click links in text for more info


The didgeridoo is a wind instrument. The didgeridoo was developed by Aboriginal peoples of northern Australia within the last 1,000 years, is now in use around the world; the name for the Yolngu peoples' instrument is the yiḏaki, or more by some, mandapul. A didgeridoo is cylindrical or conical, can measure anywhere from 1 to 3 m long. Most are around 1.2 m long. The longer the instrument, the lower its pitch or key. However, flared instruments play a higher pitch than unflared instruments of the same length. There are no reliable sources of the exact age of the didgeridoo. Archaeological studies suggest that people of the Kakadu region in Northern Australia have been using the didgeridoo for less than 1,000 years, based on the dating of rock art paintings. A clear rock painting in Ginga Wardelirrhmeng, on the northern edge of the Arnhem Land plateau, from the freshwater period shows a didgeridoo player and two songmen participating in an Ubarr Ceremony, it is thus thought that it was developed by Aboriginal peoples of northern Australia in Arnhem Land.

T. B. Wilson's Narrative of a Voyage Round the World includes a drawing of an Aboriginal man from Raffles Bay on the Cobourg Peninsula playing the instrument. Others observed such an instrument in the same area, made of bamboo and about 3 feet long. In 1893, English palaeontologist Robert Etheridge, Junior observed the use of "three curious trumpets" made of bamboo in northern Australia. There were two native species of bamboo growing along the Adelaide River, Northern Territory". According to A. P. Elkin, in 1938 the instrument was "only known in eastern Kimberley and the northern third of the Northern Territory; the name "didgeridoo" is not of Aboriginal Australian origin and is considered to be an onomatopoetic word. The earliest occurrences of the word in print include a 1908 edition of the Hamilton Spectator, a 1914 edition of The Northern Territory Times and Gazette, a 1919 issue of Smith's Weekly where it was referred to as a "didjerry" which produced the sound – "didjerry, didjerry and so on ad infinitum".

A rival explanation, that didgeridoo is a corruption of the Irish Gaelic language phrase dúdaire dubh or dúidire dúth, is controversial. Dúdaire/dúidire is a noun that, depending on the context, may mean "trumpeter", "hummer", "crooner" or "puffer" while dubh means "black" and dúth means "native". There are numerous names for the instrument among the Aboriginal peoples of northern Australia, none of which resemble the word "didgeridoo"; some didgeridoo enthusiasts and Aboriginal people advocate using local language names for the instrument. Yiḏaki is one of the most used names although speaking, it refers to a specific type of the instrument made and used by the Yolngu peoples of north-east Arnhem Land; some Yolngu people began using the word mandapul after 2011, out of respect for the passing of a Manggalili man had a name sounding similar to yidaki. In west Arnhem Land, it is known as a mago, a name popularised by virtuoso player David Blanasi, a Bininj man, whose language was Kunwinjku, who brought the didgeridoo to world prominence.

However the mago is different from the Yiḏaki: shorter, sounding somewhat different – a fuller and richer sound, but without the "overtone" note. There are at least 45 names for the didgeridoo, several of which suggest its original construction of bamboo, such as bambu, bombo and pampu, which are still used in the lingua franca by some Aboriginal people; the following are some of the more common regional names. A didgeridoo is cylindrical or conical, can measure anywhere from 1 to 3 m long. Most are around 1.2 m long. The longer the instrument, the lower its pitch or key. However, flared instruments play a higher pitch than unflared instruments of the same length; the didgeridoo is classified as a wind instrument and is similar in form to a straight trumpet, but made of wood. It has been called a dronepipe. Traditional didgeridoos are made from hardwoods the various eucalyptus species that are endemic to northern and central Australia; the main trunk of the tree is harvested, though a substantial branch may be used instead.

Traditional didgeridoo makers seek suitably hollow live trees in areas with obvious termite activity. Termites attack these living eucalyptus trees, removing only the dead heartwood of the tree, as the living sapwood contains a chemical that repels the insects. Various techniques are employed to find trees with a suitable hollow, including knowledge of landscape and termite activity patterns, a kind of tap or knock test, in which the bark of the tree is peeled back, a fingernail or the blunt end of a tool, such as an axe, is knocked against the wood to determine if the hollow produces the right resonance. Once a suitably hollow tree is found, it is cut down and cleaned out, the bark is taken off, the ends trimmed, the exterior is shaped. A rim of beeswax may be applied to the mouthpiece end. Non-traditional didgeridoos can be made from native or non-native hard woods, fibreglass, agave, hemp, PVC piping and carbon fibre; these have an upper inside diameter of around 1.25" down to a bell end of anywhere between two and eight inches and have a length corresponding to the desired key.

