Der Ring des Polykrates (opera)
Der Ring des Polykrates, Op. 7, is a one-act opera by Erich Wolfgang Korngold. The libretto, written by Leo Feld and reworked by the composer's father Julius Korngold, is based on a drama by Heinrich Teweles. Korngold composed the opera in 1914; the one-act domestic comedy was contrasted by a one-act tragedy. Both were premiered together on 28 March 1916 at the National Theatre Munich. Bruno Walter conducted and the cast included Karl Erb and Maria Ivogün. Both operas were repeated in Vienna, with Selma Kurz and Alfred Piccaver in Polykrates and Maria Jeritza as Violanta. In November 1916, it was given at the Dresden Hofoper, with Richard Tauber and Elisabeth Rethberg in the leading roles; the librettist Leo Feld placed the story in the 18th century, when Friedrich Schiller's ballade of the same title was new. The musician Wilhelm Arndt seems to have everything going for him: he is married to Laura, he has been appointed Hoffkapellmeister and he has just inherited a small fortune. Only the return of his long-lost friend Peter Vogel could make him more happy.
When Vogel returns, he is jealous of Wilhelm's happiness, convinces him that in order not to challenge fate, he should sacrifice something. Wilhelm starts an argument with his wife about her former life, but the couple's love is strong enough to overcome all difficulties. In the end, all agree that the sacrifice that has to be offered is the intriguer that tried to ruin their happiness: Peter Vogel has to leave again. In 1996 CPO released a 1995 recording, with Klauspeter Seibel conducting the Deutsches Symphonie-Orchester Berlin and singers Beate Bilandzija, Dietrich Henschel and Jürgen Sacher. Opera themes transcribed for piano being popular in the early 20th century, a Potpourri from Der Ring des Polykrates for piano was arranged by L. Ruffin and recorded by Martin Jones in 2001. Specht, Richard. Thematische Führer zu Erich W. Korngold's "Violanta" und "Der Ring des Polykrates". Mainz and Leipzig: B. Schott's Söhne, 1916. Iv, 68 pp
Siegfried Trebitsch was an Austrian playwright, translator and poet. Though prolific as a writer in various genres, he was best known for his German translations of the works of the Irish playwright George Bernard Shaw, with whom he kept up a long and detailed correspondence, he is known for translations of French writers Georges Courteline. Trebitsch was born on 22 December 1868, into a wealthy secular Jewish family, who "taught him nothing of Judaism of Christianity", his brother Arthur Trebitsch, despite his Jewish origin, became a noted Antisemite and early supporter of the Nazis. Siegfried identified himself as a Lutheran, he entered the silk trade business of his stepfather Leopold, where he remained until 1903 when he took a year out for personal study and for travels across Europe and North Africa. While in England he sought out Bernard Shaw, offering to translate his works and help build the playwright's reputation in Europe; this initiated a lengthy correspondence with Shaw that lasted until the Irish writer's death, has since been published.
Trebitsch became the sole German translator of Shaw during his lifetime. Three of Shaw's plays had their world premieres in Trebitsch's German translations. Pygmalion and The Millionairess were both first performed in Vienna, his last full-length play Buoyant Billions was first performed Zürich, to which Trebitsch had moved during World War II. In 1923 Shaw rewarded Trebitsch for his efforts by translating and adapting his play Frau Gitta's Sühne into English, as Jitta's Atonement. Trebitsch cultivated links with French writers, he took up his residence in Vienna, where he built the prestigious "Villa Trebitsch" designed by Ernst Gotthilf. He married in 1907 to the Hungarian Princess Antoinette Engalitscheff, the widow of a Russian Grand Duke, killed in 1904 fighting the Japanese. In the same year he was given honorary citizenship of the Municipality Wigstadtl in Austrian Silesia Kronlande. After World War I this became part of Czechoslovakia, so in 1920 he acquired Czech citizenship. Trebitsch was a close friend of father of Erich Korngold.
