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Die Fledermaus

Die Fledermaus is an operetta composed by Johann Strauss II to a German libretto by Karl Haffner and Richard Genée. The original literary source for Die Fledermaus was Das Gefängnis, a farce by German playwright Julius Roderich Benedix that premiered in Berlin in 1851. On 10 September 1872, a three-act French vaudeville play by Henri Meilhac and Ludovic Halévy, Le Réveillon, loosely based on the Benedix farce, opened at the Théâtre du Palais-Royal. Meilhac and Halévy had provided several successful libretti for Offenbach and Le Réveillon formed the basis for the 1926 silent film So This Is Paris, directed by Ernst Lubitsch. Meilhac and Halévy's play was soon translated into German by Karl Haffner, at the instigation of Max Steiner, as a non-musical play for production in Vienna; the French custom of a New Year's Eve réveillon, or supper party, was not considered to provide a suitable setting for the Viennese theatre, so it was decided to substitute a ball for the réveillon. Haffner's translation was passed to the playwright and composer Richard Genée, who had provided some of the lyrics for Strauss's Der Karneval in Rom the year before, he completed the libretto.

The operetta premiered on 5 April 1874 at the Theater an der Wien in Vienna and has been part of the regular repertoire since:It was performed in New York under Rudolf Bial at the Stadt Theatre on 21 November 1874. The German première took place at Munich's Gärtnerplatztheater in 1875. Die Fledermaus was sung in English at London's Alhambra Theatre on 18 December 1876, with its score modified by Hamilton Clarke; when the operetta came to Paris in 1877 at the Théâtre de la Renaissance, as La Tzigane, with Ismaël and Zulma Bouffar in the cast, it was not a success. The first London performance in German did not take place until 1895. According to the archivist of the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden, "Twenty years after its production as a lyric opera in Vienna, Mahler raised the artistic status of Strauss's work by producing it at the Hamburg Opera House all the leading opera houses in Europe, notably Vienna and Munich, have brightened their regular repertoire by including it for occasional performance."The role of Eisenstein was written for a tenor but is now sung by a baritone.

The role of Orlofsky is a trouser role performed by a mezzo-soprano, sometimes by a countertenor and – an octave lower – by a tenor. The party of Act II allows productions to insert a variety of additional entertainment acts, such as music, comedy, or dance; the lengthy drunken soliloquy by Frosch in Act III permits variety in performance. Eisenstein's apartment Gabriel von Eisenstein, a Viennese man-about-town, has been sentenced to eight days in prison for insulting an official due to the incompetence of his attorney, Dr. Blind. Adele, Eisenstein's maid, receives a forged letter from her sister, in the company of the ballet, but written by Falke, inviting her to Prince Orlofsky's ball, she pretends the letter says that her aunt is sick, asks her mistress Rosalinde for an evening off. Falke, Eisenstein's friend, arrives to invite him to the ball. Together, they recall a practical joke which Eisenstein played on Falke a few years ago, for which Falke is secretly planning a light-hearted revenge in kind.

Eisenstein bids farewell to Adele and his wife Rosalinde, pretending he is going to prison but intending to postpone jail for one day and have fun at the ball. After Eisenstein leaves, Rosalinde is visited by her former lover, the singing teacher Alfred, who serenades her. Frank, the governor of the prison, arrives to take Eisenstein to jail, finds Alfred instead. In order not to compromise Rosalinde, Alfred agrees to pretend to be Eisenstein and to accompany Frank. A summer house in the Villa Orlofsky It transpires that Falke, with Prince Orlofsky's permission, is using the ball as a way of getting revenge on Eisenstein; some time before, after a costume-party, Eisenstein had abandoned Falke drunk and dressed in a bat-costume, in the center of town, exposing him to ridicule the next day. As part of his scheme, Falke has invited Frank and Rosalinde to come the ball, all concealing their identities as well. Rosalinde pretends to be a masked Hungarian countess, Eisenstein goes by the name "Marquis Renard," Frank is "Chevalier Chagrin," and Adele, who has borrowed one of Rosalinde's dresses without permission, pretends she is an actress.

