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Die Walküre

Die Walküre, WWV 86B is the second of the four music dramas that constitute Richard Wagner's Der Ring des Nibelungen. It was performed, as a single opera, at the National Theatre Munich on 26 June 1870, received its first performance as part of the Ring cycle at the Bayreuth Festspielhaus on 14 August 1876; as the Ring cycle was conceived by Wagner in reverse order of performance, Die Walküre was the penultimate of the four texts to be written, although Wagner composed the music in performance-sequence. The text was completed by July 1852, the music by March 1856. Wagner followed the principles related to the form of musical drama which he had set out in his 1851 essay Opera and Drama under which the music would interpret the text reflecting the feelings and moods behind the work, using a system of recurring leitmotifs to represent people and situations rather than the conventional operatic units of arias and choruses. Wagner showed flexibility in the application of these principles here in Act 3 when the Valkyries engage in frequent ensemble singing.

As with Das Rheingold, Wagner wished to defer any performance of the new work until it could be shown in the context of the completed cycle, but the 1870 Munich premiere was arranged at the insistence of his patron, King Ludwig II of Bavaria. More than the other Ring dramas, Die Walküre has achieved some popularity as a stand-alone work, continues to be performed independently from its role in the tetralogy; the story of Die Walküre is based on the Norse mythology told in the Volsunga Saga and the Poetic Edda. In this version the Volsung twins Sieglinde and Siegmund, separated in childhood and fall in love; this union angers the gods. Sieglinde and the couple's unborn child are saved by the defiant actions of Wotan's daughter, the title character, Valkyrie Brünnhilde, who as a result faces the gods' retribution. Wagner began work on what became his Ring project in October 1848 when he prepared a prose outline for Siegfried's Death, based on the legendary hero of Germanic myth. During the following months he developed the outline into libretto.

After his flight to Switzerland in May 1849, Wagner continued to expand his project, having decided that a single work would not suffice for his purposes. He would therefore create a series of music dramas, each telling a stage of the story, basing the narrative on a combination of myth and imagination. In 1851 he outlined his purposes in his essay "A Communication to My Friends": "I propose to produce my myth in three complete dramas, preceded by a lengthy Prelude"; each of these dramas would, he said, constitute an independent whole, but would not be performed separately. "At a specially-appointed Festival, I propose, some future time, to produce those three Dramas with their Prelude, in the course of three days and a fore-evening". In accordance with this scheme Wagner preceded Siegfried's Death (later Götterdämmerung with the story of Siegfried's youth, Young Siegfried renamed Siegfried; this was in turn preceded by Die Walküre, dealing with Siegfried's origins, the whole tetralogy being fronted by a prologue, Das Rheingold.

Because Wagner prepared his texts in reverse chronological sequence, Die Walküre was the third of the dramas to be conceived and written, but appears second in the tetralogy. During the lengthy time that has passed since the gods entered Valhalla at the end of Das Rheingold, Fafner has used the Tarnhelm to assume the form of a dragon, guards the gold and the ring in the depths of the forest. Wotan has visited Erda seeking wisdom, by her has fathered a daughter, Brünnhilde. These, with Brünnhilde, are the Valkyries, whose task is to recover heroes fallen in battle and bring them to Valhalla, where they will protect the fortress from Alberich's assault should the dwarf recover the ring. Wotan has wandered the earth, with a woman of the Völsung race has fathered the twins Siegmund and Sieglinde, who have grown up separately and unaware of each other. From the Völsungs Wotan hopes for a hero who, unencumbered by the gods' treaties, will obtain the ring from Fafner; as a storm rages, Siegmund finds shelter from his enemies in a large dwelling built around a massive ash-tree.

