to the Vaishya varna in Hinduism. Other sources, classify them with the ritually lower-ranked Shudra, while others note that the Teli have attempted to avoid lower-classed activities and associations in an attempt to identify themselves as Vaishya. In Bengal, the Teli would be reckoned as Vaishya, along with other traders and bankers such as the Suvarnabanik, Saha, had not the Vaishya varna disappeared there. In Rajasthan, the Teli claim Kshatriya status; the Bene Israel of Maharashtra were nicknamed the Shanivar Teli by the local population as they abstained from work on Saturdays, Judaism's Shabbat. The Ghanchi community of Gujarat have been described as a "counterpart" of the Telis.

In the late 2000s, some among the Teli community of Bihar, organised by the Teli Sena, were engaging in vote bank politics as they sought to achieve categorisation as a Most Backward Class in the state. They had failed to achieve this repositioning in India's official positive discrimination scheme, with opposition coming from other groups who considered the Teli to be too populous and socio-economically influential to justify the change. In April 2015, Bihar chief Minister Nitish Kumar announced a decision to include the Teli caste in the list of Extremely Backward Class in Bihar. In 2004, Jhanrkhand government under Arjun Munda recommended Scheduled Tribes status to Teli caste in Jharkhand, but the move didn't materialize as of 2015. In 2014, Raghubar Das became first Teli Chief minister of Jharkhand. Gupta Other Backward Class Bania Ghanchi

Vaginal seeding

Vaginal seeding known as microbirthing, is a procedure whereby vaginal fluids are applied to a new-born child delivered by caesarean section. The purpose of the technique is to recreate the natural transfer of bacteria that the baby gets during a vaginal birth, it involves placing swabs in the mother's vagina, wiping them into the baby's face, mouth and skin. Infants delivered vaginally are exposed to beneficial microorganisms known as microbiota when they travel down the birth canal; the baby is exposed to the mother's vaginal microbes that wash over the child in the birth canal, which coves the skin, enters the baby's eyes, ears and mouth. These microbes travel down into the gut after being swallowed, it is said that these microbes are important in the postnatal development of the immune system of the baby. In the event that a C-section is done before labour starts or before a woman's water breaks, the infant won't come into contact with maternal vaginal fluid or bacteria. Instead, they come in contact with skin microbes, a different set of species.

These differences, in turn, have been associated with increased risks of asthma, allergies and immune deficiencies. Thus, these differences appear more in infants after a caesarean delivery than after a vaginal delivery, according to certain epidemiological data; the purpose behind the practice of vaginal seeding or micro birthing is that it allows an infant delivered via caesarean section to come in contact with microbes from the birth canal. The expectation is that this may boost their gut bacteria and lessen the danger of health issues associated with caesarian infants, it contributes to the seeding of the infant gut. It is unclear whether it is safe. In 2016 a small study was published in the Journal Nature Medicine to look into the benefits of vaginal seeding. However, the study authors acknowledged that the consequences of vaginal seeding remain unclear due to limited data. In 2017, a subsequent study was published which found that there wasn't a big difference, after six weeks, between the microbes of infants born vaginally versus those who delivered by C-section without receiving vaginal seeding.

Which further added to the confusion. Furthermore, certain scholars have pointed out that a baby's exposure to bacteria begins before birth and more research is required on this matter. Infants delivered by C-section are at a lower danger of exchange of some harmful microbes and infections from the birth canal. However, with vaginal seeding, these harmful microorganisms and infections could be exchanged to the infant on a swab and cause an infection. An editorial written in the British Medical Journal is advising practitioners and parents to not perform vaginal seeding as there is not enough evidence that it is beneficial for infants and could put babies' health at risk; the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists does not encourage or recommend vaginal seeding due to lack of evidence. Hygiene hypothesis Outline of obstetrics - re the care of all women's reproductive tracts and their children during pregnancy and the postnatal period

The Boat Race 1947

The 93rd Boat Race took place on 29 March 1947. Held annually, the Boat Race is a side-by-side rowing race between crews from the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge along the River Thames in London. In a race umpired by former Oxford rower D. T. Raikes, Cambridge won by ten lengths in a time of 23 minutes 1 second, taking the overall record in the event to 49–43 in their favour; the Boat Race is a side-by-side rowing competition between the University of Oxford and the University of Cambridge. The race was first held in 1829, since 1845 has taken place on the 4.2-mile Championship Course on the River Thames in southwest London. The rivalry is a major point of honour between the two universities and followed throughout the United Kingdom and worldwide. Oxford went into the race as reigning champions, having won the 1946 race by three lengths, with Cambridge leading overall with 48 victories to Oxford's 43. Oxford's coaches were R. E. Eason, P. C. Mallam and Guy Oliver Nickalls. Cambridge were coached by Hugh Mason and Peter Haig-Thomas.