The end of the pipe can be shaped and smoothe


The uncanny is the psychological experience of something as strangely familiar, rather than mysterious. It may describe incidents where a familiar thing or event is encountered in an unsettling, eerie, or taboo context. Ernst Jentsch set out the concept of the uncanny which Sigmund Freud elaborated on in his 1919 essay Das Unheimliche, which explores the eeriness of dolls and waxworks. For Freud, the uncanny locates the strangeness in the ordinary. Expanding on the idea, psychoanalytic theorist Jacques Lacan wrote that the uncanny places us "in the field where we do not know how to distinguish bad and good, pleasure from displeasure", resulting in an irreducible anxiety that gestures to the Real; the concept has since been taken up by a variety of thinkers and theorists such as roboticist Masahiro Mori's uncanny valley and Julia Kristeva's concept of abjection. Philosopher F. W. J. Schelling raised the question of the uncanny in his late Philosophie der Mythologie of 1835, postulating that the Homeric clarity was built upon a prior repression of the uncanny.

In The Will to Power manuscript, German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche refers to nihilism as "the uncanniest of all guests" and, earlier, in On the Genealogy of Morals he argues it is the "will to truth" that has destroyed the metaphysics that underpins the values of Western culture. Hence, he coins the phrase "European nihilism" to describe the condition that afflicts those Enlightenment ideals that hold strong values yet undermine themselves. Uncanniness was first explored psychologically by Ernst Jentsch in a 1906 essay, On the Psychology of the Uncanny. Jentsch defines the Uncanny as: being a product of "...intellectual uncertainty. The better oriented in his environment a person is, the less will he get the impression of something uncanny in regard to the objects and events in it." He expands upon its use in fiction: In telling a story one of the most successful devices for creating uncanny effects is to leave the reader in uncertainty whether a particular figure in the story is a human being or an automaton and to do it in such a way that his attention is not focused directly upon his uncertainty, so that he may not be led to go into the matter and clear it up immediately.

Jentsch identifies German writer E. T. A. Hoffmann as a writer who uses uncanny effects in his work, focusing on Hoffmann's story "The Sandman", which features a lifelike doll, Olympia; the concept of the Uncanny was elaborated on and developed by Sigmund Freud in his 1919 essay "The Uncanny", which draws on the work of Hoffmann. However, he criticizes Jentsch's belief that Olympia is the central uncanny element in the story: I cannot think – and I hope most readers of the story will agree with me – that the theme of the doll Olympia, to all appearances a living being, is by any means the only, or indeed the most important, element that must be held responsible for the quite unparalleled atmosphere of uncanniness evoked by the story. Instead, Freud draws on a wholly different element of the story, namely, "the idea of being robbed of one's eyes", as the "more striking instance of uncanniness" in the tale. Freud goes on, for the remainder of the essay, to identify uncanny effects that result from instances of "repetition of the same thing," linking the concept to that of the repetition compulsion.

He includes incidents wherein one becomes lost and accidentally retraces one's steps, instances wherein random numbers recur meaningfully. He discusses the uncanny nature of Otto Rank's concept of the "double". Freud relates an aspect of the Uncanny derived from German etymology. By contrasting the German adjective unheimlich with its base word heimlich, he proposes that social taboo yields an aura not only of pious reverence but more so of horror and disgust, as the taboo state of an item gives rise to the commonplace assumption that that, hidden from public eye must be a dangerous threat and an abomination – if the concealed item is or presumingly sexual in nature; the Uncanny is what unconsciously reminds us of our own Id, our forbidden and thus repressed impulses – when placed in a context of uncertainty that can remind one of infantile beliefs in the omnipotence of thought. Such uncanny elements are perceived as threatening by our super-ego ridden with oedipal guilt as it fears symbolic castration by punishment for deviating from societal norms.

