Nobility is a social class ranked under royalty and found in some societies that have a formal aristocracy. Nobility possesses more acknowledged privileges and higher social status than most other classes in society; the privileges associated with nobility may constitute substantial advantages over or relative to non-nobles, or may be honorary, vary by country and era. As referred to in the Medieval chivalric motto "noblesse oblige", nobles can carry a lifelong duty to uphold various social responsibilities, such as honorable behavior, customary service, or leadership positions. Membership in the nobility, including rights and responsibilities, is hereditary. Membership in the nobility has been granted by a monarch or government, unlike other social classes where membership is determined by wealth, lifestyle, or affiliation. Nonetheless, acquisition of sufficient power, military prowess, or royal favour has enabled commoners to ascend into the nobility. There are a variety of ranks within the noble class.
Legal recognition of nobility has been more common in monarchies, but nobility existed in such regimes as the Dutch Republic, the Republic of Genoa, the Republic of Venice, the Old Swiss Confederacy, remains part of the legal social structure of some non-hereditary regimes, e.g. Channel Islands, San Marino, the Vatican City in Europe. Hereditary titles and styles added to names, as well as honorifics distinguish nobles from non-nobles in conversation and written speech. In many nations most of the nobility have been un-titled, some hereditary titles do not indicate nobility; some countries have had non-hereditary nobility, such as the Empire of Brazil or life peers in the United Kingdom. The term derives from the abstract noun of the adjective nobilis. In ancient Roman society, nobiles originated as an informal designation for the political governing class who had allied interests, including both patricians and plebeian families with an ancestor who had risen to the consulship through his own merit.
In modern usage, "nobility" is applied to the highest social class in pre-modern societies, excepting the ruling dynasty. In the feudal system, the nobility were those who held a fief land or office, under vassalage, i.e. in exchange for allegiance and various military, services to a suzerain, who might be a higher-ranking nobleman or a monarch. It came to be seen as a hereditary caste, sometimes associated with a right to bear a hereditary title and, for example in pre-revolutionary France, enjoying fiscal and other privileges. While noble status conferred significant privileges in most jurisdictions, by the 21st century it had become a honorary dignity in most societies, although a few, residual privileges may still be preserved and some Asian and African cultures continue to attach considerable significance to formal hereditary rank or titles. Nobility is a historical and legal notion, differing from high socio-economic status in that the latter is based on income, possessions or lifestyle.
Being wealthy or influential cannot ipso facto make one noble, nor are all nobles wealthy or influential. Various republics, including former Iron Curtain countries, Greece and Austria have expressly abolished the conferral and use of titles of nobility for their citizens; this is distinct from countries which have not abolished the right to inherit titles, but which do not grant legal recognition or protection to them, such as Germany and Italy, although Germany recognizes their use as part of the legal surname. Still other countries and authorities allow their use, but forbid attachment of any privilege thereto, e.g. Finland and the European Union, while French law protects lawful titles against usurpation. Although many societies have a privileged upper class with substantial wealth and power, the status is not hereditary and does not entail a distinct legal status, nor differentiated forms of address. Not all of the benefits of nobility derived from noble status per se. Privileges were granted or recognised by the monarch in association with possession of a specific title, office or estate.
Most nobles' wealth derived from one or more estates, large or small, that might include fields, orchards, hunting grounds, etc. It included infrastructure such as castle and mill to which local peasants were allowed some access, although at a price. Nobles were expected to live "nobly", that is, from the proceeds of these possessions. Work involving manual labour or subordination to those of lower rank was either forbidden or frowned upon socially. On the other hand, membership in the nobility was a prerequisite for holding offices of trust in the realm and for career promotion in the military, at court and the higher functions in the government and church. Prior to the French Revolution, European nobles commanded tribute in the form of entitlement to cash rents or usage taxes, labour or a portion of the annual crop yield from commoners or no
A Christian mission is an organized effort to spread Christianity to new converts. Missions involve sending individuals and groups, called missionaries, across boundaries, most geographical boundaries, for the purpose of proselytism; this involves evangelism, humanitarian work among the poor and disadvantaged. There are a few different kinds of mission trips: short-term, long-term and ones meant for helping people in need; some might choose to dedicate their whole lives to missions as well. Missionaries have the authority to preach the Christian faith, provide humanitarian aid. Christian doctrines permit the provision of aid without requiring religious conversion; the earliest Christian mission the Great Commission and Dispersion of the Apostles, was active within Second Temple Judaism. Whether a Jewish proselytism existed or not that would have served as a model for the early Christians is unclear, see Circumcision controversy in early Christianity#Jewish background for details. Soon, the expansion of the Christian mission beyond Judaism to those who were not Jewish became a contested issue, notably at the Council of Jerusalem.