The ball is in progress and the Prince welcomes his guests. Eisenstein is introduced to Adele, but is confused as to who she is because of her striking resemblance to his maid.. Frank arrives, he and Eisenstein

Michael Kidner

Michael James Kidner was a pioneer of Op art in the mid-1960s from Kettering, England. Michael Kidner was one of its earliest and most consistent exponents and it was in these overlapping fields of optical effect and systemic structure that he was to find the creative substance, to sustain his whole career. A Constructivist by inclination his interest in mathematics and wave theories informed an art, both rational and intuitive. Without losing his rigorous, intellectual approach, Kidner manages to make his work resonate emotionally. Throughout his life he retained an interest in unpredictable world events that provoked unplanned elements within his work but he somehow managed to intimate an underlying order through his use of form and colour. Unless you read a painting as a feeling you don't get anything at all Kidner was born in Kettering, the son of an industrialist and was one of 6 children, he was educated at Bedales progressive school and in 1939 he went to Cambridge to read History and Anthropology, before studying Landscape Architecture at Ohio state university.

He was staying with his older sister and her American husband in the USA when war broke out in Europe. Unable to return home he joined the Canadian army for 5 years, he was subsequently posted to England and after D Day saw active service in France in the Canadian Royal Corps of Signals. Post demobilisation in 1946, he enrolled at Goldsmiths University to study for a National Diploma in Art and Design; however he left after only 3 months. From 1947 – 50, Kidner taught at Pitlochry Prep school in Perthshire and it was here that he started to paint as a hobby. In 1949 he married his wife Marion Frederick an American actress. From 1951 to 1952 he became a theatre designer in Barnstaple whilst continuing to paint. During a painting holiday in the south of France he met André Lhote who introduced him to Cubism and encouraged him to move to Paris and become a full-time painter, he travelled to Paris in 1953. After 2 years he returned to North Devon where his brother was practising as a GP. Here Kidner painted abstract landscapes rather in the spirit of the St Ives School.

Subsequently he moved to St Ives for several months where he became acquainted with Trevor Bell, Roger Hilton, Terry Frost, Patrick Heron, Peter Lanyon and others in the group. On moving to London in 1957, Kidner was introduced to The New American Painting exhibition at the Tate Gallery where he saw the Abstract Expressionism of Jackson Pollock, Willem de Kooning. Somewhat Kidner was influenced by Mark Rothko's Colour field paintings; these inspired his After Image paintings and reliefs, executed between 1957 and 1962. Another defining experience was a course in 1959 run by Victor Pasmore and Harry Thubron which alerted him to the Bauhaus derived ideas of colour; this led him towards a more objective use of colour that stimulated a new, radical approach to his painting. Kidner's first solo exhibition was held at St Hilda's college, Oxford in 1959 where he showed his After Image paintings; however it was not until 1965 that he became recognised as a pioneer of Op Art following the publicity surrounding the exhibition called The Responsive Eye organised by William Seitz at the Museum of Modern Art in New York.

Both Kidner and Bridget Riley's work were included. Kidner was to teach at numerous art schools, including Bath Academy of Art and Chelsea College of Art. In 1978 he was invited by the artist Stass Paraskos to be an artist-in-residence at the Cyprus College of Art arts centre in Paphos on the island of Cyprus. Kidner said that "Optics presents a challenge, once offered by perspective", he was referring to the examination of visual perception in the science of linear perspective developed by Leon Battista Alberti and other Renaissance artists in the 15th century. Kidner was interested in the work of Seurat and the Neo Impressionists who had investigated the connection between the retina and the brain regarding colour perception, as seen in their Pointillist paintings. Rothko's Colour Field abstractions led Kidner to see colour as "pure sensation". For example in his Moving Green 1959 the colours seem to float in an atmospheric colour relief in front of the canvas. On gazing at the colour field, the eye moves from the green to the red area and a bright, red spot or after image produced by the retina appears in the field.

Kidner's After Image works became hard edged with flat uniform patterns, when he realised that optical activity producing shimmer is decreased by brushy paintwork and varied shapes. However After Image became too limited for Kidner, he found that he wanted to approach colour in a more rational way, so he began a series of striped paintings using two alternating colours. By 1963, Kidner had recognised the limitation of 2 colours, the problem of how to introduce a third colour was solved for him in an article on the Moire effect in the Scientific American; this effect was first discovered in Japanese silks, when the material was folded, optical patterns and colours floated above the actual patterns and colour of the material. This method produced a dramatic effect when Kidner crossed 2 colour bands with a third at a slight angle, resulting in a new pattern, with a wave like vertical image hovering into view producing an intense optical dazzle; the appearance of the wave captivated Kidner and wave theory became his obsession as he realised that a wave pattern produces many more possibilities than straight lines because waves can be put in or out of phase.

