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Dickens County, Texas

Dickens County is a county located in the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, its population was 2,444, its county seat is Dickens. The county was created in 1876 and organized in 1891. Both the county and its seat are named for J. Dickens; the Pitchfork Ranch is in adjacent King County. It was managed from 1965 to 1986 by Jim Humphreys, affiliated with the National Ranching Heritage Center in Lubbock; the Matador Ranch, based in Motley County, once reached into Dickens County. Republican Drew Springer, Jr. a businessman from Muenster in Cooke County, has since January 2013 represented Dickens County in the Texas House of Representatives. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 905 square miles, of which 902 square miles are land and 3.5 square miles are covered by water. U. S. Highway 82 / State Highway 114 State Highway 70 State Highway 208 As of the census of 2000, 2,762 people, 980 households, 638 families resided in the county; the population density was 3 people per square mile.

The 1,368 housing units averaged 2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 77.62% White, 8.18% African American, 0.36% Native American, 0.11% Asian, 0.25% Pacific Islander, 12.35% from other races, 1.12% from two or more races. About 23.90 % of the population was Latino of any race. Of the 980 households, 23.10% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.60% were married couples living together, 7.90% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.80% were not families. About 32.40% of all households were made up of individuals, 17.60% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.29 and the average family size was 2.89. In the county, the population was distributed as 18.50% under the age of 18, 10.40% from 18 to 24, 29.70% from 25 to 44, 22.40% from 45 to 64, 19.00% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 130.70 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 141.90 males.

The median income for a household in the county was $25,898, for a family was $32,500. Males had a median income of $25,000 versus $18,571 for females; the per capita income for the county was $13,156. About 14.10% of families and 17.40% of the population were below the poverty line, including 21.30% of those under age 18 and 18.20% of those age 65 or over. Dickens Spur Afton McAdoo Charles Weldon Cannon and boot and saddle manufacturer Marshall Formby, newspaper publisher, radio executive, politician National Register of Historic Places listings in Dickens County, Texas Recorded Texas Historic Landmarks in Dickens County Dickens County in Handbook of Texas Online at the University of Texas Historic Dickens County materials, hosted by the Portal to Texas History. Dickens County History at Dickens County Profile from the Texas Association of Counties

Burrard Inlet

For other places with the same name, see Burrard. Burrard Inlet is a shallow-sided coastal fjord in southwestern British Columbia, Canada. Formed during the last Ice Age, it separates the City of Vancouver and the rest of the low-lying Burrard Peninsula from the slopes of the North Shore Mountains, home to the communities of West Vancouver and the City and District of North Vancouver. What is now known as Burrard Inlet has been home to the Indigenous peoples of the Musqueam, Sḵwxwú7mesh and Tsleil-waututh, who have resided in this territory for thousands of years. In 1791, the first European explorers in the region, Juan Carrasco and José María Narváez, sailing under orders of Francisco de Eliza, entered the western part of the inlet in their ship, the Santa Saturnina, they failed to find the Fraser River, mistaking the lowland of the river's delta as a major inlet of the sea, which they named Canal de Floridablanca. This led to one of the prime objectives of the 1792 expedition of Dionisio Alcalá Galiano, to determine the exact nature of the Canal de Floridablanca.

Galiano spent many days exploring the general area, realizing that there was a great river there and sighting Burrard Inlet itself on June 19, 1792. Just days the inlet was again named by Captain George Vancouver, after his friend and former shipmate Captain Sir Harry Burrard. In 1888, the inlet was described in The British Columbia Pilot published by the British Admiralty as follows. Burrard inlet differs from most of the great sounds of this coast in being comparatively easy of access to steam vessels of any size or class, in the convenient depth of water for anchorage which may be found in every part of it, it is divided into three distinct harbours, viz. English bay or the outer anchorage; the inlet runs directly east from the Strait of Georgia to Port Moody and is urbanized on most of its shores. About two-thirds of the way east from the inlet's mouth, a secondary, much steeper-sided, glacial fjord, Indian Arm, extends straight north from the main inlet, between Belcarra and Deep Cove in North Vancouver on into mountainous wilderness.

From Point Atkinson and Point Grey on the west to Port Moody in the east, the inlet is about 25 km long. Settlements on the shores of Burrard Inlet include Vancouver, West Vancouver, North Vancouver and Port Moody. Three bridges, the First Narrows Bridge, the Ironworkers Memorial Second Narrows Crossing and the CNR railway bridge at the Second Narrows, the SeaBus passenger ferry, cross the inlet. Aside from just east of the inlet's mouth, it is widest between the First and Second Narrows the busiest part of Vancouver's port. Protected from the open ocean, the calm waters of Burrard Inlet form Vancouver's primary port area, an excellent one for large ocean-going ships. While some of the shoreline is residential and commercial, much is port-industrial, including railyards, terminals for container and bulk cargo ships, grain elevators, oil refineries. Freighters waiting to load or discharge cargoes in the inlet anchor in English Bay, which lies south of the mouth of the inlet and is separated from it by Vancouver's downtown peninsula and Stanley Park.