The Apostle Paul was an early proponent of this expansion, contextualized the Christian message for the Greek and Roman cultures, allowing it to reach beyond its Hebrew and Jewish roots. From Late Antiquity onward, much missionary activity was carried out by members of religious orders. Monasteries followed disciplines and supported missions and practical research, all of which were perceived as works to reduce human misery and suffering and glorify the Christian God. For example, Nestorian communities evangelized parts of Central Asia, as well as Tibet and India. Cistercians evangelized much of Northern Europe, as well as developing most of European agriculture's classic techniques. St Patrick evangelized many in Ireland. St David was active in Wales. During the Middle Ages, Ramon Llull advanced the concept of preaching to Muslims and converting them to Christianity by means of non-violent argument. A vision for large-scale mission to Muslims would die with him, not to be revived until the 19th Century.
Additional events can be found at the timeline of Christian missions. During the Middle Ages Christian monasteries and missionaries such as Saint Patrick, Adalbert of Prague propagated learning and religion beyond the boundaries of the old Roman Empire. In the seventh century Gregory the Great sent missionaries, including Augustine of Canterbury, into England; the Hiberno-Scottish mission began in 563. In the late thirteenth and early fourteenth centuries, Franciscans such as William of Rubruck, John of Montecorvino, Giovanni ed' Magnolia were sent as missionaries to the Near and Far East, their travels took them as far as China in an attempt to convert the advancing Mongols the Great Khans of the Mongol Empire. One of the main goals of the Christopher Columbus expedition financed by Queen Isabella of Spain was to spread Christianity. During the Age of Discovery and Portugal established many missions in their American and Asian colonies; the most active orders were the Jesuits, Augustinians and Dominicans.
The Portuguese sent missions into Africa. These are some of the most well-known missions in history. While some of these missions were associated with imperialism and oppression, others were peaceful and focused on integration rather than cultural imperialism. In both Portugal and Spain, religion was an integral part of the state and evangelization was seen as having both secular and spiritual benefits. Wherever these powers attempted to expand their territories or influence, missionaries would soon follow. By the Treaty of Tordesillas, the two powers divided the world between them into exclusive spheres of influence and colonization; the proselytization of Asia became linked to Portuguese colonial policy. Portuguese trade with Asia proved profitable from 1499 onwards, as Jesuits arrived in India around 1540, the colonial government in Goa supported the mission with incentives for baptized Christians; the Church sent Jesuits to China and to other countries in Asia. The Reformation unfolded in Europe in the early 16th century.
For over a hundred years, occupied by their struggle with the Catholic Church, the early Protestant churches as a body were not focused on missions to "heathen" lands. Instead, the focus was more on Christian lands in the hope to spread the Protestant faith, identifying the papacy with the Antichrist. In the centuries that followed, Protestant churches began sending out missionaries in increasing numbers, spreading the proclamation of the Christian message to unreached people. In North America, missionaries to the Native Americans included Jonathan Edwards, the well-known preacher of the Great Awakening, who in his years retired from the public life of his early career, he became a missionary to the Housatonic Native Americans and a staunch advocate for them against cultural imperialism. As European culture has been established in the midst of indigenous peoples, the cultural distance between Christians of differing cultures has been difficult to overcome. One early solution was the creation of segregated "praying towns" of Christian natives.
This pattern of grudging acceptance of converts played out again in Hawaii when missionari
Merizo, is the southernmost village in the United States territory of Guam. Cocos Island is a part of the municipality; the village's population has decreased since the island's 2000 census. During the first Spanish missionary efforts on Guam, Merizo was the site of resistance encouraged by Choco, a Chinese resident of the village; the parish of Merizo was the second established by the Spanish on Guam. A large population of Chamorros from the Mariana Islands were relocated to the village during Spanish rule; the village covers an area of 6 square miles and is located on the shore below the volcanic hills of southern Guam. Places of interest for visitors include Southern Comfort Ranch and Merizo Pier where ferries can be taken to Cocos Island Resort. Several popular dive sites are located off Merizo's coast. Officials from the Guam Environmental Protection Agency, Department of Public Health and Social Services and the Coast Guard announced findings of major polychlorinated biphenyl contamination in the Cocos Lagoon on February 20, 2006 and warned people not to eat fish caught there.
