Sand is a granular material composed of finely divided rock and mineral particles. It is defined by size, being finer than coarser than silt. Sand can refer to a textural class of soil or soil type; the composition of sand varies, depending on the local rock sources and conditions, but the most common constituent of sand in inland continental settings and non-tropical coastal settings is silica in the form of quartz. The second most common type of sand is calcium carbonate, for example, created, over the past half billion years, by various forms of life, like coral and shellfish. For example, it is the primary form of sand apparent in areas where reefs have dominated the ecosystem for millions of years like the Caribbean. Sand is a non-renewable resource over human timescales, sand suitable for making concrete is in high demand. Desert sand, although plentiful, is not suitable for concrete, 50 billion tons of beach sand and fossil sand is needed each year for construction; the exact definition of sand varies.
The scientific Unified Soil Classification System used in engineering and geology corresponds to US Standard Sieves, defines sand as particles with a diameter of between 0.074 and 4.75 millimeters. By another definition, in terms of particle size as used by geologists, sand particles range in diameter from 0.0625 mm to 2 mm. An individual particle in this range size is termed a sand grain. Sand grains are between silt; the size specification between sand and gravel has remained constant for more than a century, but particle diameters as small as 0.02 mm were considered sand under the Albert Atterberg standard in use during the early 20th century. The grains of sand in Archimedes Sand Reckoner written around 240 BCE, were 0.02 mm in diameter. A 1953 engineering standard published by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials set the minimum sand size at 0.074 mm. A 1938 specification of the United States Department of Agriculture was 0.05 mm. Sand feels gritty when rubbed between the fingers.
Silt, by comparison, feels like flour). ISO 14688 grades sands as fine and coarse with ranges 0.063 mm to 0.2 mm to 0.63 mm to 2.0 mm. In the United States, sand is divided into five sub-categories based on size: fine sand, fine sand, medium sand, coarse sand, coarse sand; these sizes are based on the Krumbein phi scale, where size in Φ = -log2D. On this scale, for sand the value of Φ varies from −1 to +4, with the divisions between sub-categories at whole numbers; the most common constituent of sand, in inland continental settings and non-tropical coastal settings, is silica in the form of quartz, because of its chemical inertness and considerable hardness, is the most common mineral resistant to weathering. The composition of mineral sand is variable, depending on the local rock sources and conditions; the bright white sands found in tropical and subtropical coastal settings are eroded limestone and may contain coral and shell fragments in addition to other organic or organically derived fragmental material, suggesting sand formation depends on living organisms, too.
The gypsum sand dunes of the White Sands National Monument in New Mexico are famous for their bright, white color. Arkose is a sand or sandstone with considerable feldspar content, derived from weathering and erosion of a granitic rock outcrop; some sands contain magnetite, glauconite or gypsum. Sands rich in magnetite are dark to black in color, as are sands derived from volcanic basalts and obsidian. Chlorite-glauconite bearing sands are green in color, as are sands derived from basaltic lava with a high olivine content. Many sands those found extensively in Southern Europe, have iron impurities within the quartz crystals of the sand, giving a deep yellow color. Sand deposits in some areas contain garnets and other resistant minerals, including some small gemstones. Rocks erode/weather over a long period of time by water and wind, their sediments are transported downstream; these sediments continue to break apart into smaller pieces. The type of rock the sediment originated from and the intensity of the environment gives different compositions of sand.
The most common rock to form sand is Granite, where the Feldspar minerals dissolve faster than the Quartz, causing the rock to break apart into small pieces. In high energy environments rocks break apart much faster than in more calm settings. For example, Granite rocks this means more Feldspar minerals in the sand because it wouldn't have had time to dissolve; the term for sand formed by weathering is epiclastic. Sand from rivers are collected either from the river itself or its flood plain, accounts for the majority of the sand used in the construction industry; because if this, many small rivers have been depleted, causing environmental concern and economic losses to adjacent land. The rate of sand mining in such areas outweighs the rate the sand can replenish, making it a non-renewable resource. Sand dunes are a consequence of wind deposition; the Sahara Desert is dry because of its geographic location and is known for its vast sand dunes. They exist here because little vegetation is able to grow and there's not a lot of water.
