OTO Melara was a subsidiary of Finmeccanica S.p. A. active in the defence sector, with factories in Brescia and La Spezia. The Mod 56 pack howitzer, in service throughout the world, the 76mm naval gun, adopted by 53 navies and installed on over 1,000 naval vessels, are among OTO Melara's best-known weapons since World War II. From 1 January 2016, the activities of OTO Melara merged into Leonardo-Finmeccanica's Defence Systems Division, within the Electronics and Security Systems Sector, it was founded in 1905 as a joint venture of Vickers and Terni Steelworks, Cantiere navale fratelli Orlando and Cantieri navali Odero. Investment was provided by Giuseppe Orlando and Attilio Odero. During World War I, Vickers Terni produced many weapons with calibre 40 mm and upwards. In 1929 the company was renamed Odero Terni Orlando with the abbreviation OTO. During World War II heavy guns for battleships were produced. In 1953 the company took the name OTO Melara. Before Italy joined NATO, OTO Melara produced civil products, like tractors and looms, but returned to the production of weapons.
On 1 December 2001, the naval artillery division of OTO Melara merged with that of Breda Meccanica Bresciana to form Otobreda. The combined entity produces Otobreda 76 mm and Otobreda 127/54 Compact naval guns. OTO Melara's land defence operations are part of the Finmeccanica conglomerate. Vehicles manufactured include: Ariete Main Battle Tank OF-40 Main Battle Tank Centauro Wheeled Tank Destroyer Dardo Infantry Fighting Vehicle VBM Freccia 8×8 Wheeled Infantry Fighting Vehicle Puma 6×6 and Puma 4×4 Wheeled Armoured Personnel Carrier Palmaria self-propelled artillery Otomatic anti-aircraft tank Weapons manufactured includes: OTO Melara Mod 56 105/L14 Pack Howitzer HITFACT three-man turret armed with a 120mm/45 calibre or 105mm/52 calibre gun Hitfist two-man turret armed with a 25 or 30mm automatic cannon and 7.62mm coaxial machine gun Hitfist OWS Remotely operated turret armed with a 25 or 30mm automatic cannon and 7.62mm coaxial machine gun Hitrole Remote Weapon Station for 7.62mm or 12.7mm machine gun or 40 automatic grenade launcher Otobreda 127/54 Compact naval gun Otobreda 127/64 Lightweight naval gun 76/62mm Allargato Otobreda 76 mm naval gun Otomat Anti-ship missile Skyguard "Aspide" Anti-Air missile system SIDAM 25 anti-aircraft gun DARDO CIWS a twin 40mm naval gun mountingAmmunition manufactured include: Vulcano 76/127/155mmIn the last decade the company has produced between 900 and 1000 GBU-31 and GBU-32 JDAMs on license.
At the moment it is working on the production of 500 GBU-39s for the Aeronautica Militare. The naval defence operations produce a wide range of automatic naval artillery and missile launchers and remote controlled small calibre defence cannons. List of Italian companies Leonardo official website "EUR 80M to OTO Melara for F125 Frigate Gun Systems". Defenseindustrydaily.com. Retrieved 2007-10-21. Http://bp1.blogger.com/_Ov8q5T5kYx8/RzS3XXESUiI/AAAAAAAAABA/CcB0TEuLu7Y/s1600-h/otomelara12.7mm.jpg
"Muggiano" redirects here. For the district of Milan, see Muggiano. Lerici is a comune in the province of La Spezia in Liguria, part of the Italian Riviera, it is situated on the coast of the Gulf of 8 kilometres southeast of La Spezia. It is known as the place; the town is connected by ferry to Portovenere. One of the main sights of Lerici is its castle which since its first founding in 1152 was used to help control the entrance of the Gulf of La Spezia. Today the castle contains a museum of palaeontology; the origins of the town date back to the Etruscan period. In the Middle Ages the town came under Genoese control. After it had been sold to Lucca, it became involved in a series of conflicts between Genoa and Pisa, as it was on their common border. In 1479, the town came under Genoese sway for good. Italian author Mario Soldati had a residence in the frazione of Tellaro. Italian painter Oreste Carpi spent many years in San Terenzo making hundreds of paintings and drawings reproducing town landscapes.
