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Diesel exhaust fluid

Diesel exhaust fluid is a liquid used to reduce the amount of air pollution created by a diesel engine. DEF is an aqueous urea solution made with 32.5% urea and 67.5% deionized water. DEF is consumed in selective catalytic reduction that lowers nitrogen oxides concentration in the diesel exhaust emissions from a diesel engine. In the international standard defining DEF, it is referred to as AUS 32. DEF is sold as AdBlue, a registered trademark of the German Association of the Automotive Industry. Several brands of SCR system use DEF: BlueHDI is used by Group PSA vehicles including Peugeot, DS Automobiles brands; the excess air leads to generation of NOx, which are harmful pollutants, from the nitrogen in the air. SCR is used to reduce the amount of NOx released into the atmosphere. DEF from a separate tank is injected into the exhaust pipeline. Within the SCR catalyst, the NOx are reduced by the ammonia into water and nitrogen, which are both less polluting; the water and nitrogen are released into the atmosphere through the exhaust.

The injection rate of DEF into the exhaust depends on the specific after-treatment system, but is 2–6% of diesel consumption volume. This low dosing rate minimizes the tank's size. An electronic control unit adjusts the addition of fluid in accordance with such parameters as engine operating temperature and speed. DEF is a 32.5% solution of urea, 2CO. When it is injected into the hot exhaust gas stream, the water evaporates and the urea thermally decomposes to form ammonia and isocyanic acid: 2CO → NH3 + HNCOThe isocyanic acid reacts with the water vapor and hydrolyses to carbon dioxide and ammonia: HNCO + H2O → CO2 + NH3Overall, thus far: 2CO + H2O → 2 NH3 + CO2Ammonia, in the presence of oxygen and a catalyst, reduces two different nitrogen oxides: 4 NO + 4 NH3 + O2 → 4 N2 + 6 H2O and 6 NO2 + 8 NH3 → 7 N2 + 12 H2OThe overall reduction of NOx by urea is then: 2 2CO + 4 NO + O2 → 4 N2 + 4 H2O + 2 CO2 and 4 2CO + 6 NO2 → 7 N2 + 8 H2O + 4 CO2 DEF freezes at −11 °C. For the SCR exhaust cleaning system to function at low temperatures, a sufficient amount of the frozen DEF must be melted in as short time as possible, preferably on the order of minutes.

For example, 2010 EPA emissions requirements require full DEF coolant flow within 70 minutes. The frozen DEF is melted by heat from the engine, e.g. engine coolant passing through the DEF tank, governed by a thermostatic coolant control valve. This method may take significant time before the SCR exhaust cleaning system is operational up to an hour. Another method to thaw DEF is to integrate an electrical heater into the DEF tank; this heater must be sized and powered adequately to melt sufficient frozen DEF. It should preferably be self-regulating not to overheat, it should preferably be self-regulating to eliminate any complicated sensor and temperature regulating systems. Furthermore, the heater should not exceed 50–60 °C, as DEF begins to decompose around 60 °C. PTC heaters are used to achieve this; the urea solution is non-toxic and safe to handle. It must be stored and transported carefully, it is recommended that DEF be stored in a cool and well-ventilated area, out of direct sunlight. Bulk volumes of DEF are compatible for storage within polyethylene containers, fiberglass reinforced plastic, steel tanks.

DEF is often handled in intermediate bulk containers for storage and shipping. Diesel exhaust fluid is offered to consumers through a variety of quantities ranging from containers for single or repeated small usage, up to bulk carriers for consumers requiring a large amount of DEF; as of 2013, a number of truck stops added DEF pumps that dispense DEF. These are adjacent to fuel pumps so the driver can fill both tanks without moving the truck. VDA website entry on Adblue FactsAboutSCR.com North American SCR Stakeholders Group "AdBlue Material Safety Data Sheet". September 2014

Lake Sonoma

Lake Sonoma is a reservoir west of Cloverdale in northern Sonoma County, created by the construction of Warm Springs Dam. Access from U. S. Route 101 is by way of Dutcher Creek Road from Cloverdale; the lake provides water for countywide growth and development, for recreation. At full capacity, it has 50 miles of shoreline, a surface area of more than 2,700 acres, holds 381,000 acre feet of water. Activities include boating, fishing, hiking and hunting. Notable features include the Milt Brandt Visitor Center, the adjacent Congressman Don Clausen Fish Hatchery, the Warm Springs Recreation Area below the dam; the US Army Corps of Engineers built Warm Springs Dam across Dry Creek. Completed in 1982, this rolled-earth embankment dam is 319 ft high, 3,000 ft long, 30 ft wide at the top, it contains 30,000,000 cu yd of earth. The dam aids in flood control, a hydroelectric plant produces electricity from the water released downstream. A minimum amount of flow must be maintained in Dry Creek to allow fish migration.