He once suggested to him that one of his translations, a play called Die stille Stadt would make a good opera. The play was adapted by his son Erich, who composed the music. Under the title Die tote Stadt it was a major success. Trebitsch's relationship with his brother Arthur had become strained in the years before the First World War. Arthur was unable to replicate his brother's success as a writer, was obsessed with the idea that there were Jewish conspiracies against him. In 1912, he unsuccessfully tried to sue Siegfried and the critic Ferdinand Gregori, who had written a bad review of his short stories. Siegfried had agreed with Gregori, describing Arthur's work as "amateurish" and suggesting that he suffered from "megolamania and paranoia"; the trial resulted in Arthur's public humiliation as the press ridiculed him. Trebitsch's own original works of this period are comparable to those of Franz Werfel, who dominated the Viennese cultural life in the 1930s. In his novels and short stories, he characterized contemporary Austrian society.
He continued to live in Vienna until the 1938 Anschluss, when Austria was absorbed into Nazi Germany. Despite being aware that his Jewish ethnicity would now be a problem for him, according to Blanche Patch, who knew him, he and his wife did not at first react: At first they did not take much notice, but one day, when they were motoring home, they were stopped and their car was confiscated. During the night, they began to hear terrifying sounds, they grew alarmed. As it happened, Herr Trebitsch had arranged to go to Switzerland to lecture, to take his wife with him. Using these passports, they stole out of Vienna one night each carrying a suitcase, succeeded in making the frontier. All their considerable property was seized and Herr Trebitsch's publishers in Berlin disappeared. Trebitsch fled to Paris, where he was awarded an honorary French citizenship in 1939 in recognition of his promotion of French culture in Germany. After the invasion of France in 1940, he moved to Zürich. While there he wrote to Shaw asking him for financial support.
He attempted to raise funds by unsuccessfully claiming royalties for The Chocolate Soldier, a German operetta based on Arms and the Man. Though he was not the translator, he claimed that he had the sole rights to German versions of Shaw, he applied for an immigration visa to the United States in June 1941, as a precaution, but with Allied victory this was unnecessary. He remained in Zurich for the rest of his life. After the war, Trebitsch's house in Vienna was restored to him, but he had no wish to return to Austria, he sold it to the Czechoslovakian embassy. He visited Shaw after the war, but when he planned a second visit in 1948, the irritable Shaw wrote "do not come" writing that European ideas of intimacy were considered "sentimental nonsense" in England. Trebitsch was responsible for the translation and first production of Shaw's last full-length play, Buoyant Billions, first performed in German in Trebitsch's new home, Zürich, under the title Zu viel Geld. In 1951 Trebitsch published an autobiography, Chronik eines Lebens, published in English, translated by Eithne Wilkins and Ernst Kaiser, two years later.
A few years after Shaw's death in 1950, Trebitsch arranged to sell his collection of letters from the playwright. In 1956, after the sale had been arranged, he went to collect the letters. In the words of Samuel A. Weiss, "Trebitsch went to his bank, retrieved the heavy bundle of correspondence, suffered a heart attack. He
Opera is a form of theatre in which music has a leading role and the parts are taken by singers, but is distinct from musical theater. Such a "work" is a collaboration between a composer and a librettist and incorporates a number of the performing arts, such as acting, scenery and sometimes dance or ballet; the performance is given in an opera house, accompanied by an orchestra or smaller musical ensemble, which since the early 19th century has been led by a conductor. Opera is a key part of the Western classical music tradition. Understood as an sung piece, in contrast to a play with songs, opera has come to include numerous genres, including some that include spoken dialogue such as musical theater, Singspiel and Opéra comique. In traditional number opera, singers employ two styles of singing: recitative, a speech-inflected style and self-contained arias; the 19th century saw the rise of the continuous music drama. Opera originated in Italy at the end of the 16th century and soon spread through the rest of Europe: Heinrich Schütz in Germany, Jean-Baptiste Lully in France, Henry Purcell in England all helped to establish their national traditions in the 17th century.