English writers Mary Shelley and Percy Bysshe Shelley lived some five kilometers north in an isolated old boat house called Casa Magni, anchored their sailing boat in Lerici. Their closest neighbours were the villagers of the tiny hamlet of San Terenzo. Percy Bysshe Shelley drowned on 8 July 1822 in the Bay of Spezia, returning to Lerici from a journey to Livorno and Pisa, his corpse washed up on the beach at Viareggio, located halfway between Livorno and Lerici. Though the Italian poet and writer Sem Benelli first referred to the Golfo di Lerici, as the Golfo dei Poet in 1910 to commemorate the death of Italian writer Paolo Mantegazza, at is residence in San Terenzo di Lerici, the popularity of Lerici with the Shelleys and with Lord Byron helped promote the title Golfo dei Poeti, Poet's Bay, for the Golfo di Lerici. Hungarian author Baroness Emmuska Orczy, author of The Scarlet Pimpernel, had a villa built in the hills above Lerici, near the locality of Bellavista, called it La Padula. Orczy and her husband Montague Barstow spent several months there in the 1930s – alternating between La Padula, Villa Bijou in Monte Carlo, trips to Britain.
They decided to abandon fascist Italy for Villa Bijou. La Padula still stands today. Lerici is one of the mariner communities which take part in the Palio del Golfo, a rowing contest held in La Spezia every first Sunday of August. Mougins, since 26 October 2008Lerici is twinned with Horsham, in Great Britain, although the latter no longer records this as an "active" twinning on its official website. Horsham is where Shelley was born, Lerici where he died. Official website Website of Pro Loco Lerici Learn about the events and tourist activities. Lerici Walks Castle to Castle Walk Description. Museum of palaeontology
Greece the Hellenic Republic, self-identified and known as Hellas, is a country located in Southern and Southeast Europe, with a population of 11 million as of 2016. Athens is largest city, followed by Thessaloniki. Greece is located at the crossroads of Europe and Africa. Situated on the southern tip of the Balkan Peninsula, it shares land borders with Albania to the northwest, North Macedonia and Bulgaria to the north, Turkey to the northeast; the Aegean Sea lies to the east of the mainland, the Ionian Sea to the west, the Cretan Sea and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. Greece has the longest coastline on the Mediterranean Basin and the 11th longest coastline in the world at 13,676 km in length, featuring a large number of islands, of which 227 are inhabited. Eighty percent of Greece is mountainous, with Mount Olympus being the highest peak at 2,918 metres; the country consists of nine geographic regions: Macedonia, Central Greece, the Peloponnese, Epirus, the Aegean Islands, Thrace and the Ionian Islands.
Greece is considered the cradle of Western civilisation, being the birthplace of democracy, Western philosophy, Western literature, political science, major scientific and mathematical principles, Western drama and notably the Olympic Games. From the eighth century BC, the Greeks were organised into various independent city-states, known as poleis, which spanned the entire Mediterranean region and the Black Sea. Philip of Macedon united most of the Greek mainland in the fourth century BC, with his son Alexander the Great conquering much of the ancient world, from the eastern Mediterranean to India. Greece was annexed by Rome in the second century BC, becoming an integral part of the Roman Empire and its successor, the Byzantine Empire, in which Greek language and culture were dominant. Rooted in the first century A. D. the Greek Orthodox Church helped shape modern Greek identity and transmitted Greek traditions to the wider Orthodox World. Falling under Ottoman dominion in the mid-15th century, the modern nation state of Greece emerged in 1830 following a war of independence.