Over time, wind blow
Hola Mohalla called Hola, is a one-day Sikh festival which most falls in March and takes place on the second day of the lunar month of Chett, a day after the Hindu spring festival Holi but sometimes coincides with Holi. Hola Mohalla is a big festive event for Sikhs around the world; the fair held during Holi and Hola at Anandpur Sahib is traditionally a three-day event but participants attend Anandpur Sahib for a week, camping out and enjoying various displays of fighting prowess and bravery, listening to kirtan and poetry. For meals, an integral part of the Sikh institution, visitors sit together in Pangats and eat vegetarian food of the Langars; the event concludes on the day of Hola Mohalla with a long, military-style procession near Takht Sri Keshgarh Sahib, one of the five seats of temporal authority of the Sikhs. Bhai Kahan Singh, who compiled the Mahan Kosh at the turn of the 20th century, explained, "Hola is derived from the word halla and the term mohalla stands for an organized procession or an army column.
The words'Hola Mohalla' would thus mean'the charge of an army.' " Dr. M. S. Ahluwalia notes that the related Punjabi term mahalia refers to "an organized procession in the form of an army column accompanied by war drums and standard-bearers, proceeding to a given location or moving in state from one to another."Hola is a Sanskrit word meant to be distinguished from Holi, the Hindu spring festival of colors which takes place the day before Hola Mohalla. The festival was founded by the tenth Sikh Guru; the Guru was in the midst of fighting both Aurangzeb of the Mughal Empire and the Hill Rajputs, had established the Khalsa Panth. On 7 March 1701, Guru Gobind Singh started a new tradition by overseeing a day of mock battles and poetry contests at Lohgarh Fort; the tradition has since spread from the town of Anandpur Sahib to nearby Kiratpur Sahib and the foothills of the Shivaliks, to other Gurdwaras around the world. According to Guru Gobind Singh's court poet Bhai Nand Lal, colours were thrown by the participants after completion of the mock battles.
Sikh tradition holds that Guru Gobind Singh participated in the colourful festival with the use of gulal which has survived into modern times with Nihangs "splashing gulal on each other and the audience". The alternative view is. Hola Mohalla builds upon the festival of Holi; the Sri Guru Granth Sahib prescribes celebrating Holi by serving God. The colours of Holi manifest in the Lord's love; as Holi starts with Holika Dahan on the full moon night of Phagan or Phalgan, the festival of Holi is referred to as the festival of Phalgun though the actual day of Holi falls on the first day of the lunar month of Chett. Sri Guru Gobind Singh Ji built upon this method of celebrating Holi by adding a martial element and creating Hola Mohalla to be celebrated a day after Holi. Hola Mahalla is a Sikh event which takes place on the second day of the lunar month of Chet, which falls in March. Mahalia, is a Punjabi word that implies an organized procession in the form of an army column accompanied by war drums and standard-bearers, proceeding to a given location or moving in state from one place to another.
Holi, when people playfully sprinkle colored powders, dry or mixed in water, on each other on the first day of Chet was given a new dimension by establishing Hola to be celebrated a day after. However, Guru Gobind Singh held the first march at Anandpur on Chet vadi 1, 1757 Bk and therefore festivities start before the second of Chet. In Anandpur Sahib, the festival lasts for three days; the Guru made Hola Mahalla an occasion for the Sikhs to demonstrate their martial skills in simulated battles. This was done to forestall a grimmer struggle against the imperial power and channeling people's energy into a more useful activity. Hola Mahalla became an annual event held in an open ground near Holgarh, a fort across the rivulet Charan Ganga, northwest of Anandpur sahib; the popularity of this festival may be judged from the fact that out of five Sikh public holidays requested by the Khalsa Diwan, of Lahore in 1889, the Government approved only two - Hola Mahalla and the birth anniversary of Guru Nanak.