In the 18th century, Italian opera continued to dominate most of Europe, attracting foreign composers such as George Frideric Handel. Opera seria was the most prestigious form of Italian opera, until Christoph Willibald Gluck reacted against its artificiality with his "reform" operas in the 1760s; the most renowned figure of late 18th-century opera is Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, who began with opera seria but is most famous for his Italian comic operas The Marriage of Figaro, Don Giovanni, Così fan tutte, as well as Die Entführung aus dem Serail, The Magic Flute, landmarks in the German tradition. The first third of the 19th century saw the high point of the bel canto style, with Gioachino Rossini, Gaetano Donizetti and Vincenzo Bellini all creating works that are still performed, it saw the advent of Grand Opera typified by the works of Auber and Meyerbeer. The mid-to-late 19th century was a golden age of opera and dominated by Giuseppe Verdi in Italy and Richard Wagner in Germany; the popularity of opera continued through the verismo era in Italy and contemporary French opera through to Giacomo Puccini and Richard Strauss in the early 20th century.
During the 19th century, parallel operatic traditions emerged in central and eastern Europe in Russia and Bohemia. The 20th century saw many experiments with modern styles, such as atonality and serialism and Minimalism. With the rise of recording technology, singers such as Enrico Caruso and Maria Callas became known to much wider audiences that went beyond the circle of opera fans. Since the invention of radio and television, operas were performed on these mediums. Beginning in 2006, a number of major opera houses began to present live high-definition video transmissions of their performances in cinemas all over the world. Since 2009, complete performances are live streamed; the words of an opera are known as the libretto. Some composers, notably Wagner, have written their own libretti. Traditional opera referred to as "number opera", consists of two modes of singing: recitative, the plot-driving passages sung in a style designed to imitate and emphasize the inflections of speech, aria in which the characters express their emotions in a more structured melodic style.
Vocal duets and other ensembles occur, choruses are used to comment on the action. In some forms of opera, such as singspiel, opéra comique and semi-opera, the recitative is replaced by spoken dialogue. Melodic or semi-melodic passages occurring in the midst of, or instead of, are referred to as arioso; the terminology of the various kinds of operatic voices is described in detail below. During both the Baroque and Classical periods, recitative could appear in two basic forms, each of, accompanied by a different instrumental ensemble: secco recitative, sung with a free rhythm dictated by the accent of the words, accompanied only by basso continuo, a harpsichord and a cello. Over the 18th century, arias were accompanied by the orchestra. By the 19th century, accompagnato had gained the upper hand, the orchestra played a much bigger role, Wagner revolutionized opera by abolishing all distinction between aria and recitative in his quest for what Wagner termed "endless melody". Subsequent composers have tended to follow Wagner's example, though some, such as Stravinsky in his The Rake's Progress have bucked the trend.
The changing role of the orchestra in opera is described in more detail below. The Italian word opera means "work", both in the sense of the labour done and the result produced; the Italian word derives from the Latin opera, a singular noun meaning "work" and the plural of the noun opus. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the Italian word was first used in the sense "composition in which poetry and music are combined" in 1639. Dafne by Jacopo Peri was the earliest composition considered opera, it was writt
Théâtre des Champs-Élysées
The Théâtre des Champs-Élysées is a theatre at 15 avenue Montaigne in Paris. The theater is named not after the Avenue des Champs-Élysées, but rather after the neighborhood in which it is situated. Opened in 1913, it was designed by French architects, the brothers Auguste Perret and Gustave Perret, based on a scheme of Henry van de Velde, founded by journalist and impresario Gabriel Astruc to provide a venue suitable for contemporary music and opera, in contrast to traditional, more conservative, institutions like the Paris Opera, it hosted the Ballets Russes for its third season, staging the world première of the Rite of Spring on Thursday May 29, 1913, thus becoming the celebrated location of one of the most famous of all classical music riots. The theater, constructed between 1911 and 1913 and the first example of Art Deco architecture in Paris, is considered a landmark of modern architecture and was designated a French monument historique in 1957. Built of reinforced concrete, featuring rectangular forms, straight lines, decoration attached to the outside on plaques of marble and stucco, it was a radical departure from the Art Nouveau style, and, at the time, shockingly plain in appearance.
