CBS is an American English language commercial broadcast television and radio network, a flagship property of CBS Corporation. The company is headquartered at the CBS Building in New York City with major production facilities and operations in New York City and Los Angeles. CBS is sometimes referred to as the Eye Network, in reference to the company's iconic symbol, in use since 1951, it has been called the "Tiffany Network", alluding to the perceived high quality of CBS programming during the tenure of William S. Paley, it can refer to some of CBS's first demonstrations of color television, which were held in a former Tiffany & Co. building in New York City in 1950. The network has its origins in United Independent Broadcasters Inc. a collection of 16 radio stations, purchased by Paley in 1928 and renamed the Columbia Broadcasting System. Under Paley's guidance, CBS would first become one of the largest radio networks in the United States, one of the Big Three American broadcast television networks.
In 1974, CBS dropped its former full name and became known as CBS, Inc. The Westinghouse Electric Corporation acquired the network in 1995, renamed its corporate entity to the current CBS Broadcasting, Inc. in 1997, adopted the name of the company it had acquired to become CBS Corporation. In 2000, CBS came under the control of Viacom, formed as a spin-off of CBS in 1971. In late 2005, Viacom split itself into two separate companies and re-established CBS Corporation – through the spin-off of its broadcast television and select cable television and non-broadcasting assets – with the CBS television network at its core. CBS Corporation is controlled by Sumner Redstone through National Amusements, which controls the current Viacom. CBS operated the CBS Radio network until 2017, when it merged its radio division with Entercom. Prior to CBS Radio provided news and features content for its portfolio owned-and-operated radio stations in large and mid-sized markets, affiliated radio stations in various other markets.
While CBS Corporation owns a 72% stake in Entercom, it no longer owns or operates any radio stations directly, though CBS still provides radio news broadcasts to its radio affiliates and the new owners of its former radio stations. The television network has more than 240 owned-and-operated and affiliated television stations throughout the United States; the company ranked 197th on the 2018 Fortune 500 of the largest United States corporations by revenue. The origins of CBS date back to January 27, 1927, with the creation of the "United Independent Broadcasters" network in Chicago by New York City talent-agent Arthur Judson; the fledgling network soon needed additional investors though, the Columbia Phonograph Company, manufacturers of Columbia Records, rescued it in April 1927. Columbia Phonographic went on the air on September 18, 1927, with a presentation by the Howard L. Barlow Orchestra from flagship station WOR in Newark, New Jersey, fifteen affiliates. Operational costs were steep the payments to AT&T for use of its land lines, by the end of 1927, Columbia Phonograph wanted out.
In early 1928 Judson sold the network to brothers Isaac and Leon Levy, owners of the network's Philadelphia affiliate WCAU, their partner Jerome Louchheim. None of the three were interested in assuming day-to-day management of the network, so they installed wealthy 26-year-old William S. Paley, son of a Philadelphia cigar family and in-law of the Levys, as president. With the record company out of the picture, Paley streamlined the corporate name to "Columbia Broadcasting System", he believed in the power of radio advertising since his family's "La Palina" cigars had doubled their sales after young William convinced his elders to advertise on radio. By September 1928, Paley bought out the Louchhheim share of CBS and became its majority owner with 51% of the business. During Louchheim's brief regime, Columbia paid $410,000 to A. H. Grebe's Atlantic Broadcasting Company for a small Brooklyn station, WABC, which would become the network's flagship station. WABC was upgraded, the signal relocated to 860 kHz.