On the main inlet, a few park areas remain forested as they were centuries ago, but the steep slopes of Indian Arm are so impassable that most have seen no development, despite the proximity of such a major city. Only in 2003 was a rough wilderness hiking trail around the whole of Indian Arm completed, it was the work of one man over many years. Lions Gate Bridge Ironworkers Memorial Second Narrows Crossing Second Narrows Bridge SeaBus 2002 Aerial Photos of Vancouver, including several views of Burrard Inlet and its shores

Alexander Scott (chemist)

Dr Alexander Scott FRS FRSE PCS was a 19th/20th century Scottish chemist who served as Director of Scientific Research at the British Museum. He was President of the Chemical Society from 1915 to 1917, he determined the atomic weights of several elements: potassium, manganese, carbon -re-evaluation, nitrogen. He was born in Selkirk in southern Scotland on 28 December 1853 the eldest of eight children of Alexander Scott, Rector of Selkirk Academy. From 1868 he studied science at the University of Edinburgh under Fleeming Jenkin, James Dewar and Alexander Crum Brown, he assisted James Dewar in lectures at the Dick Vet College from 1872 to 1875, graduated with a BSc in 1876. He took further degrees at the University of Cambridge gaining a BA in 1879 and an MA in 1882, he ended his studies in 1884 with a doctorate back at the University of Edinburgh. He immediately obtained a post as Science Master at Durham Secondary School. In 1885 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, his proposers were Sir James Dewar, Walter Weldon, James Douglas Hamilton Dickson and Alexander Crum Brown.

In 1898 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of London. In 1891 he left Durham to become a Demonstrator in Chemistry at the University of Cambridge. In 1896 he joined the Royal Institution in London as a Researcher. From 1911 to 1919 he undertook private research. In 1919 he became Director of Scientific Research at the British Museum, one of the most prestigious jobs in his field in the world, his initial task involved studying the deterioration of multiple objects stored in "safe" but damp conditions through the war. He founded the Research Laboratory within the Museum, in 1924 brought in Dr Harold Plenderleith as his assistant, he retired in 1938 and died in Ringwood in Hampshire on 10 March 1947. On his death, Harold Plenderleith acted as his executor. Introduction to Chemical Theory His portrait by H. A. Olivier is held at the British museum, he was married to Agnes Mary Russell in 1906. She was the daughter of Dr Dr William James Russell FRS, they had no children


A cigar is a rolled bundle of dried and fermented tobacco leaves made to be smoked. They are produced in a wide variety of shapes. Since the 20th century all cigars are made up of three distinct components: the filler, the binder leaf which holds the filler together, a wrapper leaf, the best leaf used. There will be a cigar band printed with the cigar manufacturer's logo. Modern cigars come with 2 bands Cuban Cigar bands, showing Limited Edition bands displaying the year of production. Cigar tobacco is grown in significant quantities in Central America and the islands of the Caribbean, including Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Honduras, Ecuador, Guatemala and Puerto Rico; the origins of cigar smoking are unknown. A Mayan ceramic pot from Guatemala dating back to the 10th century depicts people smoking tobacco leaves tied with a string. Regular cigar smoking is known to carry serious health risks including increased risk of developing various types of cancer and cardiovascular illnesses; the word cigar derives from the Mayan sikar.

The Spanish word, "cigarro" spans the gap between the Mayan and modern use. The English word came into general use in 1730. Tobacco was diffused among all of the indigenous people of the islands of the Caribbean. Italian explorer Christopher Columbus is credited with the introduction of tobacco to Europe. During his 1492 journey, three of his crewmen Rodrigo de Jerez, Hector Fuentes and Luis de Torres, are said to have encountered tobacco for the first time on the island of Hispaniola, when natives presented them with dry leaves that spread a peculiar fragrance, his sailors reported that the Taínos on the island of Cuba smoked a primitive form of cigar, with twisted, dried tobacco leaves rolled in other leaves such as palm or plantain. In time and other European sailors adopted the practice of smoking rolls of leaves, as did the Conquistadors. Smoking primitive cigars spread to Spain and Portugal and France, most through Jean Nicot, the French ambassador to Portugal, who gave his name to nicotine.

Tobacco use spread to Italy and, after Sir Walter Raleigh's voyages to the Americas, to Britain. Smoking became familiar throughout Europe—in pipes in Britain—by the mid-16th century. Spanish cultivation of tobacco began in earnest in 1531 on the island of Santo Domingo. In 1542, tobacco started to be grown commercially in North America, when Spaniards established the first cigar factory in Cuba. Tobacco was thought to have medicinal qualities, but some considered it evil, it was denounced by James I of England. Around 1592, the Spanish galleon San Clemente brought 50 kilograms of tobacco seed to the Philippines over the Acapulco-Manila trade route, it was distributed among Roman Catholic missionaries, who found excellent climates and soils for growing high-quality tobacco there. The use of the cigar did not become popular until the mid 18th century, although there are few drawings from this era, there are some reports. In Seven Years' War it is believed Israel Putnam brought back a cache of Havana cigars, making cigar smoking popular in the US after the American Revolution.