The building's concrete construction was not a stylistic choice. Subsoil conditions and the site's proximity to the Seine made concrete necessary. Henry van de Velde was the initial architect, resigning when it was clear that the contractors, the Perret brothers, had a far deeper understanding of reinforced concrete construction than he did, although the Perrets, were not licensed architects and had another designer, Roger Bouvard, sign their plans; the building includes an exterior bas relief by Antoine Bourdelle, a dome by Maurice Denis, paintings by Édouard Vuillard and Jacqueline Marval, a stage curtain by Ker-Xavier Roussel. The building houses two smaller stages, the Comédie des Champs-Élysées theatre on the 3rd floor, the Studio des Champs-Élysées on the 5th floor. Although Astruc was soon financially overextended, the first season was extraordinary; the theatre opened on April 2, 1913, with a gala concert featuring five of France's most renowned composers conducting their own works: Claude Debussy, Paul Dukas, Gabriel Fauré, Vincent d'Indy, Camille Saint-Saëns.
This was followed the next day with a performance of Hector Berlioz's opera Benvenuto Cellini conducted by Felix Weingartner which included a "dance spectacular" by Anna Pavlova. There was a series of concerts devoted to Beethoven conducted by Weingartner and featuring the pianists Alfred Cortot and Louis Diémer, the soprano Lilli Lehmann; the Royal Concertgebouw Orchestra of Amsterdam conducted by Willem Mengelberg gave two concerts: Beethoven's Ninth Symphony and the Paris premiere of Fauré's opera Pénélope. Sergei Diaghilev's Ballets Russes presented the company's fifth season, although their first in the new theatre, opening on May 15 with Igor Stravinsky's The Firebird, Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov's Scheherazade, the world premiere of Debussy's Jeux; some in the audiences had been offended by the depiction on stage of a tennis game in Jeux, but this was nothing compared to the reaction to the ritual sacrifice in Stravinsky's Rite of Spring on May 29. Carl Van Vechten described the scene: A certain part of the audience was thrilled by what it considered to be a blasphemous attempt to destroy music as an art, swept away with wrath, began soon after the rise of the curtain, to make cat-calls and to offer audible suggestions as to how the performance should proceed.
The orchestra played unheard, except when a slight lull occurred. The young man seated behind me in the box stood up during the course of the ballet to enable himself to see more clearly; the intense excitement under which he was labouring betrayed itself presently when he began to beat rhythmically on top of my head with his fists. My emotion was so great. Marie Rambert heard someone in the gallery call out: "Un docteur … un dentiste … deux docteurs…." The second performance was less eventful, according to Maurice Ravel, the entire work could be heard. The first season ended on June 26, 1913, with a performance of Pénélope, the new one opened on October 2 with the same work. On October 9 d'Indy conducted Carl Maria von Weber's opera Der Freischütz. On October 15 Debussy conducted the Ibéria section from his orchestral triptych Images pour orchestre, a week he conducted his cantata La Damoiselle élue. By November 20 Astruc was out of money and was ejected from the theatre, the sets and costumes were impounded.
The following season consisted of operas presented by the Boston Opera Company. During most of World War I, the theatre was closed, but the Congress of Allied Women on War Service was held there in August 1918. Pavlova's ballet company presented a short season of dance performances in 1919; the theatre was purchased by Madame Ganna Walska in 1922. From 1923 the smaller Comédie stage upstage was the home of Louis Jouvet's long-running medical satire, Dr. Knock, in late 1924 the theatre premiered the Ballets suédois production of Francis Picabia's "instantaneist" ballet Relâche, with music by Erik Satie. Three of Jean Giraudoux's plays premiered here: Siegfried in 1928, Amphitryon 38 in 1929, Intermezzo in 1933; the theatre shows about three staged opera productions a year baroque or chamber works, suited to the modest size of its stage and orchestra pit. In addition
Theater Bonn is the municipal theatre of Bonn, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. It is an organization that produces operas, ballets and concerts, it operates several performance venues throughout the town: Bonn Opera for music theatre, the Kammerspiele Bad Godesberg and Halle Beuel for plays, the Choreographisches Theater for ballet and dance. The history of theatre in Bonn dates back to the time of the electors. End of the 17th century, a court theatre was established at the Electoral Palace, where French and Italian troupes played. In the 18th century, an amateur theatre was established for German plays, directed by Gustav Friedrich Großmann from 1778 to 1784, who staged the premiere of Schiller's Die Verschwörung des Fiesko zu Genua on 20 July 1783; the new French government destroyed the court theatre in 1797. In 1826, citizens built their own play house. A new building was opened in 1848, marked by Beethoven's overture Die Weihe des Hauses; the house became the municipal theatre with performances by the Cologne theatre.