Greece's rich historical legacy is reflected by its 18 UNESCO World Heritage Sites. The sovereign state of Greece is a unitary parliamentary republic and developed country with an advanced high-income economy, a high quality of life, a high standard of living. A founding member of the United Nations, Greece was the tenth member to join the European Communities and has been part of the Eurozone since 2001, it is a member of numerous other international institutions, including the Council of Europe, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie. Greece's unique cultural heritage, large tourism industry, prominent shipping sector and geostrategic importance classify it as a middle power, it is the largest economy in the Balkans. The names for the nation of Greece and the Greek people differ from the names used in other languages and cultures.
The Greek name of the country is Hellas or Ellada, its official name is the Hellenic Republic. In English, the country is called Greece, which comes from Latin Graecia and means'the land of the Greeks'; the earliest evidence of the presence of human ancestors in the southern Balkans, dated to 270,000 BC, is to be found in the Petralona cave, in the Greek province of Macedonia. All three stages of the stone age are represented for example in the Franchthi Cave. Neolithic settlements in Greece, dating from the 7th millennium BC, are the oldest in Europe by several centuries, as Greece lies on the route via which farming spread from the Near East to Europe. Greece is home to the first advanced civilizations in Europe and is considered the birthplace of Western civilisation, beginning with the Cycladic civilization on the islands of the Aegean Sea at around 3200 BC, the Minoan civilization in Crete, the Mycenaean civilization on the mainland; these civilizations possessed writing, the Minoans writing in an undeciphered script known as Linear A, the Mycenaeans in Linear B, an early form of Greek.
The Mycenaeans absorbed the Minoans, but collapsed violently around 1200 BC, during a time of regional upheaval known as the Bronze Age collapse. This ushered from which written records are absent. Though the unearthed Linear B texts are too fragmentary for the reconstruction of the political landscape and can't support the existence of a larger state contemporary Hittite and Egyptian records suggest the presence of a single state under a "Great King" based in mainland Greece; the end of the Dark Ages is traditionally dated to the year of the first Olympic Games. The Iliad and the Odyssey, the foundational texts of Western literature, are believed to have been composed by Homer in the 7th or 8th centuries BC. With the end of the Dark Ages, there emerged various kingdoms and city-states across the Greek peninsula, which spread to the shores of the Black Sea, So
Diciotti-class offshore patrol vessel
The Diciotti class is an Italian-designed offshore patrol vessel, presently in use with the Italian Coast Guard, Iraqi Navy, Armed Forces of Malta and Panama SENAN. These ships are designed and built by Fincantieri on the bay of La Spezia to Muggiano and Riva Trigoso shipyards. Based on the earlier experimental Saettia class, the Diciotti class is an advanced and improved version with a longer length, more power and hence greater patrol endurance. In 2003, the Armed Forces of Malta ordered a replacement for the former East German Kondor class patrol boats P29, P30 and P31, due to the increase in flow of refugees from North Africa to Europe; the design for P61 provides a clear rear half to the ship, providing sufficient space with reinforcement to land a helicopter, up to the size of an AW139. P61 has the capability of carrying out patrols up to Sea State 5, withstand sea conditions up to Sea State 7, it can launch a rib patrol boat via a rear launch ramp up to Sea State 4. This combination of modifications increases vessel weight to 450-tonnes, reduces standard crew capacity to 25.
Maximum unrefueled patrol length at 20 knots is 3,000 nautical miles. The €17m Euros contract, financed from the 5th Italo-Maltese Financial Protocol, covered the construction of the vessel together with an associated training and logistic support package; the ship was commissioned on October 1, 2005 and operational from November 5, 2005. P61 acts as the flagship of the Armed Forces of Malta; the vessel has been updated in 2017 with overhaul and engine refit, by Fincantieri, to a cost around €7 million. In 2006, the new Iraqi Navy signed a contract with the Italian Government to purchase four modified Diciotti class vessels to patrol its 58 kilometre coast line; the vessels are to be built by Fincantieri at Riva Trigoso, with modifications including increased crew capacity of 38. The contract comprises the provision of logistical support and crew training with each crew completing a 7-week training course. In cooperation with the Marina Militare, each commissioning crew is provided with a week’s bridge simulator course at the Naval Academy in Livorno.