The contamination is believed to have come from a United States Coast Guard station which operated on Cocos Island from 1944-1963. Guam Public School System serves the island. Merizo Martyrs Elementary School in Merizo and Inarajan Middle School in Inarajan serve Merizo. Southern High School in Santa Rita serves the village. Guam Public Library System operates the Merizo Library at 376 Cruz Avenue. Water sport crafts can be rented near Merizo Pier; the pier is a great fishing spot. Jose T. Tajalle Joaquin Q. Acfalle Ignacio S. Cruz Rita A. Tainatongo Ernest T. Chargualaf Villages of Guam Dive Sites of Guam Rogers, Robert F. Destiny's Landfall: A History of Guam: University of Hawai'i Press. ISBN 0-8248-1678-1 Carter, Lee D. ISBN 1-878453-28-9 Sanchez, Pedro C. Guahan, Guam: The History of our Island: Sanchez Publishing House. Merizo Guam at Guam Portal http://www.guampdn.com/communities/maps/merizo.html
The Visayans is an umbrella term for the Philippine ethnolinguistic groups native to the whole Visayas, the southernmost islands of Luzon and most parts of Mindanao. Those within the Visayas broadly share a sea-based culture with strong Roman Catholic traditions merged with cultural elements through centuries of interaction and inter-migrations across the seas of Visayan, Sibuyan and Bohol, in some secluded areas merged with ancient animistic-polytheistic influences. Most Visayans are speakers of one or more Visayan languages, the most spoken being Cebuano followed by Hiligaynon and Waray-Waray. Many have, at some point in their lives, migrated to Metro Manila and its surrounding provinces out of necessity brought about by the negative effects of economic centralization in their nation, they comprise the largest grouping in the geographical division of the country, numbering at around 33 million as of 2010. Kabisay-an refers both to the Visayan people collectively and the islands they have inhabited since prehistory.
The Anglicized term Visayas is used to refer to the latter. In Northern Mindanao, Visayans are referred to by the Lumad as the dumagat; this was to distinguish the coast-dwelling Visayans from the Lumad of the interior highlands and marshlands. The following regions and provinces in the Philippines have a sizeable or predominant Visayan population: According to H. Otley Beyer and other anthropologists, the term Visayan was first applied only to the people of Panay and to their settlements eastward in the island of Negros, northward in the smaller islands, which now compose the province of Romblon. In fact, at the early part of Spanish colonialization of the Philippines, the Spaniards used the term Visayan only for these areas, while the people of Cebu and western Leyte were for a long time known only as Pintados; the name Visayan was extended to them around the beginning of 1800s because, as several of the early writers state, albeit erroneously, their languages are allied to the Visayan "dialect" of Panay.
The impression of these similarities was in fact analyzed by David Zorc, while able to linguistically classify the Austronesian subfamily termed Visayan languages, noticed their overall connections as one dialect continuum. These should not, however, be confused as dialects, given the lack of mutual intelligibility. Grabiel Ribera, captain of the Spanish royal infantry in the Philippine Islands distinguished Panay from the rest of the Pintados Islands. In his report regarding a campaign to pacify the natives living along the rivers of Mindanao, Ribera mentioned that his aim was to make the inhabitants of that island "vassals of King Don Felipe... as are all the natives of the island of Panay, the Pintados Islands, those of the island of Luzon..." The Visayans first encountered Western Civilization when Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan reached the island of Homonhon, Eastern Samar in 1521. The Visayas became part of the Spanish colony of the Philippines and the history of the Visayans became intertwined with the history the Philippines.