Hola Mahalla is presently the biggest festival at Anandpur. Anandpur Sahib is situated on one of the lower spurs of the Shiwalik Hills in Ropar District of Punjab and is well connected with the rest of the country both by road and rail, it lies 29 km south of Nangal Township. Being one of the supremely important historical centers of the Sikhs it has been reverently called Anandpur Sahib, it was here at Anandpur that on Baisakhi of 1699, Guru Gobind Singh inaugurated the Khalsa and the Panj Piare. This was a tradition of one of the world's greatest martyrs Guru Tegh Bahadur who laid down his life in the defense of the Hindus on behalf of the Pandits of Kashmir; the order of the Khalsa, at the wish of Guru Gobind Singh's would henceforth be distinguished by five symbols, viz. Kes, Kacherra and Kirpan so that they could be recognized by anyone under attack. Sikhs were further instructed to live to the highest ethical standards, to be always ready to fight tyran
Gurbani is a Sikh term commonly used by Sikhs to refer to various compositions by the Sikh Gurus and other writers of Guru Granth Sahib. In general, hymns in the central text of the Sikhs, the Guru Granth Sahib, are called Gurbani. Among Amrit dhari Sikhs, a few texts from Dasam Granth which are read as Nitnem, like Tav-Prasad Savaiye and Chaupai, are considered Gurbani. In Adi Granth, Gurbani is a sound which comes directly from the Supreme and the text is a written form of the same in worldly language and scripts, it is called Gun Bani. Gurbani are explanations of qualities of the Primal Lord and Soul which a Sikh should comprehend and with which he can attain the supreme state. Sikh historical writings, unauthentic writings or apocryphal compositions written under the names of Sikh Gurus and other writings by Sikhs are not considered Gurbani and are referred to as Kachi Bani. Gurbani is composed of two words:'Gur' and'Bani'. Gur has multiple meanings depending on context. In Guru Granth Sahib, Gur is used for multiple meanings, as per context of hymn.
The common use of Gur is either for internal conscious mind. Thereby Gurbani either means the speech of conscious mind. Gurbani is directly received from inside after attaining a Supreme state, whereas the Granth or textual form is worldly language of the same. Gurbani is referred to as Dhur Ki Bani. In Adi Granth, it is considered a source of spiritual knowledge which illuminates the mind and gives internal bliss; the one who comprehends Gurbani is described as an Amritdhari. Gurbani is a source of truth with which the internal filth and sins get eradicated and one who find Gurbani sweet is in supreme state. Extracts from Guru Granth Sahib are called Gutkas containing sections of Gurbani; these Gutkas can vary from just a few pages to hundreds of pages and are used by the Sikhs to read these Banis on a daily basis. The hymns of the Japji Sahib, Jaap Sahib, Tav-Prasad Savaiye, Chaupai Sahib and Anand Sahib should be read before sunrise daily according to the Sikh Rehat Maryada; these are recited by initiated Sikhs at Amritvela.
Rehras is read in the evening around sunset or after a day's work and Kirtan Sohila is read before going to bed. Doing Nitnem is commonly referred as doing paath. Japji Sahib, Anand Sahib, Kirtan Sohila are a part of Guru Granth Sahib. Jaap Sahib, Tav-Prasad Savaiye, Chaupai Sahib were all compiled by Guru Gobind Singh and found in the Dasam Granth. Rehras is a mix with hymns from both Guru Granth Dasam Granth. A Sikh may add more Gurbani to their Nitnem and if done that Gurbani becomes a part of their Nitnem. Panj Granthi Japji Sahib Anand Sahib Sri Guru Granth Sahib Nitnem
Langar, sometimes called Mahaparasada, is the term used in Sikhism for the community kitchen in a Gurdwara where a free meal is served to all the visitors, without distinction of religion, gender, economic status or ethnicity. The free meal is always vegetarian. People sit on the floor and eat together, the kitchen is maintained and serviced by Sikh community volunteers. At the langar, all people eat a vegetarian meal; the exception to vegetarian langar is. Langar came into Punjabi from it. Langar, in its earliest form, was first started in ancient India, where a form of it was practised by some Hindus. Hospitals and certain temples distributed free meals at limited times. Baba Farid, a Muslim of the Chishti Sufi order, was said to practice a form of langar, when visitors came to visit his sufi Darbar. A form of langar was popular in the 12th and 13th centuries among Sufis and Hindus of the Indian subcontinent; the practice grew and is documented in the Jawahir al-Faridi, compiled in 1623 CE. According to Arvind-Pal Singh Mandair, a professor of Sikh Studies, forms of community kitchens were operating in Punjab when Guru Nanak founded Sikhism, these were run by Muslim Sufi orders and by Hindu Gorakhnath orders.