Unarmed and wounded, he collapses with exhaustion. Sieglinde enters; as they talk, they look at each other with growing emotion. Siegmund gets ready to leave, telling Sieglinde that misfortune follows him and he does not want to bring it on her. Hunding returns, questions Siegmund's presence. Calling himself Wehwalt, Siegmund explains that he grew up in the forest with his parents and twin sister. One day he found their home burned down, his mother killed and his sister gone, he fought with the relatives of a girl being forced into marriage. His weapons were destroyed, the bride was killed, he was forced to flee. Hunding reveals. Before leaving, Sieglinde gives a meaningful glance to a particular spot on the tree in which, the firelight reveals, a sword is buried to the hilt. Sieglinde returns, she reveals that she was forced into the marriage and that during their wedding feast, an old man appeared and plunged a sword into the trunk of the ash tree which neither Hunding nor any of his companions have been able to remov

Adelaide Symphony Orchestra

The Adelaide Symphony Orchestra has a reputation for vitality and versatility. The internationally acclaimed orchestra is South Australia's largest performing arts organization, established in 1936. For over 80 years, the ASO has been there to corroborate life and contribute to South Australia's identity. Today the ASO plays a major role in Adelaide's cultural and economic vibrancy, enriches the community through more than 70 world-class performances to more than 90,000 diverse concertgoers each season. Delivering diverse and colourful programming with leading international and Australian musicians, it has enjoyed hugely successful performances with artists such as The Angels, Ben Folds, Tim Minchin and the Hilltop Hoods. Based in Adelaide, South Australia, its primary performance venue is the Adelaide Town Hall, but the ASO performs in other venues such as the Adelaide Festival Centre, Adelaide Entertainment Centre, Elder Hall at the University of Adelaide and its own Grainger Studio. The ASO provides the orchestral support for all productions of the State Opera of South Australia, as well as the Adelaide performances of the Australian Ballet.

The orchestra is a regular featured ensemble at the Adelaide Festival, appears as part of the Adelaide Cabaret Festival, OzAsia Festival, Adelaide Guitar Festival and WOMAdelaide. In 1936 the South Australian Orchestra was supplanted by the 50-member Adelaide Symphony Orchestra led by William Cade, sponsored by the Australian Broadcasting Commission; the orchestra reformed in 1949 as the 55-member South Australian Symphony Orchestra, with Henry Krips as its resident conductor. The orchestra reverted to its original title, the Adelaide Symphony Orchestra, in late 1975, comprises 75 permanent members. Chief conductors of the orchestra have included Elyakum Shapirra, Piero Gamba, Albert Rosen, Nicholas Braithwaite, David Porcelijn and Arvo Volmer; the ASO's current Principal Conductor is Nicholas Carter, who began in the position in 2016. Nicholas is the youngest Principal Conductor in the orchestra's history, the first Australian conductor to be appointed to a Principal Conductor position with a major Australian orchestra in 30 years.

In 2016 the Adelaide Symphony Orchestra formed its first Artistic Leadership Team, comprising its new Artist in Association, violinist Pinchas Zukerman, Principal Guest Conductor and Artistic Advisor, Sir Jeffrey Tate, the orchestra's own Principal Conductor, Nicholas Carter. In 2018 the orchestra's Artistic Leadership Team evolved to include young violinist and the orchestra's new Emerging Artist in Association, Grace Clifford, Australian composer and the orchestra's new Composer in Association, Cathy Milliken, British conductor and the orchestra's new Principal Guest Conductor, Mark Wigglesworth. In 2019 the Artistic Leadership Team includes five members – Pinchas Zukerman, Cathy Milliken, Grace Clifford, Nicholas Carter and Mark Wigglesworth; the ASO's highlights have included its 1998 performances of Richard Wagner's Ring Cycle, the first Australian production since 1913. The orchestra participated in the first Australian production of The Ring in 2004. In 2017 the orchestra was central in the Adelaide Festival's staging of Barrie Kosky's Saul – a production from Glyndebourne Opera in the UK, again in 2018 for the Adelaide Festival's Glyndebourne Opera production and Australian premiere of composer Brett Dean's new opera, Hamlet.

