Pepsi is a carbonated soft drink produced and manufactured by PepsiCo. Originally created and developed in 1893 and introduced as Brads Drink, it was renamed as Pepsi-Cola on August 28,1898 and it is currently known in North America alternatively as Pepsi-Cola as of 2014. The drink Pepsi was first introduced as Brads Drink in New Bern, North Carolina, United States, in 1893 by Caleb Bradham and it was renamed Pepsi Cola in 1898 after the root of the word dyspepsia and the kola nuts used in the recipe. The original recipe included sugar and vanilla, Bradham sought to create a fountain drink that was appealing and would aid in digestion and boost energy. In 1903, Bradham moved the bottling of Pepsi-Cola from his drugstore to a rented warehouse and that year, Bradham sold 7,968 gallons of syrup. The next year, Pepsi was sold in bottles. In 1909, automobile race pioneer Barney Oldfield was the first celebrity to endorse Pepsi-Cola, describing it as A bully drink. refreshing, the advertising theme Delicious and Healthful was used over the next two decades.
In 1926, Pepsi received its first logo redesign since the design of 1905. In 1929, the logo was changed again, assets were sold and Roy C. Megargel bought the Pepsi trademark. Megargel was unsuccessful, and soon Pepsis assets were purchased by Charles Guth, Loft was a candy manufacturer with retail stores that contained soda fountains. He sought to replace Coca-Cola at his stores fountains after Coke refused to him a discount on syrup. Guth had Lofts chemists reformulate the Pepsi-Cola syrup formula, on three separate occasions between 1922 and 1933, The Coca-Cola Company was offered the opportunity to purchase the Pepsi-Cola company, and it declined on each occasion. The original trademark application for Pepsi-Cola was filed on September 23,1902 with registration approved on June 16,1903, in the applications statement, Caleb Bradham describes the trademark and indicated that the mark was in continuous use for his business since August 1,1901. The Pepsi-Colas description is a syrup for soda water.
The trademark expired on April 15,1904, a second Pepsi-Cola trademark is on record with the USPTO. The federal status for the 1905 trademark is registered and renewed and is owned by PepsiCo of Purchase, in 2014, the 1940 wordmark was used again and replacing the current wordmark on many cans. During the Great Depression, Pepsi gained popularity following the introduction in 1936 of a 12-ounce bottle, coming at a time of economic crisis, the campaign succeeded in boosting Pepsis status. From 1936 to 1938, Pepsi-Colas profits doubled, Pepsis success under Guth came while the Loft Candy business was faltering
Port of Spain
Port of Spain is the capital city of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago and the countrys third-largest municipality, after Chaguanas and San Fernando. The city has a population of 37,074, a metropolitan population of 128,026. The city serves primarily as a retail and administrative centre and it has been the capital of the island since 1757 and it is an important financial services centre for the Caribbean and is home to two of the largest banks in the region. Port of Spain was the de facto capital of the short-lived West Indies Federation, caricom was established in Chaguaramas, west of Port of Spain. The city is home to the largest container port on the island and is one of several shipping hubs of the Caribbean. Bauxite from Guyana is trans-shipped via facilities at Chaguaramas, about 8 kilometres west of the city, the pre-lenten Carnival is the citys main annual cultural festival and tourist attraction. Today, Port of Spain is a city in the Caribbean region. Trinidad and Tobago hosted the Fifth Summit of the Americas in 2009 whose guests included US President Barack Obama, Port of Spain is home to the biggest and most successful stock exchange in the Caribbean, the Trinidad and Tobago Stock Exchange.
The iconic Nicholas Tower, as well as skyscrapers, are well known throughout the region. These buildings dominate the citys skyline, some of the tallest skyscrapers in the Caribbean are located in Port of Spain. The Port of Spain was founded near the site of the Amerindian fishing village of Cumucurapo, located in the today known as Mucurapo. In 1560, a Spanish garrison was posted near the foot of the Laventille Hills, the part of todays downtown Port of Spain closest to the sea was once an area of tidal mudflats covered by mangroves. The first Spanish buildings here, in the 16th and 17th centuries, were open mud-plastered ajoupas, the fort was a mud-walled enclosure with a shack inside, a flagpole, two or three cannon, and few Spanish soldiers. This was captured during Walter Raleighs expedition in April 1595, the Caribs were transient, travelling to the mainland and up the Orinoco River. The French naval commander Comte DEstrées visited in 1680, and reported there was no Port of Spain. The last Spanish Governor of Trinidad, Don José Maria Chacón and he compelled the islands Cabildo to move to Port of Spain, and he limited its powers to the municipality.