The khanqas of the Chisti and other Sufi saints had langar open to visitors, though Hindus and others did not attend them. The issue with the Hindu and Sufi Muslim forms of langar was that there was a certain division, as Hindus would go to Mandars and Muslims would go to Sufi mosques, where different religions and castes would not mix or eat with each other; the Sikhs created the Sikh langar, by making it an institution for all regardless of background and making it available 24 hours a day to all. The Sikh langar concept was an innovative charity and symbol of equality created by the founder of Sikhism, Guru Nanak, around 1500 CE. Guru Nanak started the Sikh langar when, as a young boy, he came across people from different backgrounds who were in need of food. In an act of grace and charity, he spent all of the money his father had given to him to start a business, he described it as sucha sauda to bring all people together. In Sikhism, the practice of the langar, or free kitchen, is believed to have been started by the first Sikh Guru, Guru Nanak.
It was designed to uphold the principle of equality among all people, regardless of religion, colour, age, gender or social status. The second Guru of Sikhism, Guru Angad, is remembered in Sikh tradition for systematizing the institution of langar in all Sikh temple premises, where visitors from near and far could get a free simple meal in a communal seating, he set rules and training method for volunteers who operated the kitchen, placing emphasis on treating it as a place of rest and refuge, being always polite and hospitable to all visitors. It was the third Guru, Amar Das, who established langar as a prominent institution, required people to dine together irrespective of their caste and social rank, he encouraged the practice of langar, made all those who visited him attend langar before they could speak to him. He was a Vaishnavite, is said to have accompanied Guru Angad to a langar that served meat; when Guru Angad saw that Amar Das was nervous and sat aloof, he ordered the server to give Amar Das only cereals.
Most Sikh langars serve vegetarian food, though the nihangs of Anandpur Sahib do serve meat on special occasions. Langars are held all over the world to feed the homeless. Major Indian Gurdwaras operate langars where thousands of visitors join together for a simple vegetarian meal everyday. Bhog Prasad Desjardins, Michel. "Food that Builds Community: The Sikh Langar in Canada". Cuizine: The Journal of Canadian Food Cultures. Consortium Erudit. 1. Doi:10.7202/037851ar
Guru Nanak Nishkam Sevak Jatha
The Gurdwara Sahib was built in the late 1970s under the spiritual guidance of Puran Singh and the leadership of Norang Singh. The Spiritual leadership of the jatha is now continued through the vision of Mohinder Singh; the gurdwara spans an area of about 25,000 square meters and the building is four stories high. There are three Langar Halls. There are 100 rooms, most of which are for the sangat who want to stay at the Gurdwara for the night and have facilities for sleeping and washing; the main Darbar is used for continuous Akhand Path recital. A new Paath is started on Monday and Friday mornings, unless a Samagam "community meeting" is under way. At Samagam programs, there is Sampat Paath recitation of a shabda: each line of the gurbani is followed by a sampat. Sampath Paath takes eleven days of continuous reading. List of places named after Guru Nanak Dev
YouTube is an American video-sharing website headquartered in San Bruno, California. Three former PayPal employees—Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, Jawed Karim—created the service in February 2005. Google bought the site in November 2006 for US$1.65 billion. YouTube allows users to upload, rate, add to playlists, comment on videos, subscribe to other users, it offers a wide variety of corporate media videos. Available content includes video clips, TV show clips, music videos and documentary films, audio recordings, movie trailers, live streams, other content such as video blogging, short original videos, educational videos. Most of the content on YouTube is uploaded by individuals, but media corporations including CBS, the BBC, Hulu offer some of their material via YouTube as part of the YouTube partnership program. Unregistered users can only watch videos on the site, while registered users are permitted to upload an unlimited number of videos and add comments to videos. Videos deemed inappropriate are available only to registered users affirming themselves to be at least 18 years old.