The physical plant was relocated – to Steinway Hall on West 57th Street in Manhattan, where much of CBS's programming would originate. By the turn of 1929, the network could boast to sponsors of having 47 affiliates. Paley moved right away to put his network on a firmer financial footing. In the fall of 1928, he entered into talks with Adolph Zukor of Paramount Pictures, who planned to move into radio in response to RCA's forays into motion pictures with the advent of talkies; the deal came to fruition in September 1929: Paramount acquired 49% of CBS in return for a block of its stock worth $3.8 million at the time. The agreement specified that Paramount would buy that same stock back by March 1, 1932 for a flat $5 million, provided CBS had earned $2 million during 1931 and 1932. For a brief time there was talk that the network might be renamed "Paramount Radio", but it only lasted a month – the 1929 stock market crash sent all stock value tumbling, it galvanized Paley and his troops, who "had no alternative but to turn the network around and earn the $2,000,000 in two years....
This is the atmosphere in which the CBS of today was born." The near-bankrupt movie studio sold its CBS shares back to CBS in 1932. In the first year of Paley's wa
State Fair (1945 film)
State Fair is a 1945 American musical film directed by Walter Lang. It is a musical adaptation of the 1933 film of the same name, with original music by Rodgers and Hammerstein; the film stars Jeanne Crain, Dana Andrews, Dick Haymes, Vivian Blaine, Fay Bainter, Charles Winninger. State Fair was remade in 1962, that time starring Pat Ann-Margret. State Fair was the only Hammerstein musical written directly for film; the movie introduced such popular songs as "It's A Grand Night For Singing" and "It Might as Well Be Spring", which won the Academy Award for Best Original Song. Rodgers and Hammerstein adapted the film for the stage in 1969 for a production at The Muny In Saint Louis. In 1996, it was adapted again for a Broadway musical of the same name, with additional songs taken from other Rodgers and Hammerstein musicals; the Frake family is getting ready for the Iowa State Fair – each with their own hopes for the trip. Father Abel tends to his pig Blue Boy and bets his neighbor Dave Miller five dollars that the pig will win at the fair, that the Frake family will all have a good time at the fair with no bad experiences.
Daughter Margy is in a melancholy mood. Margy muses about how the Fair will at least give her a break from seeing and doing the same old things every day on the farm. Harry, Margy's fiance, tells her he can't go to the fair with her because he has to take care of his cows, he describes the new modern farm he wants to have after they are married, with a farmhouse made out of prefabricated plastic with linoleum floors throughout. Margy, who thinks old houses are charming, is not enthusiastic about Harry's ideas or about Harry himself. Mother Melissa is preparing pickles and mincemeat to enter in the cooking competition; the mincemeat recipe calls for brandy, but Melissa objects to adding it because she doesn't believe in cooking with alcohol though Abel disagrees and thinks the brandy is essential to the recipe. When Melissa goes to the phone, Abel secretly puts some brandy in the mincemeat; the phone call is for son Wayne, whose girlfriend Eleanor is calling to tell him that she cannot go to the fair with him because her mother has been ill.
Melissa comes back from the phone to her mincemeat and, not knowing Abel added brandy, adds more. The Frakes head off to the fair. Wayne's first stop is the ring-tossing booth. Wayne has been practicing all year in hopes of getting and he wins the game; as he keeps winning, the barker threatens to call the police. A pretty girl defends Wayne, saying she is the daughter of the chief of police, to prevent a scene the barker refunds Wayne's eight dollars in addition to his other winnings. Wayne tries to make a date with the girl, but she says she is late for an appointment and rushes off, promising that she will be on the midway that evening and Wayne should look for her. Meanwhile on the roller coaster, Margy gets into an empty seat for two, but a couple ask for the seat in front of her, where a man is seated, he sits next to Margy. When the ride takes fast turns and goes down she clutches her neighbor. After the ride, the man invites Margy to have a Coke; the man, a reporter named Pat, covering the fair for the Des Moines newspaper, suggests that he and Margy spend some time together at the fair, if things didn't work out, they could break it off with no hard feelings.