In May 2009, the first vessel, Patrol Ship 701 named Fatah, was handed over at the Muggiano, La Spezia shipyard. The crew had been training since January 2009, now headed for Umm Qasr, a 20 day/5,000 nautical mile journey via the Mediterranean, Suez Canal and Red Sea. There, additional training was completed, before the vessel took over duties from the British Royal Marine patrols, who reverted to training the new crew; the vessels are used to patrol the exclusive economic zone, control maritime traffic, for search and rescue and fire fighting. Following an agreement reached in June 2010, Italy delivered CP 902 Ubaldo Diciotti and CP 903 Luigi Dattilo to SENAN - National Air and Navy Service of Panama as P 901 and P 902 in April 2014. Falaj 2-class patrol vessel - a more armed patrol vessel based on the Diciotti
Fincantieri S.p. A. is an Italian shipbuilding company based in Italy. The largest shipbuilder in Europe, after the acquisition of Vard in 2013 and 50% of STX France in 2018, Fincantieri group doubled in size to become the fourth largest in the world; the company builds both military vessels. The company is a component of FTSE Italia Mid Cap Index. Fincantieri designs and builds merchant vessels, passenger ships and naval vessels, is active in the conversion and ship repair sectors; the company owned Grandi Motori Trieste, which constructed marine diesel engines, but this was sold to Wärtsilä in 1999. Founded in 1959 as Società Finanziaria Cantieri Navali – Fincantieri S.p. A. as a State financial holding company, part of IRI, the company became a separate entity in 1984. Today Fincantieri is one of Europe's largest shipbuilding groups and the largest in the Mediterranean. Fincantieri employs a staff of about 10,000 working at eight shipyards, two design centres, one research centre and two production sites for mechanical components.
The shipyards of Monfalcone, Sestri Ponente, Castellammare di Stabia and Palermo report to the Merchant Ships Business Unit while the shipyards of Riva Trigoso and Muggiano report to the Naval Vessel Business Unit. Fincantieri completed the acquisition of Manitowoc Marine Group from its parent company The Manitowoc Company, Inc. on 1 January 2009, which consisted of two shipyards in Wisconsin, including Marinette Marine, which built the first Freedom-class littoral combat ship. Fincantieri purchased from Manitowoc Marine Group a topside repair yard in Ohio and one production plant in Wisconsin, making it one of the leading mid-sized shipbuilders in the United States for commercial and government customers, including the U. S. Navy and U. S. Coast Guard; the largest shipbuilder in Europe, after the acquisition of Vard the Fincantieri group doubled in size to become the fourth largest in the world. In March 2015, Fincantieri won its biggest independent order from Carnival Corporation & plc in a 4 billion euro deal commissioning the company to build five new cruise ships.