He brought Cuban tobacco seeds, which he planted in the Hartford area of New England. This resulted in the development of the renowned Connecticut Wrapper. Towards the end of the 18th century and in the 19th century, cigar smoking was common, while cigarettes were comparatively rare. In the early 20th century, Rudyard Kipling wrote his famous smoking poem, "The Betrothed." The cigar business was an important industry and factories employed many people before mechanized manufacturing of cigars became practical. Cigar workers in both Cuba and the US were active in labor strikes and disputes from early in the 19th century, the rise of modern labor unions can be traced to the CMIU and other cigar worker unions. In 1869, Spanish cigar manufacturer Vicente Martinez Ybor moved his Principe de Gales operations from the cigar manufacturing center of Havana, Cuba to Key West, Florida to escape the turmoil of the Ten Years' War. Other manufacturers followed, Key West became an important cigar manufacturing center.

In 1885, Ybor moved again, buying land near the small city of Tampa and building the largest cigar factory in the world at the time in the new company town of Ybor City. Friendly rival and Flor de Sánchez y Haya owner Ignacio Haya built his factory nearby the same year, many other cigar manufacturers followed after an 1886 fire that gutted much of Key West. Thousands of Cuban and Spanish tabaqueros came to the area from Key West and New York to produce hundreds of millions of cigars annually. Local output peaked in 1929, when workers in Ybor City and West Tampa rolled over 500,000,000 "clear Havana" cigars, earning the town the nickname "Cigar Capital of the World". At its peak, there were 150 cigar factories in Ybor city, but by early in the next decade, the factories had closed. In New York, cigars were made by rollers working in their homes, it was reported that as of 1883, cigars were being manufactured in 127 apartment houses in New York, employing 1,962 families and 7,924 individuals. A state statute banning the practice, passed late that year at the urging of trade unions on the basis that the practice suppressed wages, was ruled unconstitutional less than four months later.

The industry, which had relocated to Br

Berlin Fortress

The Berlin Fortress was the fortification of the historic city of Berlin. Construction started in 1650; the demolition of its ramparts began in 1740. Berlin was an important market place on the main east-west route. However, it had no real fortifications, unlike Köpenick in the east. Although Berlin was not the site of any battles during the Thirty Years' War it suffered from the Swedish occupation. Frederick William I, Elector of Brandenburg ordered the engineer architect Johann Gregor Memhardt to make plans for a fortification for the town; these began in 1650 following the contemporary fortification model of bastions in northern Italy. Large ramparts were erected and the space between was filled with water; the construction of the parts east of the river was finished between 1658 and 1662. There were more problems with the western parts due to the swamps in the area and accordingly these were not finished until 1683. However, the ramparts on that side never reached their intended height. In the following years the ramparts deteriorated to such an extent that Frederick William I of Prussia decided to abandon them in 1734.

In their place the Berlin Customs Wall was erected, a project that continued until 1737. In 1740 work began to demolish the walls of the fortress, but it was not until the end of the 19th century that all of the ramparts had been levelled. Today nothing remains apart from an echo of its path as shown by the zig-zag routes taken by some streets in the city center. A map can be seen in the Berlin Stadtbahn of railway tracks which were built along the eastern section where the fortress had been; the Berlin Fortress had 13 bastions. Leipzig Gate Köpenick Gate Mills Gate Georges Gate named after the Hospital Saint-Georges it was renamed to King's Gate in 1701 Spandau Gate New Town Gate added in direction of the western planned town Dorotheenstadt, supposed to be fortified as well but these plans were never realized. I. Leib-Garde-Bollwerk II. „Wittgensteinsches“ Bollwerk III. „Sparr“-Bollwerk IV. Gertrauden-Bollwerk V. „Goltzsches“ Bollwerk VI. „Rillenfortsches“ Bollwerk VII. Bollwerk „im Sumpf“ VIII. Stralauer Bollwerk IX.

Kloster-Bollwerk X. „Siebenburgisches“ Bollwerk (Marien-Bastion, Kommandanten-Bastion XI. Dragoner-Bastion XII. „Uffelnsches“ Bollwerk XIII. Lustgarten-Bollwerk Peter Feist: Als Berlin eine Festung war …, 1658–1746. In: Der historische Ort Nr. 27. 2. Auflage. Kai Homilius Verlag, Berlin 2006, ISBN 3-931121-26-7

2012 Gold Coast Sevens

The 2012 Gold Coast Sevens was the first tournament of the 2012-2013 Sevens World Series. It was held over the weekend of 13–14 October 2012 at Robina Stadium in Queensland and was the tenth edition of the Australian Sevens tournament. Fiji defeated New Zealand 32–14 in the final to defend their title; the teams were drawn into four pools of four teams each. Each team played everyone in their pool one time; the top two teams from each pool advanced to the Cup/Plate brackets. The bottom two teams from each group went to the Bowl/Shield brackets; the participating teams and schedule were announced on 17 September 2012. Gold Coast Sevens