With the three centuries of contact with the Spanish Empire via Mexico and the United States, the islands today share a culture tied to the sea developed from an admixture of indigenous lowland Visayans, Han Chinese, Indian and American influences. The 16th century marks the beginning of the Christianization of the Visayan people, with the baptism of Rajah Humabon and about 800 native Cebuanos; the Christianization of the Visayans and Filipinos in general, is commemorated by the Ati-Atihan Festival of Aklan, the Dinagyang Festival of Iloilo, the Sinulog festival the feast of the Santo Niño de Cebu, the brown-skinned depiction of the Child Jesus given by Magellan to Rajah Humabon's wife, Hara Amihan. By the 17th century, Visayans took part in religious missions. In 1672, Pedro Calungsod, a teenage indigenous Visayan catechist and Diego Luis de San Vitores, a Spanish friar, were both martyred in Guam during their mission to preach Christianity to the Chamorro people. By the end of the 19th century, the Spanish Empire weakened after a series of wars with its American colonies.
The surge of newer ideas from the outside world thanks to the liberalization of trade by the Bourbon Spain fostered a larger middle class population called the Ilustrados or "the Enlightened Ones." This became an incentive for the new generation of educated political visionaries to fulfill their dreams of independence from three centuries of colonial rule. Some prominent leaders of the Philippine Revolution in the late 19th century were Visayans. Among leaders of the Propaganda movement was Graciano López Jaena, the Ilonggo who established the propagandist publication La Solidaridad. In the Visayan theater of the Revolution, Pantaleón Villegas led the Cebuano revolution in the Battle of Tres de Abril. One of his successors, Arcadio Maxilom, is a prominent general in the liberalization of Cebu. Earlier in 1897, Aklan fought against the Spaniards with Francisco Castillo and Candido Iban at the helm. Both were executed after a failed offensive. Martin Delgado and Juan Araneta led the rebellion in neighboring Iloilo.
With the assistance of Aniceto Lacson, Negros O
The novitiate called the noviciate, is the period of training and preparation that a Christian novice monastic, apostolic, or member of a religious order undergoes prior to taking vows in order to discern whether he or she is called to vowed religious life. It includes times of intense study, living in community, studying the vowed life, deepening one's relationship with God, deepening one's self-awareness, it is a time of creating a new way of being in the world. The novitiate stage in most communities is a two-year period of formation; these years are "Sabbath time" to deepen one's relationship with God, to intensify the living out of the community's mission and charism, to foster human growth. The novitiate experience for many communities includes a concentrated program of prayer, study and limited ministerial engagement. Novices are not admitted to vows until they have completed the prescribed period of training and proving, called the novitiate. In the Middle Ages novices would have dormitories in separate areas within a monastery.
Earlier, different orders followed their own rules governing the length and conditions of the novitiate. At the time of the Reformation, the Council of Trent legislated the length and conditions by which anyone aspiring to become a monk is obliged to be a novice; the novitiate, through which life in an institute is begun, is arranged so that the novices better understand their divine vocation, indeed one, proper to the institute, experience the manner of living of the institute, form their mind and heart in its spirit, so that their intention and suitability are tested. —Canon Law 646 Conscious of their own responsibility, the Novices are to collaborate with their Director in such a way that they faithfully respond to the grace of a divine vocation. —Canon Law 652.3 Members of the institute are to take care that they cooperate for their part in the work of formation of the Novices through example of life and prayer —Canon Law 652.3 Novices are to be led to cultivate human and Christian virtues.
—Canon Law 652 A novice is free to quit the novitiate at any time, the Novice Director, Formation Director, or Superior is free to dismiss him or her with or without cause in most communities. In novicating, the vows are continuous through training. In some novitiate communities monastic, the novice wears clothing, distinct from secular dress but is not the full habit worn by professed members of the community; the novice's day encompasses participation in the full canonical hours, manual labor, classes designed to instruct novices in the religious life he is preparing to embrace. Spiritual exercises and tests of humility are common features of a novitiate; some Roman Catholic communities encourage frequent confession and reception of Holy Communion by their novices. A Superior will appoint an experienced member of the community to oversee the training of novices; this may be a Finally Professed Member, novice master or mistress, responsible for the training of all novices. Different religious communities will have varying requirements for the duration of the novitiate.