YouTube and its creators earn advertising revenue from Google AdSense, a program which targets ads according to site content and audience. The vast majority of its videos are free to view, but there are exceptions, including subscription-based premium channels, film rentals, as well as YouTube Music and YouTube Premium, subscription services offering premium and ad-free music streaming, ad-free access to all content, including exclusive content commissioned from notable personalities; as of February 2017, there were more than 400 hours of content uploaded to YouTube each minute, one billion hours of content being watched on YouTube every day. As of August 2018, the website is ranked as the second-most popular site in the world, according to Alexa Internet. YouTube has faced criticism over aspects of its operations, including its handling of copyrighted content contained within uploaded videos, its recommendation algorithms perpetuating videos that promote conspiracy theories and falsehoods, hosting videos ostensibly targeting children but containing violent and/or sexually suggestive content involving popular characters, videos of minors attracting pedophilic activities in their comment sections, fluctuating policies on the types of content, eligible to be monetized with advertising.
YouTube was founded by Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, Jawed Karim, who were all early employees of PayPal. Hurley had studied design at Indiana University of Pennsylvania, Chen and Karim studied computer science together at the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign. According to a story, repeated in the media and Chen developed the idea for YouTube during the early months of 2005, after they had experienced difficulty sharing videos, shot at a dinner party at Chen's apartment in San Francisco. Karim did not attend the party and denied that it had occurred, but Chen commented that the idea that YouTube was founded after a dinner party "was very strengthened by marketing ideas around creating a story, digestible". Karim said the inspiration for YouTube first came from Janet Jackson's role in the 2004 Super Bowl incident, when her breast was exposed during her performance, from the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. Karim could not find video clips of either event online, which led to the idea of a video sharing site.
Hurley and Chen said that the original idea for YouTube was a video version of an online dating service, had been influenced by the website Hot or Not. Difficulty in finding enough dating videos led to a change of plans, with the site's founders deciding to accept uploads of any type of video. YouTube began as a venture capital-funded technology startup from an $11.5 million investment by Sequoia Capital and an $8 million investment from Artis Capital Management between November 2005 and April 2006. YouTube's early headquarters were situated above a pizzeria and Japanese restaurant in San Mateo, California; the domain name www.youtube.com was activated on February 14, 2005, the website was developed over the subsequent months. The first YouTube video, titled Me at the zoo, shows co-founder Jawed Karim at the San Diego Zoo; the video was uploaded on April 23, 2005, can still be viewed on the site. YouTube offered the public a beta test of the site in May 2005; the first video to reach one million views was a Nike advertisement featuring Ronaldinho in November 2005.
Following a $3.5 million investment from Sequoia Capital in November, the site launched on December 15, 2005, by which time the site was receiving 8 million views a day. The site grew and, in July 2006, the company announced that more than 65,000 new videos were being uploaded every day, that the site was receiving 100 million video views per day. According to data published by market research company comScore, YouTube is the dominant provider of online video in the United States, with a market share of around 43% and more than 14 billion views of videos in May 2010. In May 2011, 48 hours of new videos were uploaded to the site every minute, which increased to 60 hours every minute in January 2012, 100 hours every minute in May 2013, 300 hours every minute in November 2014, 400 hours every minute in February 2017; as of January 2012, the site had 800 million unique users a month. It is estimated that in 2007 YouTube consumed as much bandwidth as the entire Internet in 2000. According to third-party web analytics providers and SimilarWeb, YouTube is the second-most visited website in the world, as of December 2016.
Guru Gobind Singh
Guru Gobind Singh, born Gobind Rai, was the tenth Sikh Guru, a spiritual master, warrior and philosopher. When his father, Guru Tegh Bahadur, was beheaded for refusing to convert to Islam, Guru Gobind Singh was formally installed as the leader of the Sikhs at age nine, becoming the tenth Sikh Guru, his four sons died during his lifetime -- two in two executed by the Mughal army. Among his notable contributions to Sikhism are founding the Sikh warrior community called Khalsa in 1699 and introducing the Five Ks, the five articles of faith that Khalsa Sikhs wear at all times. Guru Gobind Singh continued the formalisation of the religion, wrote important Sikh texts, enshrined the scripture the Guru Granth Sahib as Sikhism's eternal Guru. Gobind Singh was the only son of Guru Tegh Bahadur, the ninth Sikh guru, Mata Gujri, he was born in Patna, Bihar in the Sodhi Khatri family while his father was visiting Bengal and Assam. His birth name was Gobind Rai, a shrine named Takht Sri Patna Harimandar Sahib marks the site of the house where he was born and spent the first four years of his life.