These performances were received with critical acclaim and numerous Helpmann Awards. In 2007, the orchestra partnered with Hilltop Hoods to prepare a re-orchestrated release of their album The Hard Road, titled The Hard Road: Restrung. In 2015 the Hilltop Hoods collaborated for a second time with the 32-piece Adelaide Symphony Orchestra and the 20-piece Adelaide Chamber Singers Choir for their next re-orchestrated album titled Drinking from the Sun, Walking Under Stars Restrung. In February 2016, the Hilltop Hoods released their second album of reworked songs featuring the Adelaide Symphony Orchestra, Drinking from the Sun, Walking under Stars Restrung, which debuted at #1 in the charts. In 2009 Premier and Arts Minister Mike Rann proposed and provided government funding to the ASO to commission a major orchestral work about climate change; the ASO's world premiere of Gerard Brophy's'The Blue Thread', inspired by the River Murray, was performed at the Concert for the Earth at the Adelaide Town Hall on 27 November 2010.

The Rann government proposed and arranged funding for two further ASO commissions, the first an orchestral tribute to the cricketer Sir Donald Bradman, the second commemorating the centenary of the ANZAC landings at Gallipoli. The world premiere of'Our Don' by Natalie Williams was performed by the ASO in August 2014; the world premiere of an'ANZAC Requiem' by composer Iain Grandage and librettist Kate Mulvany was performed on 22 April 2015. 1996 Tour to China and Singapore 1998 State Opera of South Australia's production of Wagner's Ring Cycle.

Julius (restaurant)

Julius' is a tavern in Manhattan's Greenwich Village neighborhood in New York City, located at 159 West 10th Street at Waverly Place. It is called the oldest continuously operating gay bar in New York City, its management, was unwilling to operate as such, harassed gay customers until 1966. The April 1966 "Sip-In" at Julius, located a block northeast of the Stonewall Inn, established the right of homosexuals to be served in licensed premises in New York; this action helped clear the way for gay premises with state liquor licenses. Newspaper articles on the wall indicate it was the favorite bar of Tennessee Williams, Truman Capote and Rudolf Nureyev. In 2016, it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places. According to bar lore it was established around 1867 – the same year as the Jacob Ruppert Brewery in the Yorkville neighborhood. Per the current owner, the establishment opened in 1864. Barrels stamped. Vintage photos of racing horses and actors are on the wall include drawings of burlesque girls as well as an image signed by Walter Winchell saying that he loves Julius.

The bar became a popular watering hole in the 1930s and 1940s due to its proximity to the jazz club Nick's in the Village. By the late 1950s, it was attracting gay patrons. At the time the New York State Liquor Authority had a rule that ordered bars not to serve liquor to the disorderly, homosexuals per se were considered "disorderly." Bartenders would evict known homosexuals or order them not to face other customers in order to avoid cruising. Despite this, gay men continued to be a large part of the clientele into the early 1960s, the management of Julius, steadfastly unwilling for it to become a gay bar, continued to harass them. On April 21, 1966 members of the New York Chapter of the Mattachine Society staged a "Sip-In" at the bar, to change the legal landscape. Dick Leitsch, Craig Rodwell, the society's president and vice president and another society activist, John Timmons, planned to draw attention to the practice by identifying themselves as homosexuals before ordering a drink in order to bring court scrutiny to the regulation.

The three were going to read from Mattachine stationary. We are orderly, we intend to remain orderly, we are asking for service." The three first targeted the Ukrainian-American Village Restaurant at St. Mark's Place and Third Avenue in the East Village, Manhattan which had a sign, "If you are gay, please go away." The three showed up after a New York Times reporter had asked a manager about the protest and the manager had closed the restaurant for the day. Second, they target a bar called Dom's, closed, they targeted a Howard Johnson's and a bar called Waikiki where they were served in spite of the note with a bartender saying "How do I know they're homosexual? They ain't doing nothing homosexual." Frustrated, they went to Julius, where a clergyman had been arrested a few days earlier for soliciting sex. A sign in the window read, "This is a raided premises." The bartender started preparing them a drink but put his hand over the glass, photographed. The New York Times ran the headline "3 Deviates Invite Exclusion by Bars" the next day.

