Texas Tech University
Texas Tech University referred to as Texas Tech, Tech, or TTU, is a public research university in Lubbock, Texas. Established on February 10, 1923, known as Texas Technological College, it is the main institution of the four-institution Texas Tech University System; the university's student enrollment is the seventh-largest in Texas as of the Fall 2017 semester. The university shares its campus with Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, making it the only campus in Texas to house an undergraduate university, law school, medical school; the university offers degrees in more than 150 courses of study through 13 colleges and hosts 60 research centers and institutes. Texas Tech University has awarded over 200,000 degrees since 1927, including over 40,000 graduate and professional degrees; the Carnegie Foundation classifies Texas Tech as having "highest research activity". Research projects in the areas of epidemiology, pulsed power, grid computing, atmospheric sciences, wind energy are among the most prominent at the university.
The Spanish Renaissance-themed campus, described by author James Michener as "the most beautiful west of the Mississippi until you get to Stanford", has been awarded the Grand Award for excellence in grounds-keeping, has been noted for possessing a public art collection among the ten best in the United States. The Texas Tech Red Raiders are charter members of the Big 12 Conference and compete in Division I for all varsity sports; the Red Raiders football team has made 36 bowl appearances, 17th most of any university. The Red Raiders basketball team has made 14 appearances in the NCAA Division I Tournament. Bob Knight has coached the second most wins in men's NCAA Division I basketball history and served as the team's head coach from 2001 to 2008; the Lady Raiders basketball team won the 1993 NCAA Division I Tournament. In 1999, Texas Tech's Goin' Band from Raiderland received the Sudler Trophy, awarded to "recognize collegiate marching bands of particular excellence". Although the majority of the university's students are from the southwestern United States, the school has served students from all 50 states and more than 100 countries.
Texas Tech University alumni and former students have gone on to prominent careers in government, science, education and entertainment. The call to open a college in West Texas began shortly after settlers arrived in the area in the 1880s. In 1917, the Texas legislature passed a bill creating a branch of Texas A&M to be in Abilene. However, the bill was repealed two years during the next session after it was discovered Governor James E. Ferguson had falsely reported the site committee's choice of location. After new legislation passed in the state house and senate in 1921, Governor Pat Neff vetoed it, citing hard financial times in West Texas. Furious about Neff's veto, some in West Texas went so far as to recommend West Texas secede from the state. In 1923, the legislature decided, rather than a branch campus, a new university would better serve the region's needs under legislation co-authored by State Senator William H. Bledsoe of Lubbock and State Representative Roy Alvin Baldwin of Slaton in southern Lubbock County.
On February 10, 1923, Neff signed the legislation creating Texas Technological College, in July of that year, a committee began searching for a site. When the committee's members visited Lubbock, they were overwhelmed to find residents lining the streets to show support for hosting the institution; that August, Lubbock was chosen on the first ballot over other area towns, including Floydada, Big Spring, Sweetwater. Construction of the college campus began on November 1, 1924. Ten days the cornerstone of the Administration Building was laid in front of 20,000 people. Governor Pat Neff, Amon G. Carter, Reverend E. E. Robinson, Colonel Ernest O. Thompson, Representative Richard M. Chitwood, the chairman of the House Education Committee, who became the first Texas Tech business manager, spoke at the event. Chitwood served in the position only fifteen months. With an enrollment of 914 students—both men and women—Texas Technological College opened for classes on October 1, 1925, it was composed of four schools—Agriculture, Home Economics, Liberal Arts.
Texas Tech grew in the early years. During the 1930s, Bradford Knapp, the university's second president, proceeded with an expansion program, which included new dormitories, the first library, a golf course, a swimming pool, paved streets and alleys, landscaping. A proposed $80,000 allocation for a football stadium was shelved; the library won the approval of Governor James V. Allred; because the state cut appropriations by 30% at the start of the Great Depression, President Knapp applied for assistance from the major New Deal agencies to expand Texas Tech, including the Works Progress Administration, Public Works Administration, Civil Works Administration, the National Youth Administration. Wyatt C. Hedrick, son-in-law of Governor Ross S. Sterling, was the architect of all campus PWA projects. Military training was conducted at the college as early as 1925, but formal Reserve Officers' Training Corps training did not start until 1936. By 1939, the school's enrollment had grown to 3,890. Although enrollment declined during World War II, Texas Tech trained 4,747 men in its armed forces training detachments.
