A dictionary is a listing of words in one or more specific languages arranged alphabetically, which may include information on definitions, etymologies, translation, etc. or a book of words in one language with their equivalents in another, sometimes known as a lexicon. It is a lexicographical reference. A broad distinction is made between specialized dictionaries. Specialized dictionaries include words in specialist fields, rather than a complete range of words in the language. Lexical items that describe concepts in specific fields are called terms instead of words, although there is no consensus whether lexicology and terminology are two different fields of study. In theory, general dictionaries are supposed to be semasiological, mapping word to definition, while specialized dictionaries are supposed to be onomasiological, first identifying concepts and establishing the terms used to designate them. In practice, the two approaches are used for both types. There are other types of dictionaries that do not fit neatly into the above distinction, for instance bilingual dictionaries, dictionaries of synonyms, rhyming dictionaries.
The word dictionary is understood to refer to a general purpose monolingual dictionary. There is a contrast between prescriptive or descriptive dictionaries. Stylistic indications in many modern dictionaries are considered by some to be less than objectively descriptive. Although the first recorded dictionaries date back to Sumerian times, the systematic study of dictionaries as objects of scientific interest themselves is a 20th-century enterprise, called lexicography, initiated by Ladislav Zgusta; the birth of the new discipline was not without controversy, the practical dictionary-makers being sometimes accused by others of "astonishing" lack of method and critical-self reflection. The oldest known dictionaries were Akkadian Empire cuneiform tablets with bilingual Sumerian–Akkadian wordlists, discovered in Ebla and dated 2300 BCE; the early 2nd millennium BCE Urra=hubullu glossary is the canonical Babylonian version of such bilingual Sumerian wordlists. A Chinese dictionary, the c. 3rd century BCE Erya, was the earliest surviving monolingual dictionary.
Philitas of Cos wrote a pioneering vocabulary Disorderly Words which explained the meanings of rare Homeric and other literary words, words from local dialects, technical terms. Apollonius the Sophist wrote the oldest surviving Homeric lexicon; the first Sanskrit dictionary, the Amarakośa, was written by Amara Sinha c. 4th century CE. Written in verse, it listed around 10,000 words. According to the Nihon Shoki, the first Japanese dictionary was the long-lost 682 CE Niina glossary of Chinese characters; the oldest existing Japanese dictionary, the c. 835 CE Tenrei Banshō Meigi, was a glossary of written Chinese. In Frahang-i Pahlavig, Aramaic heterograms are listed together with their translation in Middle Persian language and phonetic transcription in Pazand alphabet. A 9th-century CE Irish dictionary, Sanas Cormaic, contained etymologies and explanations of over 1,400 Irish words. In India around 1320, Amir Khusro compiled the Khaliq-e-bari which dealt with Hindustani and Persian words. Arabic dictionaries were compiled between the 8th and 14th centuries CE, organizing words in rhyme order, by alphabetical order of the radicals, or according to the alphabetical order of the first letter.
The modern system was used in specialist dictionaries, such as those of terms from the Qur'an and hadith, while most general use dictionaries, such as the Lisan al-`Arab and al-Qamus al-Muhit listed words in the alphabetical order of the radicals. The Qamus al-Muhit is the first handy dictionary in Arabic, which includes only words and their definitions, eliminating the supporting examples used in such dictionaries as the Lisan and the Oxford English Dictionary. In medieval Europe, glossaries with equivalents for Latin words in vernacular or simpler Latin were in use; the Catholicon by Johannes Balbus, a large grammatical work with an alphabetical lexicon, was adopted. It served as the basis for several bilingual dictionaries and was one of the earliest books to be printed. In 1502 Ambrogio Calepino's Dictionarium was published a monolingual Latin dictionary, which over the course of the 16th century was enlarged to become a multilingual glossary. In 1532 Robert Estienne published the Thesaurus linguae latinae and in 1572 his son Henri Estienne published the Thesaurus linguae graecae, which served up to the 19th century as the basis of Greek lexicography.