One must complete a postulancy before entering the novitiate. In many apostolic religious communities in the United States, postulancy or candidacy is one to three years. In the Eastern Orthodox Church, the novitiate is set at three years before one may be tonsured a monk or nun, though this requirement may be waived; the term "novitiate" refers to the building, house, or complex within a monastery or convent, devoted to the needs of novices. Monasticism Novice master
A proa seen as prau and prahu, or prow, is a type of multihull sailboat. It is a vessel consisting of two unequal length parallel hulls, it is sailed so that one hull is kept to windward, the other to leeward, so that it needs to "shunt" to reverse direction when tacking. The English term proa refers to the South Pacific proa as described in the journals of the British ship HMS Centurion; the perahu traditional outrigger boat is most numerous in the various islands of Indonesia and the Philippines. These differ from the South Pacific vessels. Traditional proas superficially resemble outrigger canoes, but have a buoyant lee hull and a denser, ballasted hull to windward for stability. To Americans, the boats of the Marianas Islands are arguably the most recognizable version; the modern proa exists in a wide variety of forms, from the traditional archetype still common in areas described, to high-technology interpretations designed for breaking speed-sailing records. The word proa comes from perahu, the word for "boat" in Malay, which are similar to the Micronesian language group.
Found in many configurations and forms, the proa was developed as a sailing vessel in Micronesia. Variations may be found as distant as Sri Lanka, as far back as the first century; such vessels go by many names, "perahu" is a generic umbrella term for any boat smaller than a ship. However, until at least to the 17th century, perahu refers to large ships, until replaced by kapal some time after, whereas the smaller boat is called sampan; the "proa" was first documented by the Spanish Magellan expedition to the Philippines circa 1519 CE. The word entered the English language around 1742.. The first illustrations known to Europeans appeared around the middle 19th century in Europe, ushering in a period of interest in the design. Working from the drawings and descriptions of explorers, western builders took liberties with the traditional designs, merging their interpretation of native designs with Western boat building methods, thus this Western "proa" diverged radically from the traditional "proa" to the point that the only shared feature was the windward/leeward hull arrangement.
Various native names of the various components of the proa have entered the jargon of sailing. The main hull of the proa is known as the vaka, the outrigger as the ama, the outrigger supports as the akas; the terms vaka and aka have been adopted in Western sailing to describe the analogous parts in trimarans. The defining feature of the proa is" when it changes tacks; the same hull is kept windward for ballast. The main hull, or vaka, is longer than the windward hull, or ama. Crossbeams called. Traditional proa hulls are markedly asymmetrical along their length, curved in such a way as to produce lift to counteract the lateral forces of the wind. Modern proa hulls are symmetrical, use leeboards for lateral resistance. A number of other vessels use a similar layout with uneven hulls and a shunting sail, but are culturally and distinct from the Western interpreted-invented proa. Examples of these are the Melanesian tepukei; the Micronesian proa is found in a variety of sizes, from the small, canoe-like kor-kor to the medium-sized tipnol, to the tremendous walap, which can be up to 100 feet long.
A model proa, called a riwuit, is raced by children. Proas sailed; the traditional sail used on the proa was the crab-claw sail, which generates far more lift than the more common triangular sloop rig used on small boats when reaching. The sloop rig only begins to show an advantage with small angles of attack, such as encountered when close-hauled; this is the result of the higher aspect ratio of the sloop. When sailing in a strong wind, the crew of the proa act as ballast, providing a force to counteract the torque of the wind acting on the sail; the weight of the crew can provide considerable torque as they move out along the akas towards the ama. A skilled crew can balance the proa. Flying the ama reduces the drag of the proa; the proa gets its great potential for speed by combining the long, narrow shape of the vaka with the large amount of torque that the crew can apply on the amas. The Proa darted like a shooting star Lord Byron, "The Island", 1823Vessels that have a bow at either end are found scattered throughout history, with the earliest mention being in Pliny the Elder's Natural History.
He describes double-ended vessels being used to transport cargo across the strait at Taprobane, or what is now the Palk Strait between India and Sri Lanka, where the double-ended nature of the vessels allowed them to ferry cargo back and forth without turning around. Square rigged sailing proas are still in use in Sri Lanka as fishing boats, called Oru; the written history of the Micronesian proa began when it was recorded after encounter by European explorers in the Micronesian islands. The earliest written accounts were by Antonio Pigafetta, an Italian, a passenger on Ferdinand Magellan's 1519–1522 circumnavigation. Pigafetta's account of the stop at 146 E, 12 N, describes th
History of Guam
The history of Guam involves phases including the early arrival of Austronesian people known today as the Chamorros around 2000 BC, the development of "pre-contact" society, Spanish colonization in the 17th century and the present American rule of the island since the 1898 Spanish–American War. Guam's history of colonialism is the longest among the Pacific islands, it is believed that Guam was first discovered by seafaring people who migrated from Southeast Asia around 2000 BC. The original inhabitants of Guam are believed to be descendants of Austronesian people originating from Southeast Asia as early as 2000 BC, having linguistic and cultural similarities to Malaysia and the Philippines; these people evolved into the Chamorro people. They flourished as an advanced and hunting society, they were expert seafarers and skilled craftsmen familiar with intricate weaving and detailed pottery who built unique houses and canoes suited to this region of the world. Most of what is known about Pre-Contact Chamorros comes from legends and myths, archaeological evidence, Jesuit missionary accounts, observations from visiting scientists like Otto von Kotzebue and Louis de Freycinet.