Pat and Margy spend the day together and Margy is fascinated by his stories about the many cities where he has worked. Pat tells Margy of his ambition to get a job on a larger newspaper, they plan to meet again that evening, Pat tells Margy not to worry about him wanting to break it off, because when he wants to do that, she will know and he "just won't be around." Abel finds him lying down, breathing hard. He seems to be sick. A friend, brings in his prize female pig named Esmeralda; when Blue Boy sees Esmeralda, he gets back up and "talks" to her by grunting. That evening on the midway, Pat finds Margy while Wayne looks for the girl he met at the ring toss booth. Wayne finds the chief of police and asks about his daughter, only to find that she is a little girl and has no sister. Wayne sees that the girl he was looking for is Emily Edwards, the singer with the dance band performing at the fair. After Emily finishes her song and Emily have drinks and dance together, while meanwhile Pat and Margy have fun riding the highest airplane ride at the fair.
Although Pat has had many girlfriends, he seems to be genuinely interested in Margy. By the next morning, Margy has fallen for Wayne for Emily. At breakfast, Abel is so excited about how well Blue Boy is doing that he forgets he has said the blessing and says it again. Following breakfast comes the pickle and mincemeat judging, which has mother Melissa worried because her biggest competition, Mrs. Edwin Metcalfe, wins the first prizes every year, but Melissa wins first prize for her sour pickles and a special award for her mincemeat with the brandy. One of the judges likes the mincemeat so much. Pat takes Melissa and Margy's picture for the newspaper and takes Margy to a horse race. Pat's horse wins and he and Margy are so happy that they kiss. Meanwhile, Wayne asks Emily to spend the evening with him, but she declines because she has a previous engagement to host a birthday party for Marty, the man who sings with her in the band
Hawaii is the 50th and most recent state to have joined the United States, having received statehood on August 21, 1959. Hawaii is the only U. S. state located in Oceania, the only U. S. state located outside North America, the only one composed of islands. It is the northernmost island group in Polynesia, occupying most of an archipelago in the central Pacific Ocean; the state encompasses nearly the entire volcanic Hawaiian archipelago, which comprises hundreds of islands spread over 1,500 miles. At the southeastern end of the archipelago, the eight main islands are—in order from northwest to southeast: Niʻihau, Kauaʻi, Oʻahu, Molokaʻi, Lānaʻi, Kahoʻolawe and the Island of Hawaiʻi; the last is the largest island in the group. The archipelago is ethnologically part of the Polynesian subregion of Oceania. Hawaii's diverse natural scenery, warm tropical climate, abundance of public beaches, oceanic surroundings, active volcanoes make it a popular destination for tourists, surfers and volcanologists.
Because of its central location in the Pacific and 19th-century labor migration, Hawaii's culture is influenced by North American and East Asian cultures, in addition to its indigenous Hawaiian culture. Hawaii has over a million permanent residents, along with many visitors and U. S. military personnel. Its capital is Honolulu on the island of Oʻahu. Hawaii is the 8th-smallest and the 11th-least populous, but the 13th-most densely populated of the 50 U. S. states. It is the only state with an Asian plurality; the state's oceanic coastline is about 750 miles long, the fourth longest in the U. S. after the coastlines of Alaska and California. The state of Hawaii derives its name from the name of Hawaiʻi. A common Hawaiian explanation of the name of Hawaiʻi is that it was named for Hawaiʻiloa, a legendary figure from Hawaiian myth, he is said to have discovered the islands. The Hawaiian language word Hawaiʻi is similar to Proto-Polynesian *Sawaiki, with the reconstructed meaning "homeland". Cognates of Hawaiʻi are found in other Polynesian languages, including Māori and Samoan.
According to linguists Pukui and Elbert, "lsewhere in Polynesia, Hawaiʻi or a cognate is the name of the underworld or of the ancestral home, but in Hawaii, the name has no meaning". A somewhat divisive political issue arose in 1978 when the Constitution of the State of Hawaii added Hawaiian as a second official state language; the title of the state constitution is The Constitution of the State of Hawaii. Article XV, Section 1 of the Constitution uses The State of Hawaii. Diacritics were not used because the document, drafted in 1949, predates the use of the ʻokina and the kahakō in modern Hawaiian orthography; the exact spelling of the state's name in the Hawaiian language is Hawaiʻi. In the Hawaii Admission Act that granted Hawaiian statehood, the federal government recognized Hawaii as the official state name. Official government publications and office titles, the Seal of Hawaii use the traditional spelling with no symbols for glottal stops or vowel length. In contrast, the National and State Parks Services, the University of Hawaiʻi and some private enterprises implement these symbols.
