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Friedrich Erismann

Friedrich Huldreich Erismann, or Fyodor Fyodorovich Erismann was a Swiss ophthalmologist and hygienist born in Gontenschwil, canton of Aargau. In 1867, Erismann earned his medical doctorate at the University of Zurich, subsequently furthering his studies in ophthalmology in Heidelberg and Berlin. In 1867 he married Nadezhda Suslova, two years relocated to St. Petersburg as an ophthalmologist, his interests soon turned to issues such as public health and conditions of the poor. In the early 1870s he studied hygiene and physiology in Munich, where his instructors were Max von Pettenkofer and Carl von Voit. Following participation in Russo-Turkish War, he moved to Moscow, where from 1881 he served as a lecturer at the university. In 1884 he was appointed professor of director at the institute of hygiene. At the University of Moscow, one of his students was playwright Anton Chekhov. In 1870 he invented the new construction of school desk, used in Russian schools till the beginning of 1960s. Erismann was a pioneer of scientific hygiene in Russia, sought to improve water quality and food standards in St. Petersburg and Moscow.

In 1896 Erismann was dismissed from his position at Moscow for political reasons, as he expressed support of student revolutionaries and denounced the living conditions of the Russian people. Afterwards, he returned to Switzerland and became involved with political and health issues in Zurich, he published in Russian. Among his numerous writings was Gesundheitslehre für Gebildete aller Stände, a book, published in several editions. Famous Figures in Russian Medicine St. Petersburg doctors N. A. Semashko.'Friedrich Erismann, The Dawn of Russian Hygiene and Public Health.' Bulletin of the History of Medicine. June 1916, Vol. XX, No. 1, pp. 1-9. F. F Ėrisman WorldCat Identities

Feast of Lanterns

Pacific Grove, California's Feast of Lanterns is an annual celebration, over 100 years old, of the legend of the Blue Willow, a fabricated "Chinese" story. However, in Pacific Grove's version of the story, the fleeing couple turns into monarch butterflies, as opposed to birds, to flee the evil mandarin; some type of Japanese/Chinese boat parade with lanterns did occur sometime between 1875 until 1905 with roots in the Chautauqua's Illumination Night first practiced at the original Chautauqua, New York however there is no written scholarship to refer. The Feast of Lanterns was developed in 1905 to spark interest in the Chautauqua Literary and Scientific Circle. Participation in the program had diminished, organizers felt that a large closing ceremony would reinvigorate engagement with the CLSC; the festival happened annually until 1917, only intermittently until 1958, when the Pacific Grove City Council revived the event. The Feast of Lanterns play is performed on the Saturday of the last full weekend of every July, the small town of Pacific Grove crams onto Lover's Point Beach to watch the show.

In support of the town-wide holiday, lanterns can be seen hanging on the porches of many local homes. Lantern soup and lantern pie are delicious delicacies to be found at the "Feast of Lanterns." The afternoon preceding the Feast of Lanterns, the city holds its annual Pet Parade, which circles its main street, Lighthouse Avenue. The Feast of Lanterns holiday ends with propelled fireworks as well as unique Chinese board fireworks and lit Torei gates over Lover's Point Beach, with Queen Topaz and her peasant lover, escaping safely together; the Royal Court of Feast of Lanterns Princesses is a group of 4-9 high school aged girls and boys who are citizens of Pacific Grove. The number of Princesses there are depends on; each princess is a different gem, they are led by the Feast of Lanterns Queen, known as Queen Topaz. Queen Topaz is the star of the annual skit; the boys, which have been allowed to participate, pose as male faux Chinese assistants or as the young character Chang in the play. The Royal Court spends their entire month of July establishing themselves in the community, visiting retirement homes and other events while giving out their personal signed trading cards.

Official Feast of Lanterns website Pacific Grove Museum of Natural History: The Feast of Lanterns

Allan Dick (politician)

Allan David Dick was a New Zealand politician of the National Party. Dick was born in 1915 at Dunedin, he received his education at Otago Boys' High School. After school, he farmed at North Otago and Lilybank Station at the head of Lake Tekapo in the McKenzie Country, he bought Lilybank in 1937. In 1962, he won the 1962 Waitaki by-election, after the sudden death of the Hon. Thomas Hayman, an MP from 1949, he was one of six candidates for the National nomination in this rural and safe National seat. He represented the Waitaki electorate to 1969, the Oamaru electorate from 1969 to 1972, when he was defeated. Dick held various positions outside parliament, he was a foundation member of the Mount Cook National Park Board. For a time, he chaired the Tekapo Town Planning Committee, he was a chairman of the Waitaki Lakes Committee, he was chairman of the Mackenzie branch of Federated Farmers. He was appointed a Companion of the Queen's Service Order for community service in the 1981 Queen's Birthday Honours, was awarded the New Zealand 1990 Commemoration Medal in 1990.