Pomo people had lived in the Dry Creek area since at least the 18th century, some of them resisted the creation of the lake. Archaeologists at Sonoma State University have written about the prehistory and history of Warm Springs Dam, Lake Sonoma, the Dry Creek Valley; the California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment has developed a safe eating advisory for Lake Sonoma based on levels of mercury or PCBs found in fish caught from this water body. Dry Creek Valley AVA Lake Mendocino List of dams and reservoirs in California List of lakes in California List of lakes in the San Francisco Bay Area List of largest reservoirs of California Media related to Lake Sonoma at Wikimedia Commons news article about annual inspection of Warm Springs Dam

Royal Canadian Military Institute

The Royal Canadian Military Institute is a private members’ organization located in Toronto, Canada. It was founded as the Canadian Military Institute on January 14, 1890. General Sir William Dillon Otter set the founding principles: "to provide in an Institute for the defence forces of Canada a Library and club for the purposes of the promotion of military art and literature, to gather and preserve the records of the defence forces, develop its specialized field in Canadian history." The motto of the RCMI is Fidelis Per Manere. The RCMI's original headquarters at 426 University Avenue was built in 1907. Designed by William Craven Vaux Chadwick, the library was built in 1908; the building was expanded in 1912 and 1935, renovated during the 1960s. In 2007, the facade of 426 University Avenue was reconstructed by E R A Kubaneck Architects according to archeological records. Governor General David Johnston laid the cornerstone on June 9, 2012, for a 42-story, 315 suite condominium residence and mixed-use project.

The Colonel in Chief of the RCMI is The Honourable Lady Ogilvy. The RCMI is supported by fees and the volunteer services of private members; the RCMI provides a forum to promote education on defence and foreign affairs in a unique collegial environment. The RCMI intends to become recognized as the pre-eminent Canadian forum for discussion and education on defence and foreign affairs; the RCMI seeks to promote the study of military strategy and literature. The RCMI seeks to promote pride in a strong and independent Canada by enhancing public understanding of political and military history; the RCMI outreach to the public consists of a speakers program, educational conferences, open forums and events. The RCMI events include Batoche dinners, guest speakers, Christmas parties, reserve force and regimental dinners. Regular lectures on aspects of Canadian military history, international affairs, military strategy are held as part of the RCMI’s Military History Nights and Defence Studies Committee Roundtables and Luncheons.

The RCMI prepares and publishes original papers and journals related to military and strategic issues, foreign affairs, artefacts: the'RCMI Commentary','Sitrep','The General Sir William Otter Papers', and'Heritage Papers'. The RCMI has published annual yearbooks; the RMCI has a museum, library, art collection and online resources. The exhibitions focus on the evolution of Canadian military arms and uniforms. Following a four-year reconstruction, the RCMI returned to its new quarters at 426 University Avenue at the beginning of June 2014; the RCMI offers food and beverage service. On January 14, 1890, 50 officers of the Toronto Garrison founded the Royal Canadian Military Institute known as the Canadian Military Institute, with the Governor General of Canada, Lord Stanley, as its patron; the Militia Institute, organized in 1878, presented 200 military volumes on the founding of the Institute. Although the founders sought to enrol 50 to 100 members by the end of 1890, 162 Resident and 122 Non-Resident members had joined.

The headquarters of the Canadian Military Institute in 1896 was on University Avenue. In 1907, the CMI acquired 243-5 Simcoe Street, at the rear of its current premises. On August 29, 1907, the Governor General, Earl Grey, laid the cornerstone. William Craven Vaux Chadwick, designed the new CMI Library on University Avenue in 1908. In 1912, CMI acquired the front of the present premises on University Avenue and the Governor General, the Duke of Connaught, laid the cornerstone. Col. J. B. McLean was the last of the founders of the RCMI to die; the Institute's founding President was Lieutenant Colonel William Dillon Otter adjutant of The Queen's Own Rifles of Canada. He went on to become one of Canada's most distinguished military figures, ending his career as General Sir William Otter KCB CMG CVO, Inspector-General of Militia of Canada. Colonel Otter set the founding objectives of the Institute, to be "the Promotion and Fostering of Military Art and Literature in Canada." Col. J. M. Gibson was the first Vice-President of CMI.

The First Secretary at CMI was Lt. Homfray Irving, a member of the Old Eighteen, the first Battalion Sergeant Major at R. M. C. Winner of the Sword of Honour at R. M. C. and the first President of the R. M. C. Club of Canada. Membership was limited from 1890-1940 to Army ex-officers of Her Majesty's forces. In 1940, membership was limited to Army and Air officers and ex-officers of Her Majesty’s forces. In 1940 the Executive Committee of the RCMI agreed to change the name of the RCMI to the Canadian Officers' Club and Institute, to provide Navy officers with wardroom; as 1914 approached, the Institute was operating at a financial loss, the executive considered closure. With the outbreak of the Great War in 1914, there was a large number of potential membership candidates. From 1919–1930 the financial position of the Institute and membership were healthy. After 1930, the membership dwindled a little each year, owing to resignations. With the depression it was uncertain. Resignations increased since many members could not afford the yearly membership fee of $15.