No precedent for changes to U. S. state names exists since the adoption of the United States Constitution in 1789. However, the Constitution of Massachusetts formally changed the Province of Massachusetts Bay to the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in 1780, in 1819, the Territory of Arkansaw was created but was admitted to statehood as the State of Arkansas. There are eight main Hawaiian islands; the island of Niʻihau is managed by brothers Bruce and Keith Robinson. Access to uninhabited Kahoʻolawe island is restricted; the Hawaiian archipelago is located 2,000 mi southwest of the contiguous United States. Hawaii is the southernmost U. S. the second westernmost after Alaska. Hawaii, like Alaska, does not border any other U. S. state. It is the only U. S. state, not geographically located in North America, the only state surrounded by water and, an archipelago, the only state in which coffee is commercially cultivable. In addition to the eight main islands, the state has many smaller islets. Kaʻula is a small island near Niʻihau.
The Northwest Hawaiian Islands is a group of nine small, older islands to the northwest of Kauaʻi that extend from Nihoa to Kure Atoll. Across the archipelago are around 130 small rocks and islets, such as Molokini, which are either volcanic, marine sedimentary or erosional in origin. Hawaii's tallest mountain Mauna Kea is 13,796 ft above mean sea level; the Hawaiian islands were formed by volcanic activity initiated at an undersea magma source called the Hawaii hotspot. The process is continuing to build islands; because of the hotspot's location, all active land volcanoes are located on the southern half of Hawaii Island. The newest volcano, Lōʻihi Seamount, is located south of the coast of Hawaii Island; the last volcanic eruption outside Hawaii Island occurred
Judy Garland was an American actress, singer and vaudevillian. During a career that spanned 45 years, she attained international stardom as an actress in both musical and dramatic roles, as a recording artist, on the concert stage. Respected for her versatility, she received a juvenile Academy Award, a Golden Globe Award, a Special Tony Award. Garland was the first woman to win the Grammy Award for Album of the Year for her live recording Judy at Carnegie Hall. Garland began performing in vaudeville as a child with her two older sisters, was signed to Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer as a teenager. Although she appeared in more than two dozen films with MGM and received acclaim for many different roles, she is best remembered for her portrayal of Dorothy Gale in The Wizard of Oz. Garland was a frequent on-screen partner of both Mickey Rooney and Gene Kelly, collaborated with director and second husband Vincente Minnelli; some of her most notable film appearances during this period include roles in Meet Me in St. Louis, The Harvey Girls, Easter Parade, Summer Stock.
Garland was released from MGM in 1950, after 15 years with the studio, amid a series of personal struggles and erratic behavior that prevented her from fulfilling the terms of her contract. Although her film career diminished thereafter, two of Garland's most critically acclaimed performances came late in her career, she made record-breaking concert appearances, released eight studio albums, hosted her own Emmy-nominated television series, The Judy Garland Show. At age 39, Garland became the youngest and first female recipient of the Cecil B. DeMille Award for lifetime achievement in the film industry. In 1997, Garland was posthumously awarded a Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award. Several of her recordings have been inducted into the Grammy Hall of Fame, in 1999, the American Film Institute placed her among the 10 greatest female stars of classic American cinema. Despite profound professional success, Garland struggled in her personal life from an early age; the pressures of early stardom affected her physical and mental health from the time she was a teenager.