In 1670, his family returned to Punjab, in March 1672 they moved to Chakk Nanaki in the Himalayan foothills of north India, called the Sivalik range, where he was schooled. His father Guru Tegh Bahadur was petitioned by Kashmiri Pandits in 1675 for protection from the fanatic persecution by Iftikar Khan, an Islamic satrap of the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb. Tegh Bahadur considered a peaceful resolution by meeting Aurangzeb, but was cautioned by his advisors that his life may be at risk; the young Gobind Rai – to be known as Gobind Singh after 1699 – advised his father that no one was more worthy to lead and make a sacrifice than him. His father made the attempt, but was arrested publicly beheaded in Delhi on 11 November 1675 under the orders of Aurangzeb for refusing to convert to Islam and the ongoing conflicts between Sikhism and the Islamic Empire. After this martyrdom, the young Gobind Rai was installed by the Sikhs as the tenth Sikh Guru on Vaisakhi on 29 March 1676; the education of Guru Gobind Singh continued after he became the 10th Guru, both in reading and writing as well as martial arts such as horse riding and archery.
In 1684, he wrote the Chandi di Var in Punjabi language – a legendary war between the good and the evil, where the good stands up against injustice and tyranny, as described in the ancient Sanskrit text Markandeya Purana. He stayed in Paonta, near the banks of river Yamuna, till 1685. Guru Gobind Singh had three wives: at age 10, he married Mata Jito on 21 June 1677 at Basantgaṛh, 10 km north of Anandpur; the couple had three sons: Jujhar Singh, Zorawar Singh and Fateh Singh. at age 17, he married Mata Sundari on 4 April 1684 at Anandpur. The couple had one son, Ajit Singh. at age 33, he married Mata Sahib Devan on 15 April 1700 at Anandpur. They had no children. Guru Gobind Singh proclaimed her as the Mother of the Khalsa; the life example and leadership of Guru Gobind Singh have been of historical importance to the Sikhs. He institutionalized the Khalsa, who played the key role in protecting the Sikhs long after his death, such as during the nine invasions of Panjab and holy war led by Ahmad Shah Abdali from Afghanistan between 1747 and 1769.
In 1699, the Guru requested the Sikhs to congregate at Anandpur on Vaisakhi. According to the Sikh tradition, he asked for a volunteer from those who gathered, someone willing to sacrifice his head. One came forward; the Guru with a bloody sword. He asked for another volunteer, repeated the same process of returning from the tent without anyone and with a bloodied sword four more times. After the fifth volunteer went with him into the tent, the Guru returned with all five volunteers, all safe, he called them the first Khalsa in the Sikh tradition. Guru Gobind Singh mixed water and sugar into an iron bowl, stirring it with a double-edged sword to prepare what he called Amrit, he administered this to the Panj Pyare, accompanied with recitations from the Adi Granth, thus founding the khande ka pahul of a Khalsa – a warrior community. The Guru gave them a new surname "Singh". After the first five Khalsa had been baptized, the Guru asked the five to baptize him as a Khalsa; this made the Guru the sixth Khalsa, his name changed from Guru Gobind Rai to Guru Gobind Singh.
Guru Gobind Singh initiated the Five K's tradition of the Kesh: uncut hair. Kangha: a wooden comb. Kara: an iron or steel bracelet worn on the wrist. Kirpan: a sword or dagger. Kacchera: short breeches, he announced a code of discipline for Khalsa warriors. Tobacco, eating'halal' meat and adultery were forbidden; the Khalsas agreed to never interact with those who followed rivals or their successors. The co-initiation of men and women from different castes into the ranks of Khalsa institutionalized the principle of equality in Sikhism regardless of one's caste or gender. Guru Gobind Singh's significance to the Sikh tradition has been important, as he institutionalized the Khalsa, resisted the ongoing persecution by the Mughal Empire, continued "the defence of Sikhism and Hinduism against the Muslim assault of Aurangzeb", he introduced ideas that indirectly challenged the discriminatory taxes imposed by Islamic authorities. For example, Aurangzeb had imposed taxes on non-Muslims that were collected from the Sikhs as well, for example the jizya (poll tax on non-