The Mattachine Society challenged the liquor rule in court and the courts ruled that gays had a right to peacefully assemble, which undercut the previous SLA contention that the presence of gay clientele automatically was grounds for charges of operating a "disorderly" premise. With this right established a new era of licensed operating gay bars began; the bar now holds. Scenes from the movie Boys in the Band were shot at the bar. Julius was the site of a scene shot in the movie Next Stop, Greenwich Village; the scene included Christopher Walken. In August 2007, the bar was closed after being seized for non-payment of taxes. Julius was the site of a scene in Ira Sachs' gay indie movie Love; the scene included Alfred Molina. The wrap party took place at the bar. Julius was featured prominently in the 2018 film Can You Ever Forgive Me?, starring Melissa McCarthy and Richard E. Grant. In 2012, in response to research and a request from the Greenwich Village Society for Historic Preservation, the New York State Division for Historic Preservation determined Julius eligible for listing on the National Register of Historic Places.

The letter of eligibility stated, "The building meets the criteria for listing in the area of social history for its association with the LGBT civil rights movement." It mentioned that the building's interior "remains remarkably intact from the 1966 era of significance." It was listed in 2016. The Julius's denial of service was dramatized in the film Stonewall. However, filmmakers moved the denial of service from Julius to the Stonewall Inn. List of pre-Stonewall LGBT actions in the United States National Register of Historic Places listings in Manhattan below 14th Street Official website Julius': NYC LGBT Historic Sites Project

John Alexander Ahl

John Alexander Ahl was a surgeon, real estate developer, paper mill and iron furnace operator, railroad executive and United States Congressman from Pennsylvania. He was born in Strasburg, Pennsylvania in 1813, he studied medicine at the University of Maryland, graduated in 1832. He moved to Centerville, where he practiced medicine through 1856; that year, he began in the real estate business, bought a paper mill in Newville and served as a delegate to the 1856 Democratic National Convention in Cincinnati. He was elected to the United States House of Representatives in 1857, leaving upon the completion of his first term, he manufactured paper and operated an iron furnace in Sharpsburg, Maryland. He served as the planner and the major builder of the Harrisburg and Potomac Railroad, he died in Newville in 1882, is buried in Big Spring Presbyterian Cemetery. Who Was Who in America: Historical Volume, 1607-1896. Chicago: Marquis Who's Who, 1963; the Political GraveyardUnited States Congress. "John Alexander Ahl".

Biographical Directory of the United States Congress

Lee Dorsey

Irving Lee Dorsey was an American pop and R&B singer during the 1960s. His biggest hits were "Ya Ya" and "Working in the Coal Mine". Much of his work was produced with instrumental backing provided by The Meters. Born in New Orleans, Dorsey was a childhood friend of Fats Domino before moving to Portland, Oregon when he was ten years old, he served in the United States Navy in World War II and began a career in prizefighting. Boxing as a lightweight in Portland in the early 1950s, he fought under the name Kid Chocolate and was reasonably successful, he retired from boxing in 1955 and returned to New Orleans, where he opened an auto repair business as well as singing in clubs at night. His first recording was "Rock Pretty Baby/Lonely Evening" on Cosimo Mattasa's Rex label, in 1958; this was followed by the Allen Toussaint-produced "Lottie Mo/Lover of Love", for the small Valiant label in late 1960. These efforts were unsuccessful, but around 1960 he was discovered by A&R man Marshall Sehorn, who secured him a contract with Fury Records, owned by Bobby Robinson.