Following the war, in 1946, the college saw its enrollment leap to 5,366 from a low of 1,696 in 1943. By the 1960s, the school had expanded its offerings to more than just technical subjects; the Faculty Advisory Committee suggested changing the name to "Texas State University", feeling the phrase "Technological College" did
Basketball is a team sport in which two teams, most of five players each, opposing one another on a rectangular court, compete with the primary objective of shooting a basketball through the defender's hoop while preventing the opposing team from shooting through their own hoop. A field goal is worth two points, unless made from behind the three-point line, when it is worth three. After a foul, timed play stops and the player fouled or designated to shoot a technical foul is given one or more one-point free throws; the team with the most points at the end of the game wins, but if regulation play expires with the score tied, an additional period of play is mandated. Players advance the ball by bouncing it while walking or running or by passing it to a teammate, both of which require considerable skill. On offense, players may use a variety of shots -- a dunk, it is a violation to lift or drag one's pivot foot without dribbling the ball, to carry it, or to hold the ball with both hands resume dribbling.
The five players on each side at a time fall into five playing positions: the tallest player is the center, the tallest and strongest is the power forward, a shorter but more agile big man is the small forward, the shortest players or the best ball handlers are the shooting guard and the point guard, who implements the coach's game plan by managing the execution of offensive and defensive plays. Informally, players may play three-on-three, two-on-two, one-on-one. Invented in 1891 by Canadian-American gym teacher James Naismith in Springfield, United States, basketball has evolved to become one of the world's most popular and viewed sports; the National Basketball Association is the most significant professional basketball league in the world in terms of popularity, salaries and level of competition. Outside North America, the top clubs from national leagues qualify to continental championships such as the Euroleague and FIBA Americas League; the FIBA Basketball World Cup and Men's Olympic Basketball Tournament are the major international events of the sport and attract top national teams from around the world.
Each continent hosts regional competitions for national teams, like FIBA AmeriCup. The FIBA Women's Basketball World Cup and Women's Olympic Basketball Tournament feature top national teams from continental championships; the main North American league is the WNBA, whereas strongest European clubs participate in the EuroLeague Women. In early December 1891, Canadian James Naismith, a physical education professor and instructor at the International Young Men's Christian Association Training School in Springfield, was trying to keep his gym class active on a rainy day, he sought a vigorous indoor game to keep his students occupied and at proper levels of fitness during the long New England winters. After rejecting other ideas as either too rough or poorly suited to walled-in gymnasiums, he wrote the basic rules and nailed a peach basket onto a 10-foot elevated track. In contrast with modern basketball nets, this peach basket retained its bottom, balls had to be retrieved manually after each "basket" or point scored.
Basketball was played with a soccer ball. These round balls from "association football" were made, at the time, with a set of laces to close off the hole needed for inserting the inflatable bladder after the other sewn-together segments of the ball's cover had been flipped outside-in; these laces could dribbling to be unpredictable. A lace-free ball construction method was invented, this change to the game was endorsed by Naismith; the first balls made for basketball were brown, it was only in the late 1950s that Tony Hinkle, searching for a ball that would be more visible to players and spectators alike, introduced the orange ball, now in common use. Dribbling was not part of the original game except for the "bounce pass" to teammates. Passing the ball was the primary means of ball movement. Dribbling was introduced but limited by the asymmetric shape of early balls. Dribbling was common by 1896, with a rule against the double dribble by 1898; the peach baskets were used until 1906 when they were replaced by metal hoops with backboards.
A further change was soon made, so the ball passed through. Whenever a person got the ball in the basket, his team would gain a point. Whichever team got; the baskets were nailed to the mezzanine balcony of the playing court, but this proved impractical when spectators in the balcony began to interfere with shots. The backboard was introduced to prevent this interference. Naismith's handwritten diaries, discovered by his granddaughter in early 2006, indicate that he was nervous about the new game he had invented, which incorporated rules from a children's game called duck on a rock, as many had failed before it. Frank Mahan, one of the players from the original
K. C. Jones
K. C. Jones is an American retired professional basketball player and coach, he is best known for his association with the Boston Celtics of the National Basketball Association, with whom he won eleven of his twelve NBA championships. As a player, he is tied for third for most NBA championships in a career, is one of three NBA players with an 8-0 record in NBA Finals series, he is the only African-American non-player head coach. Jones was inducted into the Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame in 1989. Jones played college basketball at the University of San Francisco and, along with Bill Russell, led the Dons to two NCAA championships in 1955 and 1956. Jones played with Russell on the United States team which won the gold medal at the 1956 Olympic Games in Melbourne, Australia. After completing college and joining the NBA, Jones considered a career as a NFL player trying out for a team. However, he failed to make the cut. During his playing days, he was known as a tenacious defender. Jones spent all of his nine seasons in the NBA with the Boston Celtics, being part of eight championship teams from 1959 to 1966.