The 1783 Cedula of Population, which encouraged the settlement of French Catholics in the island, led to a increase in the towns population. Along the sea shore was the Plaza del Marina, a parade ground, by 1786, the town had a population of about 3,000
Cuba, officially the Republic of Cuba, is a country comprising the island of Cuba as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos. Cuba is located in the northern Caribbean where the Caribbean Sea, the Gulf of Mexico, and it is south of both the U. S. state of Florida and the Bahamas, west of Haiti, and north of Jamaica. Havana is the largest city and capital, other cities include Santiago de Cuba. Cuba is the largest island in the Caribbean, with an area of 109,884 square kilometres, prior to Spanish colonization in the late 15th century, Cuba was inhabited by Amerindian tribes. It remained a colony of Spain until the Spanish–American War of 1898, as a fragile republic, Cuba attempted to strengthen its democratic system, but mounting political radicalization and social strife culminated in the dictatorship of Fulgencio Batista in 1952. Further unrest and instability led to Batistas ousting in January 1959 by the July 26 Movement, since 1965, the state has been governed by the Communist Party of Cuba.
A point of contention during the Cold War between the Soviet Union and the United States, a nuclear war broke out during the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962. Culturally, Cuba is considered part of Latin America, Cuba is a Marxist–Leninist one-party republic, where the role of the vanguard Communist Party is enshrined in the Constitution. Independent observers have accused the Cuban government of human rights abuses. It is one of the worlds last planned economies and its economy is dominated by the exports of sugar, coffee, according to the Human Development Index, Cuba is described as a country with high human development and is ranked the eighth highest in North America. It ranks highly in some metrics of national performance, including health care, the name Cuba comes from the Taíno language. The exact meaning of the name is unclear but it may be translated either as where fertile land is abundant, authors who believe that Christopher Columbus was Portuguese state that Cuba was named by Columbus for the town of Cuba in the district of Beja in Portugal.
Before the arrival of the Spanish, Cuba was inhabited by three distinct tribes of indigenous peoples of the Americas, the Taíno, the Guanajatabey, and the Ciboney people. The ancestors of the Ciboney migrated from the mainland of South America, the Taíno arrived from Hispanola sometime in the 3rd century A. D. When Columbus arrived they were the dominant culture in Cuba, having a population of 150,000. The name Cuba comes from the native Taíno language and it is derived from either coabana meaning great place, or from cubao meaning where fertile land is abundant. The Taíno were farmers, while the Ciboney were farmers as well as fishers and hunter-gatherers, Columbus claimed the island for the new Kingdom of Spain and named it Isla Juana after Juan, Prince of Asturias. In 1511, the first Spanish settlement was founded by Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar at Baracoa, other towns soon followed, including San Cristobal de la Habana, founded in 1515, which became the capital
The Online Computer Library Center is a US-based nonprofit cooperative organization dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the worlds information and reducing information costs. It was founded in 1967 as the Ohio College Library Center, OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat, the largest online public access catalog in the world. OCLC is funded mainly by the fees that libraries have to pay for its services, the group first met on July 5,1967 on the campus of the Ohio State University to sign the articles of incorporation for the nonprofit organization. The group hired Frederick G. Kilgour, a former Yale University medical school librarian, Kilgour wished to merge the latest information storage and retrieval system of the time, the computer, with the oldest, the library. The goal of network and database was to bring libraries together to cooperatively keep track of the worlds information in order to best serve researchers and scholars. The first library to do online cataloging through OCLC was the Alden Library at Ohio University on August 26,1971 and this was the first occurrence of online cataloging by any library worldwide.
Membership in OCLC is based on use of services and contribution of data, between 1967 and 1977, OCLC membership was limited to institutions in Ohio, but in 1978, a new governance structure was established that allowed institutions from other states to join. In 2002, the structure was again modified to accommodate participation from outside the United States. As OCLC expanded services in the United States outside of Ohio, it relied on establishing strategic partnerships with networks, organizations that provided training, support, by 2008, there were 15 independent United States regional service providers. OCLC networks played a key role in OCLC governance, with networks electing delegates to serve on OCLC Members Council, in early 2009, OCLC negotiated new contracts with the former networks and opened a centralized support center. OCLC provides bibliographic and full-text information to anyone, OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat—the OCLC Online Union Catalog, the largest online public access catalog in the world.