Fincantieri is in talks with the French government to purchase part of the majority of STX ship building although negotiations are ongoing and controversial. On 2 February 2018, Fincantieri announced an agreement for 50 per cent of STX France valued at 59.7 million euro. In March 2018, Fincantieri established Fincantieri Services USA - a subsidiary based in Miami, Florida, USA. Monfalcone shipyards Marghera shipyards Ancona shipyards Sestri Ponente shipyards VARD Langsten shipyards VARD Braila shipyards VARD Tulcea shipyards Chantiers de l'Atlantique shipyards 50% Muggiano shipyards Riva Trigoso shipyards Castellammare di Stabia shipyards Marinette Marine VARD Søviknes shipyards VARD Aukra shipyard VARD Brattvaag shipyard VARD Brevik shipyard VARD Promar shipyard VARD Vung Tau shipyard Palermo shipyards Trieste shipyards Sturgeon Bay shipyard List of ships built by Fincantieri Isotta Fraschini Cantieri Riuniti dell'Adriatico Official Fincantieri website
MTU Friedrichshafen GmbH is a manufacturer of commercial internal combustion engines founded by Wilhelm Maybach and his son Karl Maybach in 1909. Wilhelm Maybach was the technical director of Daimler-Motoren-Gesellschaft, a predecessor company of the German multinational automotive corporation Daimler AG, until he left in 1907. On 23 March 1909, he founded the new company, Luftfahrzeug-Motorenbau GmbH, with his son Karl Maybach as director. A few years the company was renamed to Maybach-Motorenbau GmbH, which developed and manufactured diesel and petrol engines for Zeppelins, railcars; the Maybach Mb. IVa was used in aircraft and airships of World War I; the company first built an experimental car in 1919, with the first production model introduced two years at the Berlin Motor Show. Between 1921 and 1940, the company produced various classic opulent vehicles; the company continued to build heavy duty diesel engines for marine and rail purposes. During the Second World War, Maybach produced the engines for Germany's medium and heavy tanks.
The company was renamed MTU Friedrichshafen in the 1960s and continued to supply the engines for the Leopard 2 main battle tank. MTU derives from Motoren- und Turbinen-Union meaning "Motor and Turbine Union". MTU Friedrichshafen remained a subsidiary of DaimlerChrysler until 2006 when it was sold off to the EQT IV private equity fund, becoming a part of the Tognum Corporation. Rolls-Royce Holdings and Daimler AG acquired Tognum in 2011. In 2014, Tognum was renamed Rolls-Royce Power Systems, having become a 100 per cent subsidiary of Rolls-Royce Holdings; the company manufactures diesel engines for trains, ships and gas installations, military vehicles, agriculture and construction equipment, as well as diesel generators and molten carbonate fuel cells. 1909: Foundation of Luftfahrzeug-Motorenbau GmbH in Bissingen an der Enz as part of the Zeppelin corporation. The company manufactures engines for airships. 1912: 1911/12 relocation to Friedrichshafen. 1918: Motorenbau GmbH is renamed Maybach-Motorenbau GmbH.
After the end of the First World War the company began to manufacture car engines. 1966: Merger of the two companies Mercedes-Benz Motorenbau Friedrichshafen GmbH and Maybach-Motorenbau GmbH to form Maybach Mercedes-Benz Motorenbau GmbH. 1969: Maybach Mercedes-Benz Motorenbau GmbH is renamed Motoren und Turbinen-Union Friedrichshafen GmbH. The company is a subsidiary of MTU München GmbH, owned at equal shares by Daimler-Benz AG and MAN AG until 1985. 1989: Incorporation of MTU Friedrichshafen in Deutsche Aero-space AG, a company of the Daimler-Benz Group. 1994: Cooperation of MTU Friedrichshafen with Detroit Diesel Corporation 1995: MTU Friedrichshafen and MTU München go their separate ways. 2001: MTU Motoren- und Turbinen-Union Friedrichshafen GmbH is renamed MTU Friedrichshafen GmbH. 2005: In late 2005, the DaimlerChrysler Off-Highway business unit, including MTU Friedrichshafen and the Off-Highway division of Detroit Diesel Corporation, is sold to the Swedish financial investor EQT Partners.