Thus, the items and individuals that we project our own repressed impulses upon become a most uncanny threat to us, uncanny monsters and freaks akin to fairy-tale folk-devils, subsequently become scapegoats we blame for all sorts of perceived miseries and maladies. What interests us most in this long extract is to find that among its different shades of meaning the word heimlich exhibits one, identical with its opposite, unheimlich. What is heimlich thus comes to be unheimlich. In general we are reminded that the word heimlich is not unambiguous, but belongs to two sets of ideas, without being contradictory, are yet different: on the one hand it means what is familiar and agreeable, on the other, what is concealed and kept out of sight. Unheimlich is customarily used, we are told, as the contrary only of the first signification of heimlich, not of the second. On the other hand, we notice that Schelling says something which t


Mother! is a 2017 American psychological horror film written and directed by Darren Aronofsky, starring Jennifer Lawrence, Javier Bardem, Ed Harris, Michelle Pfeiffer. The plot follows a young woman whose tranquil life with her husband at their country home is disrupted by the arrival of a mysterious couple. Mother! was selected to compete for the Golden Lion at the 74th Venice International Film Festival, premiered there on September 5, 2017. It was released in the United States on September 15, 2017 by Paramount Pictures, grossed $44 million worldwide against its $30 million budget. Although the film received positive reviews from critics, its biblical allegories and depiction of violence sparked controversy. In the burnt-out remains of a large house, Him, an acclaimed poet struggling with writer's block, places a crystal object on a pedestal in his study; the ruined house morphs into a lovely home in an edenic landscape. In bed, the poet's wife and muse and wonders aloud where Him is. While renovating the house, she starts seeing things that unsettle her, including visualizing a beating heart within its walls.

One day, a stranger referred to as Man turns up at the house, asking for a room and claiming to be a local doctor. Him agrees, Mother reluctantly follows suit. During his stay, Man suffers coughing fits and Mother observes an open wound in his side. Soon Man's wife, Woman arrives to stay. Mother is frustrated with her guests, but Him begs her to let them stay, revealing that Man is a fan whose dying wish was to meet Him. However, when Man and Woman accidentally shatter the crystal object, which Him had forbidden them to touch, Mother kicks them out and Him boards up his study. Before Man and Woman can leave, their two sons fight over their father's will; the oldest son, who will be left with nothing wounds the younger brother and flees. Him and Woman take the injured son for help. Alone in the house, Mother follows a trail of blood to find a tank of heating oil hidden behind the basement walls. Upon returning, Him informs Mother. Dozens of people arrive at the house to honor the dead son, they behave in rude and presumptuous ways.

She berates Him for allowing so many people inside while ignoring her needs. Their argument ends in passionate lovemaking; the next morning, Mother announces. The news inspires Him to finish his work. Mother reads Him's beautiful new poem. Upon publication, it sells out every copy. In celebration, Mother prepares a big dinner, but a group of fans arrives at the house before they can eat, she asks Him to send them away, but he insists he has to be polite and show his appreciation, tells her he will return soon. Mother tries to lock the doors, but more fans arrive and enter the house, where many begin to use the toilet, they start stealing things as souvenirs and damaging the house, but Him is oblivious due to the adulation he is receiving. Hundreds of people fill the house and an disoriented Mother watches it devolve into chaos. Military forces battle a cult of frenzied fans who engage in religious rituals. Amidst gunfire and explosions, the herald, the poet's publicist, organizes mass executions. Mother finds Him.

He takes her to his study. The havoc outside subsides. Him tells Mother; when she falls asleep, Him takes their child outside to the crowd, which passes the baby around wildly until his neck is inadvertently snapped. Mother wades into the crowd. Furious, she calls them stabs them with a shard of glass, they turn on her, viciously attempting to strangle her until Him intervenes. He implores Mother to forgive them, but she escapes, makes her way to the basement oil tank, punctures it with a pipe wrench. Despite her husband's pleas, she sets the oil alight. Mother and Him survive, he asks for her love and she agrees. He removes her heart; as he crushes the heart with his hands, a new crystal object is revealed. He places it on its pedestal and, once again, the house is transformed from a burnt-out shell into a beautiful home. In bed, a new Mother wakes up, wondering aloud where Him is. In an interview, Lawrence stated. I represent Mother Earth. Aronofsky said that the exclamation mark in the title "reflects the spirit of the film" and corresponds to an "exclamation point" of the ending.

