A dictator is a political leader who possesses absolute power. A dictatorship is a state ruled by a small clique; the word originated as the title of a magistrate in the Roman Republic appointed by the Senate to rule the republic in times of emergency. Like the term "tyrant", to a lesser degree "autocrat", "dictator" came to be used exclusively as a non-titular term for oppressive rule. Thus, in modern usage, the term "dictator" is used to describe a leader who holds or abuses an extraordinary amount of personal power. Dictatorships are characterised by some of the following: suspension of elections and civil liberties. Dictatorships are one-party or dominant-party states. A wide variety of leaders coming to power in different kinds of regimes, such as military juntas, one-party states, dominant-party states, civilian governments under a personal rule, have been described as dictators, they may be apolitical. An emergency legal appointment in the Roman Republic, the term "Dictator" did not have the negative meaning it has now.
A Dictator was a magistrate given sole power for a limited duration. At the end of the term, the Dictator's power was returned to normal Consular rule whereupon a dictator provided accountability, though not all dictators accepted a return to power sharing; the term started to get its modern negative meaning with Cornelius Sulla's ascension to the dictatorship following Sulla's second civil war, making himself the first Dictator in Rome in more than a century as well as de facto eliminating the time limit and need of senatorial acclamation. He avoided a major constitutional crisis by resigning the office after about one year, dying a few years later. Julius Caesar followed Sulla's example in 49 BC and in February 44 BC was proclaimed Dictator perpetuo, "Dictator in perpetuity" doing away with any limitations on his power, which he kept until his assassination the following month. Following Julius' assassination, his heir Augustus was offered the title of dictator, but he declined it. Successors declined the title of dictator, usage of the title soon diminished among Roman rulers.
As late as the second half of the 19th century, the term dictator had occasional positive implications. For example, during the Hungarian Revolution of 1848, the national leader Lajos Kossuth was referred to as dictator, without any negative connotations, by his supporters and detractors alike, although his official title was that of regent-president; when creating a provisional executive in Sicily during the Expedition of the Thousand in 1860, Giuseppe Garibaldi assumed the title of "Dictator". Shortly afterwards, during the 1863 January Uprising in Poland, "Dictator" was the official title of four leaders, the first being Ludwik Mierosławski. Past that time, the term dictator assumed an invariably negative connotation. In popular usage, a dictatorship is associated with brutality and oppression; as a result, it is also used as a term of abuse against political opponents. The term has come to be associated with megalomania. Many dictators create a cult of personality around themselves and they have come to grant themselves grandiloquent titles and honours.
For instance, Idi Amin Dada, a British army lieutenant prior to Uganda's independence from Britain in October 1962, subsequently styled himself "His Excellency, President for Life, Field Marshal Al Hadji Doctor Idi Amin Dada, VC, DSO, MC, Conqueror of the British Empire in Africa in General and Uganda in Particular". In the movie The Great Dictator, Charlie Chaplin satirized not only Adolf Hitler but the institution of dictatorship itself. A benevolent dictatorship refers to a government in which an authoritarian leader exercises absolute political power over the state but is perceived to do so with the regard for benefit of the population as a whole, standing in contrast to the decidedly malevolent stereotype of a dictator. A benevolent dictator may allow for some economic liberalization or democratic decision-making to exist, such as through public referenda or elected representatives with limited power, makes preparations for a transition to genuine democracy during or after their term.
It might be seen as a republic a form of enlightened despotism. The label has been applied to leaders such as Ioannis Metaxas of Greece, Josip Broz Tito of Yugoslavia, Lee Kuan Yew of Singapore; the association between a dictator and the military is a common one. In some cases, this is legitimate. In other cases, the association is mere pretense; some dictators have been masters such as Mussolini and Hitler. Others were more prosaic speakers, such as Franco; the dictator's people seize control of all media, censor or destroy the opposition, give strong doses of propaganda daily built around a cult of personality. Because of its negative and pejorative connotations, modern authoritarian leaders rarely use the term dictator in their formal titles, instead they most simply have title of pre
Microsoft Forefront is a discontinued family of line-of-business security software by Microsoft Corporation. Microsoft Forefront products are designed to help protect computer networks, network servers and individual devices; as of 2015, the only developed Forefront product is Forefront Identity Manager. Forefront includes the following products: Identity Manager: State-based identity management software product, designed to manage users' digital identities and groupings throughout the lifecycle of their membership of an enterprise computer system System Center Endpoint Protection: A business antivirus software product that can be controlled over the network known as Forefront Endpoint Protection, Forefront Client Security and Client Protection. Exchange Online Protection: A software as a service version of Forefront Protect for Exchange Server: Instead of installing a security program on the server, the customer re-routes its email traffic to the Microsoft online service before receiving them.