Dick died in Oamaru on 15 March 1992. His wife, Betty Dick, wrote a book High Country Family about their life on Lilybank Station, the changes when he became an MP, they had one daughter. Gustafson, Barry; the First 50 Years: A History of the New Zealand National Party. Auckland: Reed Methuen. ISBN 0-474-00177-6. Wilson, James Oakley. New Zealand Parliamentary Record, 1840–1984. Wellington: V. R. Ward, Govt. Printer. OCLC 154283103

Siphiwe Mvuyane

Siphiwe Mvuyane was a South African police officer who died on 9 May 1993. During the period of "low intensity warfare" in South Africa which pitted the African National Congress and Inkatha Freedom Party, Siphiwe Mvuyane was on the side of the IFP. During the period of the "low intensity warfare", the IFP was the sole ruling party of the Bantustan KwaZulu government, worked in collaboration with the apartheid government, whereas the ANC was operating underground, but post apartheid, the African National Congress became the governing party in South Africa whereas the Inkatha Freedom Party became one of the opposition parties in the South African parliament, as a result the ANC gained the upper hand over the IFP in the remaining years of the warfare as the ANC was in control of the state apparatus by virtue of being the governing party. The IFP leadership denied its involvement in sanctioning and orchestrating political violence in the furtherance of its political objectives during the period of the "low intensity warfare" in South Africa.

Siphiwe Mvuyane was a fearsome resident of Umlazi township at the time of his death, he attended Menzi High School, situated at the same township but his hometown was Pietermaritzburg. After completing high school he joined the now defunct South African Police around 1986, after which he transferred to the now defunct KwaZulu Police around 1987-88, he was married. He carried out most of his killings under the auspices of KZP, he was stationed at Umlazi Police Station, popularly known as "GG Police Station", was assigned to a Murder and Robbery Unit. He worked temporarily in Ulundi after he was advised to flee Durban, but did not stay long in Ulundi as Ulundi was a rural area and Mvuyane was the man of city life, it was not long. While at Ulundi he killed a snake with a single shot and bemoaned the fact that he was killing snakes instead of people; the ANC intelligence succeeded in recruiting Mvuyane's colleagues as informers at the GG Police Station who would spy on Mvuyane as it was believed that he was abusing his position as a police officer to kill ANC activists.

The ANC intelligence would know beforehand the cases. They would investigate the cases allocated to him and forewarn the suspected criminals about the coming of Mvuyane; this scheme produced unintended consequences in that pure criminals ended up being tipped-off as most of the cases Mvuyane investigated were not political. Mvuyane's political killings took place clandestinely after hours but he did commit killings during the course of his official duties. There is no official date for the commencement of the "low intensity warfare" in South Africa but it is accepted that the warfare commenced following the fallout between the IFP and ANC at the famous 1979 London meeting; the early 1980s saw political unrest and "black on black" violence begin in earnest in the country, sometimes this warfare was referred to as "people's war". The nature of this warfare took the form of planned assassinations which involved an element of surprise, setting up and utilising intelligence structures; the assassination would happen at a place that the victim least expected it.

Siphiwe Mvuyane was in combat with the armed military wing of the ANC, Umkhonto we Sizwe. He killed many undercover operatives of MK trained from Russia and other African countries. Mvuyane was a policeman by day and a paid assassin by night. In the Truth and Reconciliation Commission reports, one of the applicants indicated that Mvuyane was a commander of killing squads on the East Coast of South Africa, the KwaZulu-Natal Province, it must be noted that Mvuyane's position as a commander of killings squads was a covert underhanded position. The precision with which he carried out his assassinations earned him promotion to the position of a commander of killing squads; when political violence reached epic proportions in the early 1990s, international investors and negotiators such as John Aitchison of the University of Natal in Pietermaritzburg and Kim Hodgson of the Inkatha Institute in Durban became worried at the pace at which black political leaders were dying that South Africa would be'leaderless' by the time apartheid came to an end.

Mvuyane was, to a certain extent, directly involved in that conflict, was accused of shooting people without reasonable justification. These political killings created space for uneducated people to emerge as new leaders of the masses, as knowledgeable leaders were getting decimated; the situation made it difficult for international investors to negotiate with future leaders who would inherit the new democratic state as these leaders were getting killed on a daily basis. For example, Mr Ngwenya an ANC leader in the Pietermaritzburg area was gunned down on 8 February 1992 after leaving a Pietermaritzburg restaurant where he had dined with a delegation of 15 Americans. A day before Mr Ngwenya was killed, Mr Winnington Sabelo, an IFP leader at Umlazi Township in Durban had been assassinated. KwaZulu-Natal was the epicentre of political violence that engulfed the whole of South Africa at the time. However, Mvuyane would be spotted in other provinces. Mvuyane could be described as a celebrity killer.

He reveled in his reputation of being a dreaded killer. Mvuyane claimed in a local newspaper to have killed more th

Zahn's construct

Zahn's construct, in computer science, was a proposed structure for structured control flow in computer programming languages first described by Charles T. Zahn in 1974; the construct is described in terms of an extension to looping constructs to recognize multiple means by which a loop could terminate. For example, a search loop might terminate early. Zahn's construct can be used to avoid GO TO statements. Zahn does this by introducing a new kind of variable called a situation indicator in a CASE-like construct following the loop. Donald Knuth, in his paper "Structured Programming with Go To Statements", describes two forms of Zahn's construct as follows: loop until <situation 1> or... or <situation n>: <statement list 0> repeat. <situation n> => <statement list n>. <situation n> => <statement list n>. The following simple example involves searching a two-dimensional table for a particular item. Exitwhen found or missing; the major difference is that the scope of Zahn's proposals were limited to individual loops within a program, whereas exception-handling capabilities allow exceptions to be "thrown" from deep within a call stack and "caught" at a point higher up in the stack.

Zahn, C. T. Structured Control in Programming Languages SLAC Pub-1530, January 1975 Control structures defined using Scheme.