2006: The business is transferred into the new holding company Tognum, with MTU Friedrichshafen as its core company. 2009: MTU Friedrichshafen celebrates its centenary. In the same year introduction of the new Series 1600, rounding off the performance range at the lower end of the product portfolio. 2011: Rolls-Royce Holdings and Daimler AG announced they were buying Tognum 2014: Tognum was renamed Rolls-Royce Power Systems 2014: From 26 August Rolls-Royce Power Systems became a 100 per cent subsidiary of Rolls-Royce Holdings Rolls-Royce Power Systems Wilhelm Maybach Maybach-Motorenbau GmbH Daimler AG Rolls-Royce Holdings Detroit Diesel Bergen Marine Official website History of the company MTU spare parts Maybach tank engines MTU Western U. S. Distributor: Pacific Power Group
Italy the Italian Republic, is a country in Southern Europe. Located in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria and the enclaved microstates San Marino and Vatican City. Italy covers an area of 301,340 km2 and has a temperate seasonal and Mediterranean climate. With around 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth-most populous EU member state and the most populous country in Southern Europe. Due to its central geographic location in Southern Europe and the Mediterranean, Italy has been home to a myriad of peoples and cultures. In addition to the various ancient peoples dispersed throughout modern-day Italy, the most famous of which being the Indo-European Italics who gave the peninsula its name, beginning from the classical era and Carthaginians founded colonies in insular Italy and Genoa, Greeks established settlements in the so-called Magna Graecia, while Etruscans and Celts inhabited central and northern Italy respectively; the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom in the 8th century BC, which became a republic with a government of the Senate and the People.
The Roman Republic conquered and assimilated its neighbours on the peninsula, in some cases through the establishment of federations, the Republic expanded and conquered parts of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East. By the first century BC, the Roman Empire emerged as the dominant power in the Mediterranean Basin and became the leading cultural and religious centre of Western civilisation, inaugurating the Pax Romana, a period of more than 200 years during which Italy's technology, economy and literature flourished. Italy remained the metropole of the Roman Empire; the legacy of the Roman Empire endured its fall and can be observed in the global distribution of culture, governments and the Latin script. During the Early Middle Ages, Italy endured sociopolitical collapse and barbarian invasions, but by the 11th century, numerous rival city-states and maritime republics in the northern and central regions of Italy, rose to great prosperity through shipping and banking, laying the groundwork for modern capitalism.
These independent statelets served as Europe's main trading hubs with Asia and the Near East enjoying a greater degree of democracy than the larger feudal monarchies that were consolidating throughout Europe. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, science and art. Italian culture flourished, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael and Machiavelli. During the Middle Ages, Italian explorers such as Marco Polo, Christopher Columbus, Amerigo Vespucci, John Cabot and Giovanni da Verrazzano discovered new routes to the Far East and the New World, helping to usher in the European Age of Discovery. Italy's commercial and political power waned with the opening of trade routes that bypassed the Mediterranean. Centuries of infighting between the Italian city-states, such as the Italian Wars of the 15th and 16th centuries, left the region fragmented, it was subsequently conquered and further divided by European powers such as France and Austria.
By the mid-19th century, rising Italian nationalism and calls for independence from foreign control led to a period of revolutionary political upheaval. After centuries of foreign domination and political division, Italy was entirely unified in 1871, establishing the Kingdom of Italy as a great power. From the late 19th century to the early 20th century, Italy industrialised, namely in the north, acquired a colonial empire, while the south remained impoverished and excluded from industrialisation, fuelling a large and influential diaspora. Despite being one of the main victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil, leading to the rise of a fascist dictatorship in 1922. Participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in military defeat, economic destruction and the Italian Civil War. Following the liberation of Italy and the rise of the resistance, the country abolished the monarchy, reinstated democracy, enjoyed a prolonged economic boom and, despite periods of sociopolitical turmoil became a developed country.
Today, Italy is considered to be one of the world's most culturally and economically advanced countries, with the sixth-largest worldwide national wealth. Its advanced economy ranks eighth-largest in the world and third in the Eurozone by nominal GDP. Italy owns the third-largest central bank gold reserve, it has a high level of human development, it stands among the top countries for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs. Italy is a founding and leading member of the European Union and a member of numerous international institutions, including the UN, NATO, the OECD, the OSCE, the WTO, the G7, the G20, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Council of Europe, Uniting for Consensus, the Schengen Area and many more; as a reflection