As well as optical effects he was interested in distinguishing form from colour. He applied 3 colours to 4 forms in rotation so that no form could be iden


Namilyango is a hill in Mukono District in south-central Uganda. The hill rises 1,220 metres above sea level; the name "Namilyango" is applied to the village that occupies the hill and the schools and churches that are located there. Namilyango is located 20 kilometres, by road, east of Kampala, Uganda's capital and largest city, its location is 7 kilometres, by road, southwest of Mukono, the district headquarters, about 3.2 kilometres, by road, south of the township of Seeta. The coordinates of Namilyango are:0°20'21.0"N, 32°43'05.0"E. Little is known about the history of Namilyango prior to the 20th century. Around 1900, the Mill Hill Missionaries settled on the hill and begun to build Namilyango College, a prestigious middle and high school, intended to educate the sons of chiefs; the college opened in 1902. In 1907, the Headmaster of Namilyango College was given additional responsibilities as Parish Priest of the newly created Namilyango Catholic Parish. However, that arrangement lasted only until 1912.

In 1932, the Franciscan Sisters, under the leadership of Mother Kevin from Ireland, after a request by Bishop Campling the Prelate of Upper Nile Vicariate, opened Namilyango Boys' Junior School. The primary aim of the new school was to establish a special preparatory school which would “feed” students to Namilyango College and other educational institutions. Today Namilyango Junior Boys’ School sends over forty students to Namilyango College annually on merit for secondary education; the following points of interest lie on Namilyango Hill include: Namilyango College - A prestigious, all-boys, secondary school Namilyango Junior Boys' School - A private, all-boys, primary school Namilyango Primary School - A public, non-residential, mixed primary school Namilyango Senior Secondary School - A public non-residential, mixed secondary school Namilyango Parish Church - A place of worship affiliated with the Catholic Church, administered by the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Kampala. Mukono District Namilyango College Central Region, Uganda Overview of Namilyango College The Unique Architecture of Namilyango College Buildings

Rhythm and Blue Jean Baby

"Rhythm and Blue Jean Baby" is a song, written and produced by Lynsey de Paul, released in July 1975 as her third single on the newly designed yellow Jet Record label in the UK, as a follow up to the hit single "My Man and Me". It was released on Polydor in Belgium and Germany; the release of the single was announced in the American music industry magazine Cashbox. The song as well as the lyrics and credits are listed on the Italian music resource "Rockol"; the single received favourable reviews, including from DJ and music journalist James Hamilton who, in his first column for Record Mirror, wrote "With a bass line not unlike ‘Bend Me Shape Me’ and some sexy stop/starts, Lynsey makes straight happy pop noises that sound fine to me". It was reported to be a dance floor hit according to a reaction report; the song reached no. 16 on the Poporama Swedish chart, it reached no. 30 and spent two weeks on Capital London Radio's "Capital Countdown chart" on 12 July 1975. It was included on the "Disco Top Ten" as a breaker published in the British music industry paper Record Mirror.

De Paul performed the song live on BBC TV's Top of the Pops on 17 July 1975, with the show being presented by Dave Lee Travis. The show was thought to have been lost from the BBC archives, but was tracked down in 2013 and found to be in the private collection of record producer and songwriter Ian Levine, along with performances by Elton John, Marc Bolan and T. Rex, Barry White, Diana Ross and various Pan's People appearances, it was the 10th song of this episode, being preceded by David Essex and being followed by Typically Tropical. This version of the song suffered from part of the backing music being omitted. De Paul performed the song, unusually sat on a motorbike, rather than at her more usual piano on the Bay City Rollers show Shang a Lang on 7 July 1975, she performed the song as a special international guest on German TV's Die aktuelle Schaubude, where she played it on a gold upright piano. Although a non-album single, it was released for the first time on CD on the de Paul album, Greatest Hits, has since appeared on a number of CD albums such as Best of the Seventies.