The first monolingual dictionary written in Europe was the Spanish, written by Sebastián Covarrubias' Tesoro de la lengua castellana o española, published in 1611 in Madrid, Spain. In 1612 the first edition of the Vocabolario degli Accademici della Crusca, for Italian, was published, it served as the model for similar works in English. In 1690 in Rotterdam was published, the Dictionnaire Universel by Antoine Furetière for French. In 16
The following is a list of audiobooks from the Goosebumps book series. The first seven audiobooks were adapted from the original Goosebumps series and released on abridged audio cassette through Walt Disney Records from 1996 to 1997, they featured a full voice-cast. The next four audiobooks were adapted from the original Goosebumps series and released on abridged audio cassette in the UK through Tempo Records in 1997, they featured a full voice-cast. The next twelve audiobooks were adapted from the Goosebumps HorrorLand series and released in unabridged 2-disc audio sets through Scholastic Audiobooks from 2008-2009; the next fifteen audiobooks were adapted from the original Goosebumps series and released in unabridged 2-disc audio sets through Scholastic Audiobooks to help promote the 2015 Goosebumps film. The next line of audiobooks were adapted from the Goosebumps SlappyWorld series for Audible audio downloads, preloaded digital audio players and unabridged multi-disc audio sets through Scholastic Audiobooks.
Kamna Jethmalani is an Indian film actress. She debuted in 2005 with the Telugu film Premikulu and had her first commercial success with her third feature film Ranam. Subsequently, she played the lead role in a number of Telugu-language films, while debuting and appearing in Tamil and Kannada films. Jethmalani is a granddaughter of businessman Shyam Jethmalani, her childhood pet name is "Dinky". Her mother Divya is a housewife and her father Nimesh Jethmalani is a businessman, she has two siblings - sister Karishma. Kamna is granddaughter of Ram Jethmalani, she was the runner-up at the Miss Mumbai contest in 2004 and appeared in the music video of the pop song'Chhod do Aanchal Zamaana Kya Kahega' by Bombay Vikings. On 11 August 2014, Kamna married a Bangalore-based businessman, she appeared in the video of "Chhod Do Aanchal Zamaana Kya Kahega" by Neeraj Shridhar – Bombay Vikings in 2004. The following year, she made her movie debut with the Telugu film Premikulu. Though that film flopped, her second film Ranam was a big hit.
Her first Tamil film was Idhaya Thirudan with Jayam Ravi. She did an item number in the film Sainikudu, she has acted in Machakaaran opposite Jeevan. Since she has done several south Indian films, in which she performed the lead role. Kamna Jethmalani on IMDb Kamna Jethmalani on Facebook
The Human Rights Commission of Austin was established on October 5, 1967, by the City of Austin Ordinance 671005-B. The current version of the ordinance can be found at Section 2-1-148 of The Code of the City of Austin, Texas; the Commission is responsible for securing for all individuals in the city freedom from discrimination because of race, disability, sex, national origin, sexual orientation, gender identity, or age. The primary goal of the seven Commission members is to promote and enforce fair treatment of all individuals in the areas of employment and public accommodations; the Commission has adopted important bylaws to govern its procedures. The Commission advises and consults with the Austin City Council on all matters involving racial, religious, or ethnic discrimination; the Commission recommends to the council legislation designed to eliminate prejudice and discrimination. The Commission advises all City of Austin departments and regulatory agencies to assure effective compliance with non-discrimination policies and orders.
The Commission recommends to the Austin city manager ways to improve the ability of city departments and agencies to protect all persons and groups against discrimination. The Commission helps train city employees to use methods that result in respect for equal rights and equal treatment; the Commission cooperates with the police department to develop and include human rights courses in the police training curriculum. The Commission holds public hearings to determine the status and treatment of racial and ethnic groups in the city and the best means to improve human relations. To lessen tensions and improve understanding in the community, the Commission initiates and facilitates discussions and negotiations between individuals and groups; when needed to carry out specific programs, the Commission aids in the creation of local community groups. The Commission conducts educational programs to promote equal treatment and understanding; the Commission sponsors meetings and courses of instruction to help solve human relations problems.
The Commission assists in the enforcement of all laws prohibiting discrimination against persons where jurisdiction is not vested in another agency. In addition to this general enforcement authority, the Commission is authorized to enforce certain city and United States laws prohibiting discrimination in employment and public accommodation; this includes the protection of persons who have Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome or who are infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus and any person who associates with them. The Austin City Council has authorized the Commission to enforce certain laws that protect individuals from difference in treatment in their employment because of their race, religion, national origin, disability, sexual orientation, or gender identity; those laws are Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967, the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, Chapter 21 of the Texas Labor Code, the city's employment ordinance. There are important deadlines associated with the processing of employment discrimination complaints that can be found at the employment ordinance website.