Bonn dates the history of its responsibility for the theatre back to that year. The Bonn theatre operated with its own ensemble for plays from 1902, for opera from 1935; the theatre was destroyed by bombing during World War II in July 1943. After World War II, temporary venues for theatre were a university hall, a gymnasium, a cinema, the Prachtbau of the Bonner Bürgerverein, completed in 1909. In 1965, a new theatre was opened on the Rhine. Intendant Karl Pempelfort focused on works by William Shakespeare, continued by his successor Hans-Joachim Heyse. Intendant Claude Riber invited international singers to perform opera, while plays focused on Austrian contemporary drama, initiated by Peter Eschberg. Plays are performed in three venues: the Kammerspiele Bad Godesberg, the Halle Beuel, the Werkstatt in the opera house. Venues for experimental theatre and children's theatre are the Beuel area. Manfred Beilharz, Generalintendant from 1997 for eleven years, organized from 1992 with the dramatist Tankred Dorst a biennial festival for European contemporary theatre, Festival Bonner Biennale – Neue Stücke aus Europa.
From 2013, Bernhard Helmich has been Generalintendant. The Theater Bonn collaborates with the festival Beethovenfest. Manfred Brauneck, Gérard Schneilin: Theaterlexikon 1. Begriffe und Epochen, Bühnen und Ensembles. Rowohlts Enzyklopädie im Rowohlt Taschenbuch Verlag, Reinbek bei Hamburg 1986, 5th edition, 2007, ISBN 978 3 499 55673 9. Official website Theater der Bundesstadt Bonn
The Vienna Volksoper is a major opera house in Vienna, Austria. It puts on around three hundred performances of twenty-five German language productions during an annual season which runs from September through June, it was built in 1898 as the Kaiserjubiläum-Stadttheater producing only plays. Because of the brief construction period the first director Adam Müller-Gutenbrunn had to start with debts of 160,000 gulden. After this inauspicious startup the Kaiserjubiläum-Stadttheater had to declare bankruptcy five years in 1903. On 1 September 1903 Rainer Simons took over the house and renamed it the Kaiserjubiläum-Stadttheater - Volksoper, his intention was to continue the production of plays but establish series of opera and operetta. The first Viennese performances of Tosca and Salome were given at the Volksoper in 1907 and 1910 respectively. World famous singers such as Maria Jeritza, Leo Slezak and Richard Tauber appeared there. In the years up to and through the First World War the Volksoper attained a position as Vienna's second prestige opera house.
In 1919, Felix Weingartner became Principal Conductor. He was followed as Director by Hugo Gruder-Guntram. After 1929, it focused on light opera, under Gruder-Guntram undertook a number of summer tours to Abbazia in 1935, Cairo and Alexandria in 1937 and throughout Italy in 1938, with guest appearances from Richard Tauber. After the Second World War, the Vienna Volksoper became the alternative venue to the devastated Vienna State Opera. In 1955 the Volksoper returned to its former role of presenting opera and musicals. From September 1991 to June 1996 the Vienna Volksoper was under a collective leadership with the Vienna State Opera. In 1999 the Volksoper became a 100% subsidiary of the Bundestheater-Holding. Since 1 September 2007 Robert Meyer has headed the Volksoper as artistic director together with the business manager Christoph Ladstätter; each season includes about 25 productions, a total of 300 performances—a performance every day. In addition to opera, operetta and ballet, there are special performances and children's programs.