More it appeared with an additional backing track, giving it a fuller sound, on Into My Music Anthology 1975-1979, where the B-side "Into My Music" was included as an album track for the first time. Both songs recently appeared on the MP3 album Singles Collection 1974-1979."Rhythm and Blue Jean Baby" was used as backing music for Karlie Kloss at the Sonia Rykiel Spring/Summer 2008 Fashion Show in Paris. It still receives radio play for example on the German programme "Musik á la Carte". "ISNI 0000000065685048 De Paul, Lynsey". Retrieved 17 August 2018. "Release group "Rhythm and Blue Jean Baby" by Lynsey de Paul - MusicBrainz". Retrieved 17 August 2018

Ecuador TV

Ecuador TV is the public service channel of Ecuador established in October 2007 thanks to a provision of non-reimbursable funds of $5 million of the Economic and Social Development Bank of Venezuela. The channel was established at the same time as the installation of the Ecuadorian Constituent Assembly so that the sessions could be transmitted live to all the country; the channel transmits content by independent national and international producers and documentaries and news programs from several international producing properties such as Discovery, TVE, BBC, Deutsche Welle, Voice of America, ViVe and teleSUR. The channel operates as a public service company and broadcasts news and opinion content from several countries, including the United States; the Venezuelan government described its monetary contribution to the creation of the channel as "a caring and selfless contribution of Venezuela as part of the policy of international cooperation in the region that drives the government of President Hugo Chávez".

Public News Agency of Ecuador and South America Official site Presidency of Ecuador official site

H. C. Witwer

Harry Charles Witwer, more known as H. C. Witwer, was an American short-story author; some 60 comedy film shorts were based on his works, most from the mid-1920s to 1930, the year after Witwer's death. Witwer was born on March 11, 1890, in Athens and attended Saint Joseph's College in Philadelphia, he worked in odd jobs—errand boy for a butcher, prize fighter manager, a soda jerk on Broadway—for a time before starting to write for newspapers, counting the St. Cloud Tribune and New York City newspapers Brooklyn Eagle, the New York American, the New York Mail, The Sun as employers. In 1912, he married Zada "Sadie" Schagrin of New York, his first recorded film contribution at the Internet Movie Database was writing intertitles for the 1916 silent film Where D'Ye Get That Stuff?. In 1917—during World War I—he was sent to France by Collier's magazine as a war correspondent, he wrote for McClure's in this time period. By the early 1920s, Witwer's works were starting to be filmed, with nearly 30 film credits recorded by the IMDB by 1925.

In May 1925, his income was more than that of Ring Lardner. Witwer is credited with producing ten shorts beginning in 1925, but he was most active as a writer, receiving writing credits for 30 more short films after 1925. In the mid-1920s, Witwer collaborated on two newspaper comic strips. In 1924, he began the strip Samson and Delia with Tim Early and Paul Robinson, which ran for two years. In 1925, he created Switchboard Sally with Wesley Morse. Witwer relocated to California in 1926 to regain his health, which he did, remaining in good health until he fell ill in May 1929. Witwer sued Harold Lloyd in April 1929 for $2,300,000 over Lloyd's 1925 film The Freshman, claiming that it was "pirated" from Witwer's short story "The Emancipation of Rodney", first published in 1915. By the time Witwer died from liver failure in Los Angeles, on August 9, 1929, the lawsuit had not been settled. Witwer's widow pursued the lawsuit and won a judgement against Lloyd in November 1930. On appeal, the United States Court of Appeals overturned the ruling and Witwer's widow received nothing.

Most notable during his lifetime for his baseball and boxing stories, Witwer wrote some 400 stories and articles for magazines and some 125 film treatments throughout his career. In a 1999 review of an anthology of boxing short stories, which included Witwer's "The Chickasha Bone Crusher", reviewer Sybil S. Steinberg praised the "near-forgotten" Witwer, calling him one of "America's wittiest idiomatic stylists". From Baseball to Boches Alex the Great Arthur William Brown A Smile a Minute Best College Humor, introduction Kid Scanlan The Leather Pushers The Rubyiat of a Freshman There's No Base Like Home Fighting Back Love and Learn: The Story of a Telephone Girl Who Loved Not Too Well But Wisely Bill Grimm's Progress Roughly Speaking The Classics in Slang Yes Man's Land Works by H. C. Witwer at Project Gutenberg Works by or about H. C. Witwer at Internet Archive H. C. Witwer on IMDb Sample panel from Witwer's comic strip Switchboard Sally Sample panel from Witwer's comic strip Samson and Delia