After meeting songwriter and record producer Allen Toussaint at a party, he recorded "Ya Ya", a song inspired by a group of children chanting nursery rhymes. It went to number seven on the Billboard Hot 100 in 1961, sold over one million copies, was awarded a gold disc. Although the follow-up "Do-Re-Mi" made the charts releases on Fury were not successful. Dorsey returned to running his repair business, but released singles on the Smash and Constellation labels in 1963 and 1964, he was approached again by Toussaint, recorded Toussaint's song "Ride Your Pony" for the Amy label, a subsidiary of Bell Records. The song reached no.7 on the R&B chart in late 1965, he followed it up with "Get Out of My Life, Woman", "Working in the Coal Mine" – his biggest pop hit – and "Holy Cow", all of which made the pop charts in both the US and the UK. Dorsey toured internationally, recorded an album with Toussaint, The New Lee Dorsey in 1966. In 1970 Dorsey and Toussaint collaborated on the album, it was a hit for the Pointer Sisters under the title, "Yes We Can Can".

With declining sales, Dorsey returned to his auto repair business. In 1976 Dorsey appeared on the album I Don't Want to Go Home by Southside Johnny and the Asbury Jukes, which led to more recordings on his own with ABC Records, including the album Night People. In 1980, he opened for English punk band The Clash on their US concert tour, toured in support of James Brown and Jerry Lee Lewis. Dorsey contracted emphysema and died on December 1, 1986, in New Orleans, at the age of 61. Dorsey's songs have been covered by artists as diverse as Johnny Hallyday and Devo. "Ya Ya" was covered on John Lennon's Roll album. "Get Out of My Life, Woman" was performed by the Byrds, the Jerry Garcia Band predated the boom bap beat of the 90s Hip Hop. His version of the Allen Toussaint song "Everything I Do Gonh Be Funky" is referenced in the Beastie Boys' song "Sure Shot", with the lyric "Everything I do is funky like Lee Dorsey." "Ya Ya" was spoken by Cheech Marin in Cheech and Chong's Next Movie, as he was waiting for his girlfriend.

On June 25, 2019, The New York Times Magazine listed Lee Dorsey among hundreds of artists whose material was destroyed in the 2008 Universal fire. Ya Ya Ride Your Pony - Get Out of My Life Woman The New Lee Dorsey - Working in the Coalmine Yes We Can Night People All Ways Funky Everything I Do Gohn Be Funky List of soul musicians List of R&B musicians List of people from New Orleans, Louisiana List of performers on Top of the Pops Lee Dorsey at Find a Grave

The Bottom Half

The Bottom Half is the fifth album from progressive rock group Umphrey's McGee recorded during the band's 2005/2006 sessions of their previous studio effort Safety in Numbers. The first disc contains complete songs that were left off the Safety in Numbers album, while the second disc features demos, b-sides from the sessions. Like the previous album, the artwork was done by Storm Thorgerson; the first single from the album is "Bright Lights, Big City," written by Mother Vinegar frontman Karl Engelmann, a member of Ali Baba's Tahini with Umphrey's guitarist Jake Cinninger. The album was released on April 3, 2007; the Bottom Half Bright Lights, Big City Great American Higgins Sir Higgins Memories of Home Atmosfarag Red Room Intentions Clear Home Divisions Words Great American / Believe the Lie Believe the Lie Time Eater Never Cease Rocker Ready Noodles Higgins The Heart of Rock'N' Roll Fresh Start The Browning Special Ocean Billy Intentions Clear What Else? Alex's House End of the Road Red Room Disco Rocco WWS The Weight Around Liquid Atmosfarag Words Memories of Home Browning Family Creed Biscuits & Gravy Words Words The sleeve's designer Storm Thorgerson said: "This design was rejected by Jane's Addiction and was resurrected at short notice by a band called Umphrey's McGee from Chicago, God bless'em.

We had completed the design despite rejection from Jane's, UM needed something in a hurry and thought this suitable for their humour and album title, The Bottom Half." Brendan Bayliss - guitar, vocals Jake Cinninger - guitar, synthesizers, vocals Joel Cummins - keyboards, vocals Ryan Stasik - bass guitar Kris Myers - drums, vocals Andy Farag - percussion Béla Fleck - banjo Chris Hoffman - cello Joshua Redman - saxophone