Those same executives manipulated her onscreen physical appearance. Into her adulthood, she was plagued by alcohol and substance abuse, as well as financial instability, her lifelong addiction to drugs and alcohol led to her death in London from a barbiturate overdose at age 47. Garland was born Frances Ethel Gumm on June 10, 1922, in Minnesota, she was the youngest child of Francis Avent "Frank" Gumm. Her parents were vaudevillians who settled in Grand Rapids to run a movie theater that featured vaudeville acts, she was of Irish and Scottish ancestry, named after both of her parents and baptized at a local Episcopal church."Baby" shared her family's flair for song and dance. Her first appearance came at the age of two-and-a-half, when she joined her older sisters Mary Jane "Suzy/Suzanne" Gumm and Dorothy Virginia "Jimmie" Gumm on the stage of her father's movie theater during a Christmas show and sang a chorus of "Jingle Bells"; the Gumm Sisters performed there for the next few years, accompanied by their mother on piano.
The family relocated to Lancaster, California, in June 1926, following rumors that her father had made sexual advances towards male ushers. Frank purchased and operated another theater in Lancaster, Ethel began managing her daughters and working to get them into motion pictures. Garland attended Hollywood High School and graduated from University High School. In 1928, the Gumm Sisters enrolled in a dance school run by Ethel Meglin, proprietress of the Meglin Kiddies dance troupe, they appeared with the troupe at its annual Christmas show. Through the Meglin Kiddies, they made their film debut in a short subject called The Big Revue, where they performed a song-and-dance number called "That's the good old sunny south"; this was followed by appearances in two Vitaphone shorts the following year: A Holiday in Storyland and The Wedding of Jack and Jill. They next appeared together in Bubbles, their final on-screen appearance was in an MGM Technicolor short entitled La Fiesta de Santa Barbara. The trio had toured the vaudeville circuit as "The Gumm Sisters" for many years when they performed in Chicago at the Oriental Theater with George Jessel in 1934.
He encouraged the group to choose a more appealing name after "Gumm" was met with laughter from the audience. According to theater legend, their act was once erroneously billed at a Chicago theater as "The Glum Sisters". Several stories persist regarding the origin of their use of the name Garland. One is that it was originated by Jessel after Carole Lombard's character Lily Garland in the film Twentieth Century, playing at the Oriental in Chicago. Garland's daughter Lorna Luft stated that her mother selected the name when Jessel announced that the trio "looked prettier than a garland of flowers". A TV special was filmed in Hollywood at the Pantages Theatre premiere of A Star Is Born on September 29, 1954, in which Jessel stated: I think that I ought to tell the folks that it was I who named Judy
Ellis Island, in Upper New York Bay, was the gateway for over 12 million immigrants to the U. S. as the United States' busiest immigrant inspection station for over 60 years from 1892 until 1954. Ellis Island was opened January 1, 1892; the island was expanded with land reclamation between 1892 and 1934. Before that, the much smaller original island was the site of Fort Gibson and a naval magazine; the island was made part of the Statue of Liberty National Monument in 1965 and has hosted a museum of immigration since 1990 through 1995. It was long considered part of New York, but a 1998 United States Supreme Court decision found that most of the island is in New Jersey; the south side of the island, home to the Ellis Island Immigrant Hospital, is closed to the general public although there are tours of the hospital itself. Ellis Island is in Upper New York Bay, east of Liberty State Park and north of Liberty Island, in Jersey City, New Jersey, with a small section, part of New York City. Created through land reclamation, the island has a land area of 27.5 acres, most of, part of New Jersey.
The 2.74-acre natural island and contiguous areas comprise the 3.3 acres. The island has been owned and administered by the federal government of the United States since 1808 and operated by the National Park Service since 1965. Since the September 11 attacks in 2001, the island is guarded by patrols of the United States Park Police Marine Patrol Unit. Public access is by ferry from either Communipaw Terminal in Liberty State Park or from the Battery at the southern tip of Manhattan; the ferry operator, Hornblower Cruises and Events provides service to the nearby Statue of Liberty. A bridge built for transporting materials and personnel during restoration projects connects Ellis Island with Liberty State Park but is not open to the public; the city of New York and the private ferry operator at the time opposed proposals to use it or replace it with a pedestrian bridge. Much of the island, including the entire south side, has been closed to the public since 1954; the renovated area on the north side was again closed to the public after Hurricane Sandy in October 2012.