Jones and Russell, five others, are the only players in history to win an NCAA Championship, an NBA Championship, an Olympic Gold Medal. In NBA history, only teammates Bill Russell and Sam Jones have won more championship rings during their playing careers. After Boston lost to the Philadelphia 76ers in the 1967 playoffs, Jones ended his playing career, he was inducted into the Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame in 1989. Jones began his coaching career at Brandeis University, serving as the head coach from 1967 to 1970. Jones served as an assistant coach at Harvard University from 1970 to 1971. Jones reunited with former teammate Bill Sharman as the assistant coach for the 1971–72 NBA champion Los Angeles Lakers during the season the team won a record 33 straight games; the following season, Jones became the first coach of the San Diego Conquistadors, an American Basketball Association franchise which would have a short life. A year in 1973 he became head coach of the Capital Bullets, coaching them for three seasons and leading them to the NBA Finals in 1975.
In 1983, he took over as head coach of the Boston Celtics. Jones guided the Larry Bird-led Celtics to championships in 1984 and 1986. In 1986, Jones led the Eastern squad in the 1986 NBA All-Star Game in Dallas at the Reunion Arena, beating the Western squad 139–132; the Celtics won the Atlantic Division in all five of Jones's seasons as head coach and reached the NBA Finals in 4 of his 5 years as coach. In a surprise announcement, he retired after the 1987-88 season and was succeeded by assistant coach, Jimmy Rodgers, he spent one season in the Celtics front office in 1988-89 and resigned to join the Seattle SuperSonics as an assistant coach and basketball consultant for the 1989-90 season. He served as head coach of the Sonics in 1990-91 and 1991-92. In 1994, Jones joined the Detroit Pistons as an assistant coach for one season; the Pistons head coach at that time, Don Chaney, had played for Jones with the Celtics. Jones was considered to once again coach the Celtics during the off-season in 1995.
In 1996, Jones returned to this time as an assistant coach for one season. Jones returned to the professional coaching ranks in 1997, guiding the New England Blizzard of the fledgling women's American Basketball League through its last 1½ seasons of existence; the Blizzard made the playoffs in Year 2. Two-time NCAA Champion 1956 Olympic Gold Medal winner 12-time NBA Champion "Triple Crown" winner Five-time NBA All-Star Game head coach Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame College Basketball Hall of Fame U. S. Olympic Hall of Fame 2016 Chuck Daly Lifetime Achievement Award List of NBA players with most championships K. C. Jones at the Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame NBA.com profile BasketballReference.com: K. C. Jones BasketballReference.com: K. C. Jones
1974–75 Golden State Warriors season
The 1974–75 Golden State Warriors season was the 29th season in the franchise's history, its 13th in California and the fourth playing in Oakland. After four seasons of second-place finishes, the Warriors made various changes. Nate Thurmond was traded to the Chicago Bulls for a young defensive center; the club drafted Keith Wilkes, whose nickname was "Silk". Cazzie Russell had played out his option and joined the Los Angeles Lakers, leaving Rick Barry as the team's leader. Coach Al Attles implemented a team-oriented system that drew on the contributions of as many as ten players during a game. Barry scored 30.6 points per game, led the NBA in free throw percentage and steals per game, was sixth in the league in assists per game. The Warriors captured the Pacific Division title with a 48–34 record. In the playoffs, the Warriors got to the Western Conference Finals by beating the Seattle SuperSonics in six games. In the Western Finals, the Warriors looked like they were about to lose to former teammate Nate Thurmond.