The umpire for the race was former Oxford rower D. T. Raikes who had represented the Dark Blues in the 1920, 1921 and 1922 races. Among the spectators were Geoffrey Fisher, the Archbishop of Canterbury, American actress Paulette Goddard, it was the first year that souvenir programmes were sold, the proceeds of which would help to fund the two boat clubs. The rowing correspondent for The Times suggested that Oxford could win, claiming they had an "embarras de richesse" while Cambridge "started this year with a grievous shortage of material". In a practice row, the rowing correspondent for The Manchester Guardian stated that "Cambridge showed much better form" while Oxford "did rather more hard work", including practicing their start from a stakeboat. Oxford were reported as being favourites in the Dundee Courier, with the prediction that the win could be determined by who won the toss; that view was echoed in the Dundee Evening Telegraph, who suggested that Oxford were favourites yet "abnormal flooding" would favour the crew who won the toss.

The Cambridge crew weighed an average of 12 st 5.5 pounds per rower more than their opponents. Oxford saw four rowers with Boat Race experience return to the crew, including J. R. W. Gleave, R. M. A. Bourne, P. N. Brodie and stroke A. J. R. Purssell Cambridge's boat contained just one crew member who had taken part in the event before, in cox G. H. C. Fisher; the Cambridge University Boat Club president, M. A. Nicholson was declared unfit to row following a series of bouts of asthma. All participants in the race were registered as British. Oxford won the toss and elected to start from the Surrey station, handing the Middlesex side of the river to Cambridge; the race was started by umpire Raikes at 6:15 p.m, in "rain and dismal weather". Out-rating Oxford by two strokes per minute, the Light Blues took an immediate lead and by Craven Steps they were pulling away from their opponents; as both crews passed the Mile Post, Cambridge were clear by two lengths, despite a spurt from the Dark Blues at the Harrods Furniture Depository, the Light Blues maintained their lead.

Oxford trailed Cambridge by three and a half lengths as the Light Blues passed below Hammersmith Bridge and moved into Oxford's water ending the race as a contest. Cambridge continued to build their lead, ahead by six lengths at Chiswick Steps and eight by Barnes Bridge, they passed the finishing post ten lengths ahead in a time of 23 minutes 1 second, their first win since the 1939 race. It was the slowest winning time since the 1877 race and the winning margin was the largest since the 1928 race; the victory took the overall record in the event to 49–43 in Cambridge's favour. The rowing correspondent for The Times suggested the "Boat Race was as disappointing as the weather in which it was rowed". Notes Bibliography Burnell, Richard. One Hundred and Fifty Years of the Oxford and Cambridge Boat Race. Precision Press. ISBN 0950063878. Dodd, Christopher; the Oxford & Cambridge Boat Race. Stanley Paul. ISBN 0091513405. Official website


Matrine is an alkaloid found in plants from the genus Sophora. It has a variety of pharmacological effects, including anti-cancer effects, as well as κ-opioid and μ-opioid receptor agonism. Matrine possesses strong antitumor activities in vitro and in vivo. Inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis are the mechanisms responsible for matrine's antitumor activities. Matrine is a component of the traditional Chinese medical herb Sophora flavescens Ait. Mu opioid agonism is associated with euphoria, while kappa opioid agonism is associated with dysphoria and psychotomimetic hallucinations. Both receptors are known to produce analgesia. Matrine and the related compound oxymatrine have an antifeedant effect against formosan subterranean termite. Additionally, it acts as a nematicide against the pine wood nematode which causes pine wilt, as well as pathogenic nematodes which target humans. Media related to Matrine at Wikimedia Commons