The island was re-opened to the public and the museum re-opened on October 28, 2013, after major renovations. Much of the west shore of Upper New York Bay consisted of large tidal flats which hosted vast oyster banks, a major source of food for the Lenape population who lived in the area prior to the arrival of Dutch settlers. There were several islands which were not submerged at high tide. Three of them were given the name Oyster Islands by the settlers of New Netherland, the first European colony in the region; the oyster beds remained a major source of food for nearly three centuries. Ellis Island was a popular spot for hosting oyster roasts and clambakes because of its rich oyster beds. Landfilling to build the railyards of the Lehigh Valley Railroad and the Central Railroad of New Jersey obliterated the oyster beds, engulfed one island, brought the shoreline much closer to the others. During the colonial period, Little Oyster Island was known as Dyre's Bucking Island. In the 1760s, after some pirates were hanged from one of the island's scrubby trees, it became known as Gibbet Island.
It was acquired by Samuel Ellis, a colonial New Yorker and merchant from Wales, around the time of the American Revolution. In 1785, he unsuccessfully attempted to sell the island: TO BE no. 1, Greenwich Street, at the north river near the Bear Market, That pleasant situated Island called Oyster Island, lying in New York Bay, near Powle's Hook, together with all its improvements which are considerable. The State of New York leased the island in 1794 and started to fortify it in 1795. Ownership was in question and legislation was passed for acquisition by condemnation in 1807 and ceded to the United States in 1808. Shortly thereafter the War Department established a circular stone 14-gun battery, a mortar battery and barracks; this was part of what was called the second system of U. S. fortifications. From 1808 until 1814 it was a federal arsenal; the fort was called Crown Fort, but by the end of the War of 1812 the battery was named Fort Gibson, after Colonel James Gibson of the 4th Regiment of Riflemen, killed in the Siege of Fort Erie during the war.
Parts of the wall foundations of the fort were uncovered while excavating for the Immigrant Wall of Honor, they are preserved with an interpretive plaque. The island remained a military post for nearly 80 years before it was selected to be a federal immigration station. In the 35 years before Ellis Island opened, more than eight million immigrants arriving in New York City had been processed by officials at Castle Garden Immigration Depot in Lower Manhattan, just across the bay; the federal government assumed control of immigration on April 18, 1890, Congress appropriated $75,000 to construct America's first federal immigration station on Ellis Island. Artesian wells were dug, fill material was hauled in from incoming ships' ballast and from construction of New York City's subway tunnels, which doubled the size of Ellis Island to over six acres. While the building was under construction, the Barge Office nearby at the Battery was used for immigrant processing; the first station was a three-story-tall structure with outbuildings, built of Georgia Pine, containing the amenities thought to be necessary.
It opened with fanfare on January 1, 1892. Three large ships landed on the first day, 700 immigrants passed over the docks. 450,000 immigrants were processed at the sta
A big band is a type of musical ensemble that consists of ten or more musicians with four sections: saxophones, trombones, a rhythm section. Big bands originated during the early 1910s and dominated jazz in the early 1940s when swing was most popular; the term "big band" is used to describe a genre of music. One problem with this usage is. Big bands started as accompaniment for dancing. In contrast with the emphasis on improvisation, big bands relied on written compositions and arrangements, they gave a greater role to bandleaders and sections of instruments rather than soloists. Big bands have four sections: trumpets, saxophones, a rhythm section of guitar, double bass, drums; the division in early big bands was to be two or three trumpets, one or two trombones, three saxophones, a rhythm section. In 1930, big bands consisted of three trumpets, three trombones, three saxophones, a rhythm section of four instruments. Guitar replaced the banjo, double bass replaced the tuba. In the 1940s, Stan Kenton's band and Woody Herman's band used up to five trumpets, four trombones, five saxophones, a rhythm section.