Threat Management Gateway: Discontinued server product that provides three functions: Routing and web cache. Called Internet Security and Acceleration Server or ISA Server. Unified Access Gateway: Discontinued server product that protects network assets by encrypting all inbound access request from authorized users. Supports Virtual Private Networks and DirectAccess. Called Intelligent Application Gateway. Server Management Console: Discontinued web-based application that enables management of multiple instances of Protection for Exchange, Protection for SharePoint and Microsoft Antigen from a single interface. Protection for Exchange: A discontinued software product that detects viruses and spam by integrating multiple scanning engines from security partners in a single solution to protect Exchange messaging environments. FPE provides an administration console that includes customizable configuration settings, filtering options, monitoring features and reports, integration with the Forefront Online Protection for Exchange product.
After installation, managing FPE on multiple Exchange servers can be done with the Protection Server Management Console. Additionally, FPE can be managed using Windows PowerShell, a command-line shell and task-based scripting technology that enables the automation of system administration tasks. Protection for SharePoint: A discontinued product that protects Microsoft SharePoint Server document libraries, it enforces rules that prevent documents containing malware, sensitive information, or out-of-policy content from being uploaded. Protection Server Management Console or Windows PowerShell can be used to manage Protection for SharePoint Server on multiple servers. Security for Office Communications Server: Protects computers running Microsoft Office Communications Server from malware. Called Antigen for Instant Messaging; the predecessor to the Forefront server protection products was the Antigen line of antivirus products created by Sybari Software. Sybari was acquired by Microsoft in 2005, the first Microsoft-branded version of the product was called Microsoft Forefront Security for SharePoint Version 10.
FSSP Version 10 supports Microsoft Office SharePoint Server 2007 or Microsoft Windows SharePoint Services version 3, whereas FPSP supports Microsoft Office SharePoint Server 2010, Microsoft SharePoint Foundation 2010, Microsoft Office SharePoint Server 2007 SP1, or Windows SharePoint Services version 3 SP1. Microsoft Servers Official website Microsoft Forefront Server Protection Blog on TechNet Blogs
"Ellens dritter Gesang", in English: "Ellen's Third Song", was composed by Franz Schubert in 1825 as part of his Op. 52, a setting of seven songs from Walter Scott's popular epic poem The Lady of the Lake, loosely translated into German. It is one of Schubert's most popular works. Beyond the song as composed by Schubert, it is performed and recorded by many singers under the title "Ave Maria", in musically simplified arrangements and with various lyrics that differ from the original context of the poem, it was arranged in three versions for piano by Franz Liszt. The piece was composed as a setting of a song from Walter Scott's popular epic poem The Lady of the Lake, in a German translation by Adam Storck, thus forms part of Schubert's Liederzyklus vom Fräulein vom See. In Scott's poem the character Ellen Douglas, the Lady of the Lake, has gone with her exiled father to stay in the Goblin's cave as he has declined to join their previous host, Roderick Dhu, in rebellion against King James. Roderick Dhu, the chieftain of Clan Alpine, sets off up the mountain with his warriors, but lingers and hears the distant sound of the harpist Allan-bane, accompanying Ellen who sings a prayer addressed to the Virgin Mary, calling upon her for help.
Roderick Dhu pauses goes on to battle. Schubert's arrangement is said to have first been performed at the castle of Countess Sophie Weissenwolff in the little Austrian town of Steyregg and dedicated to her, which led to her becoming known as "the lady of the lake" herself; the opening words and refrain of Ellen's song, namely "Ave Maria", may have led to the idea of adapting Schubert's melody as a setting for the full text of the traditional Roman Catholic prayer "Ave Maria". The Latin version of the "Ave Maria" is now so used with Schubert's melody that it has led to the misconception that he wrote the melody as a setting for the "Ave Maria". In 1825, Schubert composed a selection of seven songs from Scott's The Lady of the Lake, they were published in 1826 as his Opus 52. The songs are not intended for a single performer: the three songs of Ellen are piano songs for a woman's voice, while the songs for Norman and the Count of Douglas were intended for the baritone Johann Michael Vogl; the remaining two songs are written one for the other for a female ensemble.