The Warriors found themselves down against the Chicago Bulls 3 games to 2. The Warriors rallied to win Game 6 in Chicago and took the series with an 83–79 Game 7 triumph in Oakland. In the NBA Finals, the Warriors faced off against the Washington Bullets; the Warriors took the series in four straight games, including 1-point wins in Games 2 and 4. Rick Barry was named the series MVP; the Warriors wouldn't make another NBA Finals appearance again until 2015, where the franchise won its fourth league title. C – NBA Champions The Warriors had a first round bye. Golden State Warriors vs. Seattle SuperSonics: Warriors win series 4–2 Game 1 @ Golden State: Golden State 123, Seattle 96 Game 2 @ Golden State: Seattle 100, Golden State 99 Game 3 @ Seattle: Golden State 105, Seattle 96 Game 4 @ Seattle: Seattle 111, Golden State 94 Game 5 @ Golden State: Golden State 124, Seattle 100 Game 6 @ Seattle: Golden State 105, Seattle 96 Golden State Warriors vs. Chicago Bulls: Warriors win series 4–3 Game 1 @ Golden State: Golden State 107, Chicago 89 Game 2 @ Chicago: Chicago 90, Golden State 89 Game 3 @ Chicago: Chicago 108, Golden State 101 Game 4 @ Golden State: Golden State 111, Chicago 106 Game 5 @ Golden State: Chicago 89, Golden State 79 Game 6 @ Chicago: Golden State 86, Chicago 72 Game 7 @ Golden State: Golden State 83, Chicago 79 Washington Bullets vs.
Golden State Warriors: Warriors win series 4–0 Game 1 @ Washington: Golden State 101, Washington 95 Game 2 @ Golden State: Golden State 92, Washington 91 Game 3 @ Golden State: Golden State 109, Washington 101 Game 4 @ Washington: Golden State 96, Washington 95 Rick Barry, NBA Finals Most Valuable Player Award Rick Barry, All-NBA First Team Rick Barry, NBA All-Star Game Jamaal Wilkes, NBA Rookie of the Year Award Jamaal Wilkes, NBA All-Rookie Team 1st Team Dick Vertlieb, NBA Executive of the Year Award Warriors on Basketball Reference
Utah State University
Utah State University is a public land-grant research university in Logan, Utah. It is accredited by the Northwest Commission on Universities. With nearly 20,000 students living on or near campus, USU is Utah's largest public residential campus; as of Fall 2018, there were 27,932 students enrolled including 24,880 undergraduate students and 3,052 graduate students. The university has the highest percentage of out-of-state students of any public university in Utah totaling 23% of the student body. Founded in 1888 as Utah's agricultural college, USU focused on science, agriculture, domestic arts, military science, mechanic arts; the university offers programs in liberal arts, business, natural resource sciences, as well as nationally ranked elementary & secondary education programs. It offers master's and doctoral programs in humanities, social sciences, STEM areas, it received its current name in 1957. The university is classified among "R2: Doctoral Universities – High research activity". Utah State University has produced 7 Rhodes Scholars, 1 Nobel Prize winner, 1 MacArthur Fellows program inductee, 4 recipients of the Harry S. Truman Scholarship, 34 recipients of the Barry M. Goldwater Scholarship.
USU has nine colleges and offers 159 undergraduate degrees, 83 master's degrees, 41 doctoral degrees. USU's main campus is in Logan with regional campuses in Brigham City and the Uintah Basin and 28 other locations throughout Utah. In 2010, the College of Eastern Utah, in Price, Utah joined the USU system becoming Utah State University College of Eastern Utah. Throughout Utah, USU operates more than 20 distance education centers. Regional campuses, USU Eastern, distance education centers account for 59% of the students enrolled. USU has 149,000 alumni in all 110 countries. USU's athletic teams compete in Division I of the NCAA and are collectively known as the Utah State Aggies, they are a member of the Mountain West Conference. On December 16, 1861, Justin Morrill introduced a bill into the U. S. House of Representatives, "to establish at least one college in each state upon a sure and perpetual foundation, accessible to all, but to the sons of toil..." President Abraham Lincoln signed the Morrill Land-Grant Colleges Act into effect in July of the following year.
Meanwhile, after visiting a few rural agricultural schools in his native Denmark, Anthon H. Lund of the Utah Territorial Legislature decided that there existed in Utah a need for such a school fusing the highest in scientific and academic research with agriculture, the way of life for the vast majority of locals. Upon returning to the states, Lund heard about the Morrill Act, pitched a vision for the college that would receive widespread support among the Territorial Legislature, at the time seeking to reapply for statehood. Now there came the question of location. According to historian Joel Ricks in 1938, "Provo had received the Insane Asylum, Salt Lake City had the University and Capitol, the majority of the legislature felt that the new institutions should be given to Weber and Cache Counties." Citizens in Logan, Cache County, banded together and lobbied representatives for the honor. The bill to establish the Agricultural College of Utah was passed on March 8, 1888, on September 2, 1890, 14-year-old Miss Vendla Berntson enrolled as its first student.