On three different levels there are 1261 seats and 72 standing room places as well as two places for wheelchairs. The orchestra pit is equipped with two electrically driven stage lifts, with a loading capacity of 500 kg/m², it is adjustable in height from 0 to 2.65 meters below stage level. The red velvet house curtain is hydraulically drawn and liftable; the gather velocity is 0.15 to 3.0 m/s, the lift velocity can be up to 2.0 m/s. The stage is 17.2 meters wide and 19 meters deep and has a mechanic load capacity of 500 kg/m². In the middle of the stage is a turnable and liftable circular platform, around, a turnable ring platform with an external diameter of 15 meters. There are 3 hand-operated person trap mechanisms. Since 1999 the Volksoper Vienna is a 100% subsidiary of the Bundestheater Holding AG along with the Vienna State Opera and the Burgtheater; the Bundestheater Holding AG is owned by the Republic of Austria. The Holding holds 51.1% of the Theaterservice Gmbh, which offers services in design and administrational matters.
The remaining 48.9% are shared among the three theater houses. In 1987, the opera house was used for a scene set in Bratislava, for the James Bond film The Living Daylights, where Timothy Dalton made his debut as Bond near the beginning of the film, where he first spotted the key female character Kara Milovy. Vienna State Opera Burgtheater Official website, in English Profile from Wien.info website Bundestheater Holding Website der Bundestheater Holding, in English
Bruges-la-Morte is a short novel by the Belgian author Georges Rodenbach, first published in 1892. The novel is notable for two reasons, it was the archetypal Symbolist novel, was the first work of fiction illustrated with photographs. A translation by Thomas Duncan was published by Atlas Press in London in 1993. A new English translation of Bruges-la-Morte, by Will Stone and Mike Mitchell, appeared in 2005, published by Dedalus Books and with an introduction by Alan Hollinghurst, it tells the story of Hugues Viane, a widower overcome with grief, who takes refuge in Bruges where he lives among the relics of his former wife - her clothes, her letters, a length of her hair - leaving his house. However he becomes obsessed with a dancer he sees at the opera Robert le diable who bears a likeness to his dead wife, he courts her, but in time he comes to see she is different and their relationship ends in tragedy. Bruges-la-Morte is a Symbolist novel the Symbolist novel, according to critic James Gardner.
The book is notable for its innovative form. It is modern in the sense nothing much happens, it falls within the camp of realist symbolism. Rodenbach interspersed his text with dozens of black-and-white photographs of Bruges, it is believed to be the first work of fiction illustrated with photographs. The novel includes 35 pictures in total; the only current French edition that features the original pictures is the GF Flammarion edition edited by Jean-Pierre Bertrand and Daniel Grojnowski. This edition was published on the centenary of Rodenbach's death; the English translation by Will Stone and Mike Mitchell, published by Dedalus Press, includes a series of contemporary photographs instead of the originals. In 1915, Russian director Yevgeni Bauer adapted the novel for the screen. Renamed'Грёзы' the action was moved from Bruges to contemporary Moscow and characters' names were changed, but otherwise the film is faithful to the book. In 1920, the composer Erich Wolfgang Korngold used the novel as the basis for his opera Die tote Stadt.
The 1956 Argentine film Beyond Oblivion directed by Hugo del Carril is loosely based on the novel. In 1980, the French film director Alain Dhénaut adapted the novel as Bruges la morte. In 1981, the Flemish film director Roland Verhavert adapted the novel as "Brugge, die stille"; the novel influenced many writers, including W. G. Sebald; the plot of the book may have influenced the French crime novel D'entre les morts by Boileau-Narcejac, filmed by Alfred Hitchcock as Vertigo in 1958. Bruges-la-Morte at Internet Archive Bruges-la-Morte public domain audiobook at LibriVox