"Ellens Gesang I", D. 837, Raste Krieger, Krieg ist aus / "Soldier rest! the warfare o'er" "Ellens Gesang II", D. 838, Jäger, ruhe von der Jagd / "Huntsman, rest! Thy chase is done" "Bootgesang", D. 835, Triumph, er naht / "Hail to the chief", for male voice quartet "Coronach", D. 836, Er ist uns geschieden / "He is gone to the mountain", for female choir "Normans Gesang", D. 846, Die Nacht bricht bald herein "Ellens Gesang III", D. 839, Ave Maria! Jungfrau mild! / "Ave Maria! Maiden mild!" "Lied des gefangenen Jägers", D. 843, Mein Roß so müd / "My steed is tired"Schubert composed the songs to the German texts. However, with the exception of No. 5, the songs were intended to be published with the original English texts as well. This meant finding correspondences to Storck's sometimes quite free translations, which entailed significant difficulties. Walt Disney used Schubert's song in the final part of his 1940 film Fantasia, where he linked it to Modest Mussorgsky's Night on Bald Mountain in one of his most famous pastiches.
The end of Mussorgsky's work blends with no break into the beginning of Schubert's song, as Deems Taylor remarked, the bells in Night on Bald Mountain meant to signal the coming of dawn, which cause the demon Chernobog to stop his dark worship and the ghosts to return to the grave, now seem to be church bells signalling the beginning of religious services. A procession of monks is shown walking along; the text for this version is sung in English, was written by Rachel Field. This version had three stanzas, like Schubert's original, but only the third stanza made it into the film: The version heard in Fantasia was arranged by Leopold Stokowski for the film, unlike the original, for a solo voice, is scored for soprano and mixed chorus, accompanied by the string section of the Philadelphia Orchestra; the soloist is Julietta Novis. The Ave Maria sequence was featured in Very Merry Christmas Songs, part of Disney Sing-Along Songs, as a background movie for the song "Silent Night". In the 1935 film Bride of Frankenstein, a hermit plays the piece on solo violin, which soothes the Creature.
In the 1944 Academy Award-winning film Going My Way, Metropolitan Opera singer Risë Stevens performs the piece with Bing Crosby and the Robert Mitchell Boys Choir. Yehudi Menuhin performs a version for violin and piano in the 1943 American musical film Stage Door Canteen; the song was performed by tenor Luigi Vena at the funeral of American president John F. Kennedy. A rendition of the song was featured in the 2006 video game Hitman: Blood Money, where it was sung by Daniel Perret of the Zurich Boys' Choir; the 2016 science fiction film 2BR02B: To Be or Naught to Be, based on the story by Kurt Vonnegut, extensively uses the piece as diegetic music. The song's placement in the film is timed so that the line "Dem Kind, das für den Vater fleht" is heard by the character Wehling, before he shoots himself in order to save his children; the song was covered by Ch
The frilled tree frog, rough-armed tree frog, or Southeast Asian tree frog is a species of frog in the family Rhacophoridae found in Brunei, India, Malaysia, the Philippines and Vietnam. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forest, subtropical or tropical swamps, subtropical or tropical moist shrubland, swamps, freshwater marshes, intermittent freshwater marshes, it is threatened by habitat loss. The size of this frog is 30 -- 37 mm in 45 -- 50 mm in females. "Kurixalus appendiculatus". Amphibians and Reptiles of Peninsular Malaysia. Sound recordings of Frilled tree frog at BioAcoustica
Jeremiah Markland was an English classical scholar. He was born at Childwall in Liverpool on 29 October 1693, he was educated at Peterhouse, Cambridge. He left Cambridge in 1728 to act as private tutor to the son of W. Strode of Punsbourn, returning to the university in 1733. At a date he lived at Twyford, in 1744 went to Uckfield, Sussex, in order to superintend the education of the son of his former pupil, Mr. Strode. In 1752 he fixed his abode at Milton Court, near Dorking and remained there, living in great privacy, to the end of his days, he died near Dorking. His most important works are Epistola critica the Sylvae of Statius notes to the editions of Lysias by Taylor, of Maximus of Tyre by Davies, of Euripides's Hippolytus by Musgrave editions of Euripides's Supplices, Iphigenia in Tauride and in Aulide Remarks on the Epistles of Cicero to Brutus, of Brutus to Cicero. Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Sutton, Charles William. "Markland, Jeremiah".