Some affluent citizens who had resigned from their $100-a-year clubs, but still wanted a

Through Darkest Europe

Through Darkest Europe is an alternate history novel by Harry Turtledove. The book is set in an alternate present in which Islamic countries form a prosperous and progressive First World, while underdeveloped Christian countries suffer from religious fanaticism. In this alternate world, the dominating Muslim cultures of North Africa and the Middle East are "liberal and above all rich" while Europe is a hot spot of Christian fundamentalism, with assassinations and bombings committed by extremist groups including the Aquinists. Senior Investigator Khalid al-Zarzisi is sent to Rome with his partner Investigator Dawud ibn Musa with the mission of protecting the Grand Duke, the impoverished Pope, preventing European instability from affecting the First World; the alternate history's point of departure, as detailed in the first chapter, occurred between the 11th and 13th centuries due to different developments in Christian theology and Islamic theology. Thomas Aquinas, who in the real world sought to reconcile religion and reason, taught that Christianity and reason were incompatible, that religious faith should override reason.

Conversely, Al-Ghazali, who in the real world argued that Islamic faith was superior to philosophy and science, thought that the two were compatible. The developed First World has advanced science, including Turkish moon landings. Classical Arabic is used as a world language spoken by the used in standard signs. Muslim culture and style spread around the world with the spread of modernity. Through Darkest Europe on Google Books; the Years of Rice and Salt by Kim Stanley Robinson The Mirage by Matt Ruff

2009 Canadian Major Indoor Soccer League season

The 2008–09 Canadian Major Indoor Soccer League season sees a different format than previous seasons. As the league has become affiliated with the Professional Arena Soccer League in the United States, the Edmonton Drillers and Saskatoon Accelerators will play four soccer games and the Calgary United FC will play eight games against the PASL teams. Edmonton and Saskatoon will play two home games and two road games and Calgary will play four home games and four road games against PASL teams. In the CMISL portion of the schedule each team will play eight games; this will see Edmonton play six home games and two road games, Saskatoon play two home games and six road games and Calgary play six home games and two road games. As a result of the imbalanced schedule, the CMISL announced that all Calgary United FC games against PASL opponents will only be worth one point in the standings; the remainder of Calgary's schedule, as well as the entire Edmonton and Saskatoon schedules are worth two points in the standings.

The playoffs will feature the CMISL champion taking part in an interlocking championship with the winners of the PASL and the winner of the Mexican Liga Mexicana de Futbol Rapido. The CMISL championship will again be a first place versus second place game to be held March 8, 2009 in Calgary; as the CMISL as become affiliated with the PASL, the CMISL has adopted the rules of the PASL. The most substantial change was the fact. * Game counted as 4 points in the Standings for Saskatoon, as two other games were canceled in order to play it. Game doubled as the 2008–09 Copa América Final

Søren Anton van der Aa Kühle

Søren Anton van der Aa Kühle was a Danish brewer and chief business executive. He was chief operational officer of Gamle Carlsberg from 1881 and succeeded J. C. Jacobsen as managing director of the brewery in 1887. Kühle was born on 27 October 1849 in Aalborg, the son of first lieutenant and colonel Nicolai Seyer K. and Margrethe Emilie Kofoed. He attended Sorø Academy from 1761 but left the school after seventh grade in 1867 to enroll at the Army Officer Academy in Copenhagen, he was made a second lieutenant at the age of 19 but left the army in 1876 and was in 1877 granted rank oif captain. Kühle was educated as a brewer under his father-in-law at Wibroe Brewery in Helsingør, he served as manager of Tabeshave Brewery in Christianshavn. On 1 April 1879 he started working for Gamle Carlsberg where J. C. Jacobsen was soon struck by his administrative qualifications. In a contract dated 18 May 1880 Jacobsen appointed him as chief operational officer with effect from 1 October 1881 as well as his future successor as managing director of the brewery following his own death.

Upon Jacobsen's death in 1887, Gamle Carlsberg was therefore headed by Kühle in close collaboration with its new owner Carlsberg Foundation. He played a key role in the proces that culminated with the merger of Gamle Carlsberg with Carl Jacobsen's Nye Carlsberg in 1902, he was a board member of Carlsberg Laboratory and Bryggeriforeningen. Kühle married Johanne Emilie Wibroe, a daughter of Carl Wibroe and Christine Wilhelmine Magdalene Klentz, on 4 December 1875 in Helsingør, he was the father of filmmaker Kay van der Aa Kühle. Kühle was created a Knight in the Order of the Dannebrog in 1894, he is one of the industrialists seen in Peder Severin Krøyer's monumental group painting Men of Industry.<ref name="DBL"> He is buried at Vestre Cemetery in Copenhagen. Søren Anton van der Aa Kühle at geni.com