When Europeans first arrived on Guam, Chamorro society fell into three classes: matao and mana'chang. The matao were located in the coastal villages, which meant they had the best access to fishing grounds while the mana'chang were located in the interior of the island. Matao and mana'chang communicated with each other, matao used achaot as a go-between. There were "makhanas" and "suruhanus", skilled in healing and medicine. Belief in spirits of ancient Chamorros called Taotao Mona still persists as remnant of pre-European society. Early European explorers noted the Chamorros' fast sailing vessels used for trading with other islands of Micronesia; the "latte stones" familiar to Guam residents and visitors alike were in fact a recent development in Pre-Contact Chamorro society. The latte stone consists of a base shaped out of limestone. Like the Easter Island statues, there is plenty of speculation over how this was done by a society without machines or metal, but the accepted view is that the head and base were etched out of the ground by sharp adzes and picks, carried to the assembly area by an elaborate system of ropes and logs.
The latte stone was used as a part of the raised foundation for a magalahi house, although they may have been used for canoe sheds. Archaeologists using carbon-dating have broken Pre-Contact Guam history into three periods: "Pre-Latte" "Transitional Pre-Latte", "Latte". Archaeological evidence suggests that Chamorro society was on the verge of another transition phase by 1521, as latte stones became bigger. Assuming the stones were used for chiefly houses, it can be argued that Chamorro society was becoming more stratified, either from population growth or the arrival of new people; the theory remains tenuous, due to lack of evidence, but if proven correct, will further support the idea that Pre-Contact Chamorros lived in a vibrant and dynamic environment. The first known contact between Guam and Western Europe occurred when a Spanish expedition led by Ferdinand Magellan, a Portuguese explorer sailing for the Holy Roman Emperor King Charles I of Spain, arrived with his 3-ship fleet in Guam on March 6, 1521 after a long voyage across the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, from Spain.
History credits the village of Umatac as his landing place, but drawings from the navigator's diary suggest that Magellan may have landed in Tumon in northern Guam. The expedition had started out in Spain with five ships. By the time they reached the Marianas they were down to three ships and nearly half the crew, due to storms and the mutiny in one ship which destroyed the expedition. Tired and hungry from their long discovery voyage, the crew prepared to go ashore and restore provisions in Guam. However, the excited native Chamorros who had a different concept of ownership, based on subsistence living, canoed out to the ships and began helping themselves to everything, not nailed down to the deck of the galleons. "The aboriginals were willing to engage in barter... Their love of gain overcame every other consideration." As the Chamorros took everything they found on the ship without asking and his crew remembered the island as the "Island of Thieves". After a few shots were fired from the Trinidad's big guns, the natives were frightened off from the ship and retreated into the surrounding jungle.
Magellan was able to obtain rations and offered iron, a prized material, in exchange for fresh fruits and water. Details of this visit, the first in history between Westerners and a Pacific island people, come from the journal of Antonio Pigafetta, the expedition's scribe and one of only 18 crew members to survive the circumnavigation of the globe, completed by Juan Sebastian Elcano. Despite Magellan's visit, Guam was not claimed by Spain until 1565 by Miguel Lopez de Legazpi. However, the island was not colonized until the 17th century. On June 15, 1668, the galleon San Diego arrived at the shore of the island of Guam. Jesuit missionaries led by Padre Diego Luis de San Vitores arrived on Guam to introduce Christianity and develop trade; the Spanish taught the Chamorros to cultivate maize, raise cattle, tan hides, as well as to adopt western-style clothing. They introduced the Spanish language and culture. Once Christianity was established, the Catholic Church became the focal point for village activities, as in