The Austin City Council has authorized the Commission to enforce the city's ordinance that prohibits employment discrimination by city contractors. This ordinance applies to any person who submits a bid or proposal to provide labor, goods, or services to the city by contract for profit; the ordinance applies to any person who provides labor, goods, or services to the city by contract for profit. A subcontractor under such a contract is covered by the ordinance. A person or subcontractor covered by the ordinance may not engage in a discriminatory employment practice; that means discrimination against an individual because of race, color, national origin, sexual orientation, gender identity, sex, or age, unless sex or age is a bona fide occupational qualification of employment. The Austin City Council has authorized the Commission to enforce the City of Austin's housing ordinance, which operates in conjunction with the federal Fair Housing Act of 1968 and the Texas Fair Housing Act; those laws protect individuals against discrimination concerning the terms and conditions, leasing, buying, or selling of housing based on their race, creed, sex, national origin, student status, marital status, familial status, sexual orientation, gender identity, or age.
Important information about the ordinance can be found at the fair housing ordinance website. The Austin City Council has authorized the Commission to enforce the City of Austin's public accommodations ordinance, which makes it unlawful for any public accommodation to deny access to goods, facilities, privileges and accommodations to anyone based on race, religion, sexual orientation, gender identity, national origin, age, or disability. All businesses are covered by this ordinance; the Austin City Council has authorized the Commission to enforce the City of Austin's HIV/AIDS ordinance, adopted in 1986. The ordinance protects individuals who have AIDS, who are infected with HIV, who are perceived to have AIDS or be infected with HIV, or who are perceived to be a risk for any of these conditions. Protected are individuals who associate with the individuals described above; those individuals are protected from discrimination in employment, city facilities and services, public accommodations, including busin
Polsat News 2 is a Polish publicist-information television channel, which began broadcasting June 9, 2014 at 10 am, replacing Polsat Biznes. It complements the main sister channel Polsat News, with in-depth commentary, it broadcasts programs devoted to national, political and cultural events. The flagship program is To był dzień na świecie. In addition, the framework includes programs broadcast on Polsat Biznes, i.e. Zoom na giełdę, Biznes Informacje, Nie daj się fiskusowi oraz nowe: Prawy do Lewego, Lewy do Prawego, Rozmowa polityczna, WidziMiSię, Wysokie C, poŚwiata, Od redakcji, Pociąg do polityki, Fajka pokoju i Naczelni. At the stage of preparation for launching and for the first less than two months of broadcasting, the channel was called Polsat News+; the plus sign was saved in the same way as in the Plus mobile logo. On July 31, 2014, the name was changed to Polsat News 2 due to a lawsuit filed by Polsat with ITI Neovision, the owner of the nc+ platform.. Since ITI Neovision has the plus sign all its own channels, the District Court has decided to secure the suit for the duration of the ongoing process by ordering Polsat to change its name.
In November 2014, the Court of Appeal reviewed Polsat's appeal and overturned the previous decision, allowing the channel to be restored to its current name. Polsat has not yet decided on a possible renaming of the channel. In December 2014 the District Court in Warsaw issued a judgment which dismissed the suit nc+ in its entirety, but the verdict is not binding. However, the Court has forbidden the platform to use the "+" symbol in the name of the channel Polsat News+ and the program "+ Kultura". In addition to the prohibition, the court ordered the TV station falsity to announce that it can not use the + sign in its channels. Official website
Llewellyn J. Morse was a politician and merchant of lumber and ice in Maine, he founded Morse & Co. in 1851. The company was headquartered in Maine, it became Haight & Morse when he took on partners. Ralph W. Morse joined the firm in 1866 and L. J.'s son Walter I. Morse joined the firm in 1874. Morse was born at Parkers Head along the Kennebec River. In the 1870s Morse was an alderman in Maine. Morse was a Republican, his brother-in-law, Capt. Frank B. Ames, captained the ship named for Morse, the Llewellyn J. Morse; the ship stood in for the USS Constitution in the film Old Irsonsides. His brother-in-law became ill and upon his return home from captaining a voyage in Asia on the Llewellyn committed a murder-suicide on his sleeping wife; the Morse & Co. Office Building is a historic site listed on the National Register of Historic Places. During the American Civil War in 1863 he served under John L. Hodsdon. Future Vice President of the United States Hannibal Hamlin served under Capt. Llewelyn J. Morse at Fort McClary in Maine.
Llewellyn J. Morse at Find a Grave