The director discussed the film's unusual choice of not capitalising the letter'm' in the title during a Reddit interview, saying, "To find out why there's a lowercase'm', read the credits and look for the letter that isn't capitalised. Ask yourself what's another name for this character?" The characters' names are all shown except for Him. The lighter which appears throughout the film bears the Wendehorn, a symbol believed to represent "the cooperation between nature's eternal laws, working in effect and in accordance with each other." One of the film's unexplained elements is


Ikimono-gakari is a Japanese pop rock band from Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan. The group started in February 1999 with Hotaka Yamashita and Yoshiki Mizuno, was joined by vocalist Kiyoe Yoshioka in November of the same year; the group's name is a reference to ikimono-gakari, a group of children who are responsible for looking after plants and animals in Japanese elementary schools. In 2006, the group released its first single on Sony Music Entertainment Japan's Epic Records label. Several of their albums have reached number one on the Oricon weekly rankings, their songs have been featured on various media: from TV commercials, anime shows such as Naruto Shippuden, Japanese TV Dramas such as Women Won't Allow This, live action movies such as Time Traveler: The Girl Who Leapt Through Time, the 2012 Olympic broadcast theme song for NHK, the set piece for a national junior high music competition, their official fan club is named Ikimonogakari Fan Class 1-2 Mizuno has the most number of composed songs among them, while Yamashita ranks second.

Yoshioka has contributed lyrics to a few songs, but Namida ga Kieru Nara is the only song on which the three of them have collaborated. In 1989, Mizuno and Yamashita met by chance. Yamashita noted that he wanted to be a "blackboard monitor". Yamashita and Mizuno formed their band on February 1, 1999, began performing live on the street. At first, they did covers of Masayoshi Yamazaki. In November 3, 1999, Yoshioka joined the band. In those days and Yamashita planned to make a group with a female lead vocalist, which would be an unusual sound for the street performances they were doing. Yoshioka was the younger sister of one of their classmates; as they were performing with three members, the band did a cover of Yuzu's single, "Natsuiro". In September 2000, they suspended the band to focus on college entrance examinations for Yamashita and Mizuno. By March 2003, Yoshioka recovered from a slump where she had thought of not singing anymore. Again, the band re-formed, but they were performing with the intent of supporting their increasing fame.

As their style of music was moving more towards an acoustic focus, they planned to expand their scope to cover not only street performances but live house concerts as well. Moreover, they made a greater effort to rely less on covers. In April 2003, the band resumed playing with a street show in front of the Hon-Atsugi Station on the Odakyū Odawara Line. In June, they did a one-band show at the Thunder Snake Atsugi live venue for the first time. A person who happened to be attending this performance ended up becoming their manager. On August 25, they released their first indie album, Makoto ni Senetsu Nagara First Album wo Koshirae Mashita.... On March 26, 2005, the band held a show in the small hall at the Atsugi City Culture Building. On March 15, 2006, the band released SAKURA, produced by Masanori Shimada; this was their major label debut with Epic Records Japan of Sony. Their second single "Hanabi" was released on May 31, 2006, earning the band their first appearance on the Oricon top 10 chart with a number 5 debut.

Between November 10 and November 30, they held their first live tour, called "Ikimonogakari no Minna-san, Konni-Tour! 2006". They released their first full-length studio album on March 7, 2007, entitled Sakura Saku Machi Monogatari, debuting at number 4 on the Oricon weekly album charts. Between May 24 to June 14, they went on a live tour to support this album, their second major studio album, Life Album, came out on February 13, 2008, debuting at number 2 on the Oricon weekly album charts. This album's live tour was from March 30 to May 23. On July 7, they came out with their tenth single, "Bluebird", which became an opening song for the Naruto anime, the group's first to crack the Top 3 in Oricon Singles. On December 24, they released My Song Your Song; this album topped the Oricon weekly charts, becoming their first work to achieve a first ranking on any chart. On December 31, they debuted in the 59th NHK Kōhaku Uta Gassen festival which gave them considerable national exposure. On March 4, 2009, their first-ever collection of video works, "Tottemo Ēzō", was released.