An exception is Duke Ellington. Boyd Raeburn drew from symphony orchestras by adding to his band flute, French horn and timpani. Typical big band arrangements are written in strophic form with the same phrase and chord structure repeated several times; each iteration, or chorus follows twelve bar blues form or thirty-two-bar song form. The first chorus of an arrangement is followed by choruses of development; this development may take the form of improvised solos, written soli sections, "shout choruses". An arrangement's first chorus is sometimes preceded by an introduction, which may be as short as a few measures or may extend to chorus of its own. Many arrangements contain an interlude similar in content to the introduction, inserted between some or all choruses. Other methods of embellishing the form include cadential extensions; some big ensembles, like King Oliver's, played music, half-arranged, half-improvised relying on head arrangements. A head arrangement is a piece of music, formed by band members during rehearsal.
They experiment memorize the way they are going to perform the piece, without writing it on sheet music. During the 1930s, Count Basie's band used head arrangements, as Basie said, "we just sort of start it off and the others fall in." Before 1914, social dance in America was dominated by steps such as polka. As jazz migrated from its New Orleans origin to Chicago and New York City, suggestive dances traveled with it. During the next decades, ballrooms filled with people doing Lindy Hop; the dance duo Vernon and Irene Castle popularized the foxtrot while accompanied by the Europe Society Orchestra led by James Reese Europe. One of the first bands to accompany the new rhythms was led by a drummer, Art Hickman, in San Francisco in 1916. Hickman's arranger, Ferde Grofé, wrote arrangements in which he divided the jazz orchestra into sections that combined in various ways; this intermingling of sections became a defining characteristic of big bands. In 1919, Paul Whiteman hired Grofé to use similar techniques for his band.
Whiteman was educated in classical music, he called his new band's music symphonic jazz. The methods of dance bands marked a step away from New Orleans jazz. With the exception of Jelly Roll Morton, who continued playing in the New Orleans style, bandleaders paid attention to the demand for dance music and created their own big bands, they incorporated elements of Broadway, Tin Pan Alley and vaudeville. Duke Ellington led his band at the Cotton Club in Harlem. Fletcher Henderson's career started when he was persuaded to audition for a job at Club Alabam in New York City, which turned into a job as bandleader at the Roseland Ballroom. At these venues, which themselves gained notoriety and arrangers played a greater role than they had before. Hickman relied on Whiteman on Bill Challis. Henderson and arranger Don Redman followed the template of King Oliver, but as the 1920s progressed they moved away from the New Orleans format and transformed jazz, they were assisted by a band full of talent: Coleman Hawkins on tenor saxophone, Louis Armstrong on cornet, multi-instrumentalist Benny Carter, whose career lasted into the 1990s.
Swing music began appearing in the early 1930s and was distinguished by a more supple feel than the more literal 44 of early jazz. Walter Page is credited with developing the walking bass, though earlier examples exist, such as Wellman Braud on Ellington's Washington Wabble from 1927; this type of music flourished through the early 1930s, although there was little mass audience for it until around 1936. Up until that time, it looked upon as a curiosity. After 1935, big bands rose to prominence playing swing music and held a major role in defining swing as a distinctive style. Western swing musicians formed popular big bands during the same period. There was a considerable range of styles among the hundreds of popular bands. Many of the better known bands reflected the individuality of the bandleader, the lead arranger, the personnel. Count Basie played a relaxed, propulsive swing, Bob Crosby more of a dixieland style, Benny Goodman a hard driving swing, Duke Ellington's compositions were varied and sophisticated.
Many bands featured strong instrumentalists whose sounds dominated, such as the clar