WorldCat has holding records from public and private libraries worldwide. org, in October 2005, the OCLC technical staff began a wiki project, WikiD, allowing readers to add commentary and structured-field information associated with any WorldCat record. The Online Computer Library Center acquired the trademark and copyrights associated with the Dewey Decimal Classification System when it bought Forest Press in 1988, a browser for books with their Dewey Decimal Classifications was available until July 2013, it was replaced by the Classify Service. S. The reference management service QuestionPoint provides libraries with tools to communicate with users and this around-the-clock reference service is provided by a cooperative of participating global libraries. OCLC has produced cards for members since 1971 with its shared online catalog. OCLC commercially sells software, e. g. CONTENTdm for managing digital collections, OCLC has been conducting research for the library community for more than 30 years.
In accordance with its mission, OCLC makes its research outcomes known through various publications and these publications, including journal articles, reports and presentations, are available through the organizations website. The most recent publications are displayed first, and all archived resources, membership Reports – A number of significant reports on topics ranging from virtual reference in libraries to perceptions about library funding
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library, the National Library of France joined the project on October 5,2007. The project transitions to a service of the OCLC on April 4,2012, the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together, a VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary see and see records from the original records, and refers to the original authority records. The data are available online and are available for research and data exchange. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol, the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAFs clustering algorithm is run every month, as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records
Venezuela, officially the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, is a federal republic located on the northern coast of South America. It is bordered by Colombia on the west, Brazil on the south, Guyana on the east, Venezuela covers 916,445 km2 and has an estimated population of 31775371. The territory now known as Venezuela was colonized by Spain in 1522 amid resistance from indigenous peoples and it gained full independence as a separate country in 1830. During the 19th century, Venezuela suffered political turmoil and autocracy, since 1958, the country has had a series of democratic governments. This new constitution changed the name of the country to República Bolivariana de Venezuela. Venezuela is a presidential republic consisting of 23 states, the Capital District. Venezuela claims all Guyanese territory west of the Essequibo River, oil was discovered in the early 20th century, and Venezuela has the worlds largest known oil reserves and has been one of the worlds leading exporters of oil. Previously an underdeveloped exporter of commodities such as coffee and cocoa, oil quickly came to dominate exports.
The recovery of oil prices in the early 2000s gave Venezuela oil funds not seen since the 1980s, the Venezuelan government established populist policies that initially boosted the Venezuelan economy and increased social spending, significantly reducing economic inequality and poverty. However, such policies became controversial since they destabilized the economy, resulting in hyperinflation, an economic depression. According to the most popular and accepted version, in 1499, the stilt houses in the area of Lake Maracaibo reminded the navigator, Amerigo Vespucci, of the city of Venice, so he named the region Veneziola Piccola Venezia. The name acquired its current spelling as a result of Spanish influence, where the suffix -uela is used as a term, thus. The German language 16th century-term for the area, Klein-Venedig, means little Venice, Martín Fernández de Enciso, a member of the Vespucci and Ojeda crew, gave a different account. In his work Summa de geografía, he states that they found people who called themselves the Veneciuela.
Thus, the name Venezuela may have evolved from the native word and it is not known how many people lived in Venezuela before the Spanish conquest, it has been estimated at around one million. In addition to indigenous peoples known today, the population included historic groups such as the Kalina, Auaké, Mariche, the Timoto-Cuica culture was the most complex society in Pre-Columbian Venezuela, with pre-planned permanent villages, surrounded by irrigated, terraced fields. They stored water in tanks and their houses were made primarily of stone and wood with thatched roofs. They were peaceful, for the most part, and depended on growing crops, regional crops included potatoes and ullucos
Venezuelan people are from a multiethnic nation in South America called Venezuela. Venezuelans are predominantly Roman Catholic and speak Spanish, the majority of Venezuelans are the result of a mixture of Europeans and Amerindians. 51. 6% of the population are Mestizos of mixed European and Amerindian ancestry and 43. 6% of Venezuelans consider themselves European or Middle Eastern, an additional 3. 6% identify as Black/African-descendants, while 3. 2% identify as Amerindians. However, archaeological excavations are the evidences that establish certain periods that were taking place on the continent, there are four periods of diversity that develop in the current Venezuela, which entering a new period, it did not mean the end of the previous. The first migrations to the continent were probably from East Asia to 15,000 years and these early migrants came at first to be located in North America, moving to the territory of present Venezuela. Now for their offspring, it was clear verify the Asian features on their faces that will adapt to the climate and lifestyle.