That year, Mizuno was put in charge of writing the song "Yell" as the set piece for the junior high division of the 76th annual NHK Nationwide School Music Contest. Their 15th single "Yell / Joyful" came out September 23, taking the No. 1 single spot for the Oricon daily charts and the number 2 spot for the weekly chart, the highest rankings so far for any of their singles. The band won one of the Gold Artist awards at the 2009 Best Hit Song Festival, their first time winning one of the show's prizes, they followed that up with their fourth studio album Hajimari no Uta, released on December 23, debuting as the number 1 album on the Oricon weekly charts. On New Year's Eve, the band appeared again in the 60th NHK Kōhaku Uta Gassen festival. On June 9, 2012, Japanese television network NHK announced that the theme song for

Waterloo State Recreation Area

Waterloo State Recreation Area is the third-largest park in Michigan, encompassing over 21,000 acres of forest and wetlands. Located in northeast Jackson County and parts of Washtenaw County, the park is the largest in the Lower Peninsula of Michigan and features 4 campgrounds, 11 lakes, a nature center, over 50 miles of trails - some for horses, bicycles and cross-country skiing. Waterloo SRA includes the Black Spruce Bog Natural Area, a National Natural Landmark and borders the 11,000-acre Pinckney Recreation Area on the east and the 950-acre Phyllis Haehnle Memorial Audubon Sanctuary to the west; the land preserved by the park is not all contiguous and numerous private landholdings and roads run through the park area. The area is characterized by moraines, kettle lakes and bogs left by retreating glaciers after the last ice age; the park was created by the federal government during the Great Depression and is long-term leased to the state. The Waterloo area was first settled in the 1830s but the ground was poorly suited for farming and during the Great Depression large numbers of farms were abandoned or in financial trouble.

The Federal Emergency Administration of Public Works studied the creation of a variety of kinds of parks in several states. The lands were transferred to the Resettlement Administration of the Department of Agriculture in 1935. In 1935-1936, 45 recreational demonstration projects were established including 12,000 acres at Waterloo; these areas were sited in marginal areas near large population centers to provide outdoor recreation actitivies and temporary employment. Most of the sites had CCC camps, Works Progress Administration workers and other "relief workers". Permanent organized family and youth camps, trails, park facilities buildings and bathing facilities were constructed. Waterloo had three permanent camps: Mill Lake and Cassidy Lake camps. Mill Lake served inner-city youth and Cassidy Lake was a year-round trade school before being converted to its current use as a prison in 1942. Camp Waterloo began as a CCC camp served to train military police and as a German POW camp during World War II.

It became a low security prison. Sylvan Pond was created when the WPA put in a dam and levees at Cassidy Lake raised its water level permanently; the clubhouse of former Sylvan Estates Country Club is the current park headquarters. The recreational demonstration projects were transferred from the Resettlement Administration to the National Park Service in November, 1936; the Park Service ended hunting on all park lands it managed nationwide which created a local controversy in Waterloo. In 1943, the state of Michigan leased the park from the National Park Service under the conditions that it must remain a public park for recreational and conservation purposes. In particular, the lease for Waterloo Park requires marshes be maintained for the sandhill cranes and that Michigan must provide funds to run the Yankee Springs Recreation Area near Grand Rapids, the other recreational demonstration project in the state; the park offers over 434 campsites that are available in two modern campgrounds, one equestrian and one rustic campground.

Available to visitors are thirteen rustic cabins. The park boasts a swimming beach, several picnic sites, 11 fishing lakes, eight boat launches. Hunting for small game and deer is allowed in most of the park, except for established safety zones around campgrounds and park facilities; the park offers extensive trails that wind through the vast landscape and around the eleven lakes that exist within the park's confines - 12 miles of interpretive nature trails, 47 miles of hiking trails and numerous equestrian trails. The 36-mile Waterloo-Pinckney Trail runs across the park and into the adjoining 11,000-acre Pinckney Recreation Area; the lakes host a variety of fish species which include Largemouth Bass, Smallmouth Bass, Sunfish, Northern Pike and others. Crooked Lake, Clear Lake, Little Portage Lake, Mill Lake, Sugarloaf Lake, Doyle Lake, Merkle Lake, Mud Lake, the Winnewana Impoundment are among the eleven bodies of water found in the park. Clear Lake, Doyle Lake, Little Portage Lake and Merkle Lake are accessible by foot only by crossing state land.