In its early years, the college narrowly dodged two major campaigns to consolidate its operations with the University of Utah. Much controversy arose in response to President William J. Kerr's expansion of the college's scope beyond its agricultural roots. Detractors in Salt Lake City feared that such an expansion would come at the expense of the University of Utah, pushed consolidation as a counter. In 1907, an agreement was struck to instead limit the curricula of the Agricultural College to agriculture, domestic science, mechanic arts; this meant closing all departments in Logan, including the already-impressive music department, which did not fall under that umbrella. The University of Utah became responsible, for a time, for courses in engineering, medicine, fine arts, pedagogy, despite the Agricultural College's initial charter in 1888 which mandated that it offer instruction in such things; the bulk of the curricular restrictions were lifted during the next two decades, with the exception of law and medicine, which have since remained the sole property of the University of Utah.
Amid the tumult, the Agricultural College grew modestly, adding its statewide Extension program in 1914. A year the first master's degrees were awarded. UAC, as the Utah Agricultural College was abbreviated received a notable boost in students as a direct result of World War I. Colleges and universities nationwide were temporarily transformed into training grounds for the short-lived Student Army Training Corps, composed of students who received military instruction and could return to their educations following their military service; as the then-tiny campus could not otherwise support such large numbers of new students, college president Elmer Peterson convinced the state in 1918 to appropriate funds for permanent brick buildings, which could be used as barracks for SATC students during the war, instruction afterward. Though the war was soon to end, the campus doubled in size; the 1920s and 1930s saw the genesis of major growth. A School of Education was added in 1928, a prelude to the institution being renamed Utah State Agricultural College in 1929.
Doctoral degrees were first granted in 1950. In 1957, the school was granted university status as Utah State University
It ain't over till the fat lady sings
It ain't over till the fat lady sings is a colloquialism, used as a proverb. It means that one should not presume to know the outcome of an event, still in progress. More the phrase is used when a situation is nearing its conclusion, it cautions against assuming that the current state of an event is irreversible and determines how or when the event will end. The phrase is most used in association with organized competitions sports; the phrase is understood to be referencing the stereotypically overweight sopranos of the opera. The imagery of Richard Wagner's opera cycle Der Ring des Nibelungen and its last part, Götterdämmerung, is the one used in depictions accompanying reference to the phrase; the "fat lady" is the valkyrie Brünnhilde, traditionally presented as a buxom lady. Her farewell scene lasts twenty minutes and leads directly to the finale of the whole Ring Cycle; as Götterdämmerung is about the end of the world, in a significant way "it is over when the fat lady sings." The saying has become so well known that it was the subject of an article in the journal Obesity Reviews.
Don Meredith, the first Dallas Cowboy quarterback, would say "It ain't over till the fat lady sings" as a color commentator on Monday Night Football in the early 70's. The first recorded use appeared in the Dallas Morning News on 10 March 1976: Despite his obvious allegiance to the Red Raiders, Texas Tech sports information director Ralph Carpenter was the picture of professional objectivity when the Aggies rallied for a 72–72 tie late in the SWC tournament finals. "Hey, Ralph," said Bill Morgan, "this... is going to be a tight one after all." "Right", said Ralph, "the opera ain’t over until the fat lady sings." In the same newspaper on 26 November 2006, Steve Blow followed up the discovery by contacting Bill Morgan about the incident: Bill vividly remembers the comment and the uproar it caused throughout the press box. He always assumed. "Oh, yeah, it was vintage Carpenter. He was one of the world’s funniest guys," said Bill, a contender for that title himself; the 1976 use of the phrase was discovered by Fred R. Shapiro, who published it in The Yale Book of Quotations.
It had been attributed to sportswriter and broadcaster Dan Cook, who used the phrase after the first basketball game between the San Antonio Spurs and the Washington Bullets during the 1978 NBA Playoffs. Cook used the line to illustrate. Shapiro called this a notable example of misattribution. "It ain't over till it's over", a phrase popularized by baseball player Yogi Berra. "Don't count your chickens before they hatch", a well-known saying which originated in the 16th century. "Nothing is carved in stone", a phrase meaning that the future can always be changed