SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Didaktik

The Didaktik was a series of 8-bit home computers based on the clones of Intel 8080 and Zilog Z80 processors produced in former Czechoslovakia. Didaktik Alfa was produced in 1986, as a "more professional" clone of PMD 85, it featured 2.048 MHz Intel 8080 CPU, 48 KB RAM, 8 KB ROM with built-in BASIC, good keyboard, monitor video output with 288×256 resolution and four possible colours. Despite some changes in ROM, it was compatible with PMD 85. Didaktik Alfa 1 was a clone of PMD 85-1, Didaktik Alfa 2 of PMD 85-2. Didaktik Beta was a improved version of previous Didaktik Alfa, having identical hardware. While Didaktik Alfa and Beta were deployed in schools, there was another production line, meant as home computers; these were Sinclair ZX Spectrum 48K clones. Didaktik Gama was the first clone of the ZX Spectrum with one speciality: 80 KB RAM divided into two switched 32 KB memory banks and 16 KB of slower RAM containing graphical data for video output, while the size of ROM was 16 KB; this computer had become an unreachable dream for many children and adults in former socialist Czechoslovakia as the computer was expensive and available to buy.

It is said. The design of the computer was simple – just a grey or black box the size of A5 with flat plastic keyboard and connectors mounted on the rear side. All games developed for the ZX Spectrum 48K were compatible with this computer. There is no need to say that it established massive and flourishing black market with these games country-wide as they were unavailable behind the "iron curtain". An audio cassette was used as a TV served as the monitor. Didaktik Gama was produced in three variants: the first, Gama'87, fixed some bugs in the original ZX Spectrum ROM, thus breaking compatibility in some percentage of applications, introduced its own bugs inhibiting the use of the second 32 KB memory bank from BASIC. Gama'88 fixed the original ZX Spectrum bugs in a more compatible way and fixed the memory switching bug; the last and the best model was Gama'89. Production of Didaktik Gama computers ceased in 1992; the next version, the Didaktik M introduced in 1990, was more advanced in reliability.

The machine resembled more of a professional home computer with arrow keys separated from the rest of the keyboard and a more ergonomic shape of the case. Inside there was only 64 KB of total memory, a disappointment in comparison to the Gama; the computer was redesigned. A custom circuit from Russian company Angstrem was used instead of the original ULA as a result the screen had a square aspect ratio instead of a rectangle 4:3. In addition the whole RAM was realized by one set of 64 KB chips from which only 48 KB were used and there was no difference between the fast and slow memory with the video content. There were two separated connectors for joysticks and one connector for additional interfaces, such as a printer interface. Unlike the previous version of Didaktik, these connectors were typical "socialistic solution" compatible with nothing, available in the ČSSR. Thus, users were forced to develop and produce various and sometimes funny home-made interfaces to satisfy their needs. Data storing and monitor type was the same as in the case of the Gama.

Two floppy disk drives were developed and released to offer the possibility of fast saving/loading of various programs. 5.25-inch floppy disk drive called D40 was introduced in 1992 and featured a "Snapshot" button that allowed to store current content of the memory on diskette. It was possible to load the memory image and continue playing the game from the respective state. 3.5-inch floppy disk drive called D80 was introduced in 1992 at the same time as Didaktik Kompakt was released. The Didaktik Kompakt from 1992 was a Didaktik M with built-in floppy 3.5-inch 720 KB drive and parallel printer port. These computers were famous for their simplicity allowing people with little technical ability to produce various hardware add-ons such as FDD controllers, AD/DA converters or software. Both version of these computers had been produced in Slovakia. Didaktik's glory went out with price fall of 16-bit computers, such as the Atari and Amiga, around the middle of the 1990s until it was steam-rolled by the PC soon after.

The production of Didaktik computers stopped in the year 1994. Didaktik computers Didaktik computers on old-computers.com PCB scans Didaktik družstvo Skalica – the website of the company Т34ВГ1 – an article in the Russian Wikipedia about the Russian ULA replacement

Van Mijenfjorden

Van Mijenfjorden is the third-longest fjord in Norway's Svalbard archipelago. It lies in the southern portion of Spitsbergen island, south of Nordenskiöld Land and north of Nathorst Land; the fjord is 83 km long, being separated from Bellsund further out by Mariaholmen. The settlement of Sveagruva lies on the fjord's north bank; the fjord is named after the Dutch whaler Willem Cornelisz. Van Muyden, involved in the trade in 1612 and 1613. Van Mijenfjorden was called Lowe Sound, while the small cove north of Axel Island was called Van Muyden's Haven; this latter name was moved from its proper location by Giles and Rep and "floated over" to where modern cartographers now wrongly place it. Conway, W. M. 1906. No Man's Land: A History of Spitsbergen from Its Discovery in 1596 to the Beginning of the Scientific Exploration of the Country. Cambridge: At the University Press. Norwegian Polar Institute Place Names of Svalbard Database A detailed map of Svalbard with Van Mijenfjorden labeled Study

Abronia alpina

Abronia alpina is a rare species of flowering plant in the four o'clock family known by the common names Ramshaw Meadows sand verbena and Ramshaw Meadows abronia. It is endemic to Tulare County, where it is known from only one area high in the Sierra Nevada; this is a small, squat perennial herb which forms a flat to mounded mat on the floor of alpine meadow habitat. The leaves have rounded blades each less than a centimeter long at the ends of short petioles; the foliage and stems are glandular. The plant blooms in clusters of up to five white to pink or lavender flowers around a centimeter wide and long. Jabis, Meredith D.. "Pollinator-Mediated Gene Flow Fosters Genetic Variability in a Narrow Alpine Endemic, Abronia Alpina". American Journal of Botany. 98: 1583–1594. Doi:10.3732/ajb.1000515. PMID 21980161. Jabis, Meredith D.. "Habitat Suitability as a Limiting Factor for Establishment in a Narrow Endemic: Abronia alpina". Western North American Naturalist. 74: 185–200. Doi:10.3398/064.074.0204. Jepson Manual Treatment for Abronia alpina USDA Plants Profile for Abronia alpina U.

S. FWS Species Account UC CalPhotos gallery of Abronia alpina