Fishing piers are located on Big Crooked lakes. Sugarloaf Lake has state owned access limited to campers and a owned access site. Public boat launches are located on the following lakes: Big Portage, Green, Mill and Walsh; the Winnewana Impoundment provides a boat landing. The launch site at Big Portage Lake meets ADAAG standards for universal accessibility. Boats may be rented by visitors at Big Portage Lake from the park; the Gerald E. Eddy Discovery Center features exhibits on the geology and natural habitats of Waterloo State Recreation Area, both in pre-settler times and today. Another display shows fluted spear points used by the Paleo-Indian hunters and other cultural history artifacts. There is interactive exhibits and computer games; the center hosts special programs for school groups. In 2015, the Potowatomi Mountain Bike association began building a mountain bike trail through the recreation area with the assistance of the Michigan DNR; the trail was named the DTE Energy Foundation Trail in response to the large donation provided by DTE towards its construction.

20 miles of trail have been built as of 2019, with a final segment still planned pending additional funding. Waterloo-Pinckney Trail Waterloo Recreation Area Michigan Department of Natural Resources Gerald E. Eddy Discovery Center Michigan DNR Waterloo Recreation Area Protected Planet

Juan (footballer, born 1979)

Juan Silveira dos Santos known as Juan, is a Brazilian retired footballer who played as a central defender. Having begun his career with Flamengo, he spent a decade playing in Europe in service of Bayer Leverkusen and Roma before returning to Brazil with Internacional in 2012. Juan scored seven international goals for Brazil, he represented the nation at two FIFA World Cups, three FIFA Confederations Cups and three Copa América tournaments, winning two apiece of the latter two events. Juan played for six years for Flamengo in Brazil. In 2002, he moved to Bayer Leverkusen, he played five years in Germany scoring ten goals for Bayer. In 2007, he moved to Roma for €6.3 million. Juan played for Roma between 2007 and 2012. In all competitions for Roma he scored 11 goals in more than 140 appearances. With Roma he won one Coppa Supercoppa Italiana, he was a first-choice centre-back for Roma, wore the number four jersey. Juan scored his first goal for Roma against Reggina on 16 September 2007. In the 2011–12 season, he played alongside Gabriel Heinze.

He scored his seventh goal for Roma in a 5–1 win over Cesena on 21 January 2012. He scored again in Roma's 4–2 loss Cagliari in Sardinia, followed by his third goal of the season, the opening goal, in Roma's 4–0 demolition of Internazionale at the Stadio Olimpico, he scored nine goals for Roma during his time there. On 16 July 2012, Roma and Juan agreed to cancel his contract by mutual consent, set to end on 30 June 2013. On the same day, Juan signed a two-year contract with the club of Porto Alegre Internacional, with a one-year option. On 11 November 2015, Juan and Internacional agreed to cancel his contract by mutual consent a month on 8 December 2015, Juan confirmed his return to Flamengo. Juan announced his retirement after winning the 2019 Campeonato Carioca and played his farewell match on 27 April 2019, in Flamengo's 3–1 win over Cruzeiro. Juan played on Brazil's Copa América-winning teams in 2004 and 2007 winning the FIFA Confederations Cup in 2005 and 2009, he scored the winning goal in the penalty shootout at the end of the 2004 Copa América Final against Argentina in Lima.

In the quarter-finals of the same competition in 2007, he opened the scoring in a 6–1 thrashing of Chile in Puerto La Cruz. On 28 June 2010, Juan scored the first goal against Chile with a headed finish from a corner as Brazil won 3–0 to advance to the quarter-finals of the 2010 FIFA World Cup; as of match played 28 April 2019. FlamengoCopa Mercosur: 1999 Copa de Oro: 1996 Campeonato Carioca: 1996, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2017, 2019 Copa dos Campeões: 2001RomaCoppa Italia: 2008 Supercoppa Italiana: 2007InternacionalCampeonato Gaúcho: 2013, 2014, 2015 BrazilCopa América: 2004, 2007 FIFA Confederations Cup: 2005, 2009 Lunar New Year Cup: 2005 kicker Bundesliga Team of the Season: 2003–04 Leverkusen who's who