In Lee, Sidney. Dictionary of National Biography. 36. London: Smith, Elder & Co. John Nichols, Literary Anecdotes, iv. 272 biography by Friedrich August Wolf, Literarische Analekten, ii. 370 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Markland, Jeremiah". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press
Reign of Fury are a British thrash metal band who are based predominantly in South West England and The Midlands. Their signature sound is a blend of 1980s thrash metal and NWOBHM, as well as various influences from other styles of metal and punk; the members are an amalgamation of friends that have met over the past 15 years on the UK punk and metal scene. Reign of Fury was formed to celebrate the types of music that provided the most significant influences to the members throughout their lives; the original idea for Reign of Fury was born in a pub in Cheltenham where the lead guitarist, Ed drank in 2006. He had known drummer, Magic Dave, for many years, having supported his previous punk band 4ft Fingers at various gigs. After numerous discussions about forming a metal band, the original line-up came together. Called Reign of Terror, they changed the name to Reign of Fury quite early on, they split up straight afterwards. Two years in 2008, Magic Dave left the UK punk band 4ft Fingers, he and fellow 4ft Fingers member Jon Priestley decided that they wanted to keep writing music together, Magic Dave introduced Ed to Jon.
They started writing material under the name “The Ransom” with the idea of being a punk band. After numerous rehearsals together, the riffs being written seemed to be heading in a far more metal direction. "The Ransom" didn't seem to suit the music, being written, so the name was changed to "Reign of Fury". After about 6 months together, after hearing the instrumental demos they had recorded, Heavy Matt Earl, joined them on bass, having been in another band, Screamin 88s, with Magic Dave for a while; the band were still lacking a vocalist. They tried out various singers to no avail, desperate to find somebody with the right vocal style for their sound, until in late 2009, Jon Priestley called upon friend Bison, at that time playing bass for hardcore band Section 13. Jon and Bison had worked together for many years in punk band Gash and experimental band Black Flame Dispute. After hearing what the band had to offer, Bison did some sample vocals over a few of the demo tracks Reign of Fury had recorded, songs which would appear on the Psycho Intentions E.
P. The band now clicked as a unit and established their signature sound. Reign of Fury became a full band in late 2009 and played their first show at The 2 Pigs in Cheltenham on 16 January 2010 supporting Tewkesbury band Lumphammer; the band played a few shows in 2010 and only 7 shows in 2011 but continued to write additional material. Reign of Fury released their first E. P. in February 2011, Psycho Intentions. Drums and bass were recorded on a simple 16-track in a tin shack on a farm in Tewkesbury whilst guitars and vocals were recorded by Jon Priestley at Abatis Studios. Psycho Intentions E. P. was distributed through Goodlife Recordings. This coincided with their DIY video for the title track of the E. P, filmed and edited by Matt Earl & Ed Westlake from the band, it was made back in 2010, being added to the post 9pm rotation on the UK alternative music channel SCUZZ. The E. P artwork, by UK artist Matt Dixon was chosen out of the band's desire to have a mascot and the skeleton figure on the front cover is set to appear on all upcoming releases.
Things started to pick up for Reign of Fury in 2011 with more shows being played. They began to work on their first album again self-recorded & produced. In 2012 they were asked to play their first metal festival show at Bloodstock 2012, they appeared on the New Blood stage on Sunday 12 August 2012. The band's debut album World Detonation was released in August 2012 set to coincide with their 1st Bloodstock performance which set the band on course to perform on bigger stages. Shortly afterwards, their first video from the album, title track; the second video "Born to Die" was released on Halloween 2012. The band had a number of tour dates in 2013, both in the Europe, they rounded the year off with a national headlining tour in support of Teenage Cancer Trust called "Headbangers' Balls". The line-up for each night was different with Reign of Fury the only constant band on the bill. One date clash in Newcastle with Hatebreed resulted in the latter inviting Reign of Fury and their support to open for them, donating their proceeds from the gig to the Headbangers' Balls cause.
The tour culminated with an all-day event in Birmingham, broadcast live on TBFM Online Radio. Headbangers' Balls II made a bigger impact in 2014 with several sold out shows and bigger audiences across the board including the likes of Onslaught and Evil Deth. In early 2014, the band parted ways with original bassist Matt Earl aka Heavy Matt Earl due to family commitments. Andy Pilkington stood in for two shows until the recruitment of Paul Bielby in February 2014. After the successful release of critically acclaimed second LP'Death Be Thy Shepherd' the band toured extensively across the UK including opening Bloodstock Festival; the Kickstarter campaign followed for the vinyl release of'Death Be Thy Shepherd' and reached target in 11 minutes At this point guitarist Ed Westlake left the band due to personal reasons. The band toured their planned headline 2015/2016 dates with new lead guitarist Ross'Lenny' Mclennan, with shows including support with Sepultura on their 30th Anniversary Tour and Lawnmower Deth's Xmas Bash at Nottingham Rock City.
Reign of Fury are writing and rehearsing brand new material for their 3rd album