On August 2,1498, Christopher Columbus, and the Spanish colonizers ships, landed for the first time in American mainland and did so in the current Venezuelan territory. Another group of whites who were born in Venezuela were originally called Creole, representing 20% of the population, they were mostly from the Canary Islands, the other two smaller groups were the original inhabitants and indigenous blacks brought from Africa, they were about 5% of the population. This process is responsible for the majority of Venezuelans who are of mestizo mixed race. The country has a population that reflects its rich history. Many of the peoples were absorbed by the mestizo population. Small numbers are descendants of French and Polish, as they emigrated during World War II, black Africans were brought as slaves, mostly coastal lowlands, beginning early in the sixteenth century and continuing into the nineteenth century. Currently, according to the critic DAmbrosio and other academics, about 51. 6% of Venezuelans are mestizos, 45% are white, 2% are black and 1% Indians.
Notably, according to scholars, is the fact that virtually there are no pure blacks in Venezuela, including those with the darkest skin. Most of which being limited to black Venezuelans who descend from recent immigrants, the only Venezuelan town where there is a consistent number of them is Colonia Tovar. The population of approximately 28 million people made Venezuela the sixth-most populous country in Latin America, approximately more than one million are living in other countries. More than ninety percent of the Venezuelans live in urban areas – a figure higher than the world average. The literacy rate in Venezuela is well above the average
Studebaker /ˈstjuːdəbeɪkər/ STEW-də-bay-kər) was an American wagon and automobile manufacturer based in South Bend, Indiana. Founded in 1852 and incorporated in 1868 under the name of the Studebaker Brothers Manufacturing Company, the company was originally a producer of wagons for farmers and the military. Studebaker entered the business in 1902 with electric vehicles and in 1904 with gasoline vehicles. Until 1911, its automotive division operated in partnership with the Garford Company of Elyria, the first gasoline automobiles to be fully manufactured by Studebaker were marketed in August 1912. Over the next 50 years, the established a reputation for quality and reliability. After years of problems, in 1954 the company merged with luxury carmaker Packard to form Studebaker-Packard Corporation. However, Studebakers financial problems were worse than the Packard executives thought, the Packard marque was phased out, and the company returned to the Studebaker Corporation name in 1962. The South Bend plant ceased production on December 20,1963, according to the official Studebaker history written by Albert R.
The last part of the name, was changed to baker. In Albert Russel Erskines official history, John Studebaker, father of the five brothers, born in Adams County, in any event, John Studebaker moved to Ashland, Ohio in 1835 with his wife Rebecca and taught his five sons to make wagons. They all went into business as it grew to gigantic proportions with the country. The five sons were, in order of birth, Clement, John Mohler, Peter Everst and Henry Studebaker, Jr. became blacksmiths and foundrymen in South Bend, Indiana, in February 1852. They first made metal parts for wagons and expanded into the manufacture of complete wagons. At this time, John M. was making wheelbarrows in Placerville, the site of his business is California Historic Landmark #142. The first major expansion in Henry and Clems South Bend business came from their being in the place to meet the needs of the California Gold Rush that began in 1849. From his wheelbarrow enterprise at Placerville, John M. had amassed $8,000. In April 1858, he quit and moved out to apply this to financing the vehicle manufacturing of H & C Studebaker, which was already booming because of a big order to build wagons for the US Army.
In 1857, they had built their first carriage—Fancy, hand-worked iron trim
Agencia EFE, S. A. is a Spanish international news agency created in 1939 by Spains former minister of the press and propaganda Ramón Serrano Súñer and Manuel Aznar Zubigaray. Nowadays, EFE is the major news agency in Spanish and the worlds fourth largest wire service after the Associated Press, Reuters. Employees in Spain are represented by labor unions. EFE has about 40 employees in the United States who voted on 29 September 2005 to be represented by the News Media Guild, workers ratified a first labor contract in December 2006, marking the first time the company had ever reached such an agreement outside Spain. The agency organized the second News Agencies World Congress in 2007, journalism portal Spain portal List of news agencies Official website Official environmental website EFEverde Agencia EFE at Google Cultural Institute