A convict is "a person found guilty of a crime and sentenced by a court" or "a person serving a sentence in prison". Convicts are also known as "prisoners" or "inmates" or by the slang term "con", while a common label for former convicts those released from prison, is "ex-con". Persons convicted and sentenced to non-custodial sentences tend not to be described as "convicts"; the legal label of "ex-convict" has lifelong implications, such as social stigma and/or reduced opportunities for employment. The federal government of Australia, for instance, will not, in general, employ an ex-convict, while some state and territory governments may limit the time for or before which a former convict may be employed; the particular use of the term "convict" in the English-speaking world was to describe the huge numbers of criminals, both male and female, who clogged British gaols in the 18th and early 19th century. Their crimes are no longer in the criminal code. Most of the punishments at this time were severe, with the death penalty applied for minor crimes.
However, this ultimate sentence was commuted to a lesser one for transportation to the colonies. Thus, in the British context, the term "convict" has come to refer in particular to those criminals transported overseas. Many British convicts were sent to the American colonies, such as the Maryland and the Georgia, as cheap labour; the transportation of convicts from the United Kingdom began around 1615 and became common in the following years. Most people were transported to North America or the West Indies, but from 1718 onwards transportation was to North America; the arrangements ceased when the American Revolutionary War meant it was no longer possible for the United Kingdom to send convicts to what had become the United States. The British Government looked to the newly discovered east coast of Australia to use as a penal colony. Convicts were transported to Australia in 1787, arriving in Botany Bay Sydney Cove, in January 1788. From the start of European settlement convicts were used as indentured labourers in five out of the six colonies.
Many were used on public works, but a significant number were "assigned" to private individuals as domestic servants, rural workers, etc. Transportation was progressively abolished from 1853 ceasing altogether in 1868. In Australia, convicts have come to be key figures of cultural historiography. Many became prominent businesspeople and respected citizens, some prominent families in present-day Australian society can trace their origins to convict ancestors who rose above their humble origins. However, during the transportation era and for many years after, previous convicts and their descendants tended to hide their former criminal background, sometimes resulting in distorted or missing family history. Extensive and comprehensive records kept on every individual are now able to fill in the gaps. British convicts were sent to Canada, West Africa, India. France sent convicts to New Caledonia and to Devil's Island in French Guiana. Convicted felon Convict lease Convict assignment Convicts in Australia Older prisoners Penal transportation Convict life - State Library of NSW Convict Transportation Registers database
Junkers Flugzeug- und Motorenwerke AG more Junkers, was a major German aircraft and aircraft engine manufacturer. It produced some of the world's most innovative and best-known airplanes over the course of its fifty-plus year history in Dessau, Germany, it was founded there in 1895 by Hugo Junkers manufacturing boilers and radiators. During World War I, following the war, the company became famous for its pioneering all-metal aircraft. During World War II the company produced some of the most successful Luftwaffe planes, as well as piston and jet aircraft engines, albeit in the absence of its founder, removed by the Nazis in 1934; the history of Junkers aircraft production begins with the Junkers J 1 mid-wing monoplane. Research for this aircraft was interrupted by the start of the First World War; the prototype aircraft, named the Blechesel, was completed in late 1915 after the outbreak of the war. This aircraft is significant in that it was the first flyable aircraft to utilize an all-metal "total structural" design.
Contemporary aircraft were built around wooden frames constructed in a rib-and-stringer fashion, reinforced with wires, covered with a stretched fabric. The J 1 was a semi-monocoque design, using steel ribs and sheeting that formed both the stringers and the skin. At the time aluminium was still expensive and the desirable, newest light duralumin alloy could not be worked in sheet form without damaging flaking occurring, so the J 1 was made of sheet electrical steel, it was quite heavy as a result, which translated into poor climb and maneuverability, yet its clean monoplane layout, which featured a "belly" radiator installation for its Mercedes D. II inline-six cylinder engine, had low drag, the J 1 was one of the fastest aircraft of its day, reaching speeds of 170 km/h, with only a 120 hp engine for power. Following the J 1, a series of "J-designated" aircraft followed, each advancing the state of the art in terms of strength and weight, but no single design progressed much beyond the prototype stage in terms of production potential.
The Junkers J 2 was an extensively "cleaned up" and armed single-seat fighter descendent of the J 1, while the J 3, a never-completed single rotary engined mid-wing monoplane design that only consisted of covered wing panels and a nearly complete fuselage frame, replaced the smooth exterior electrical steel sheeting with corrugated duralumin. IdFlieg, in charge of aircraft evaluation, was unconvinced of the monoplane layout of these designs, ordered a sesquiplane design as the J 4. Junkers took this opportunity to produce all the flying surfaces of the J 4 aircraft of corrugated duralumin in order to lower weight; the J 4 became Junkers' first design to enter production, with orders totalling 283, of which about 184 were delivered to operational units. Since it was the first design from Junkers to serve in the Luftstreitkräfte's "J-class" of armored, infantry co-operation aircraft, which had the Albatros J. I and AEG J. I serving with it in the same capacity, the curious and confusing instance of the Junkers J 4 armored all-metal sesquiplane getting the German military designation "J.
I" was one caused by the Luftstreitkräfte's choice of designation letter for all of its armored, ground forces co-operation aircraft. Junkers continued to believe in the monoplane layout constructed in metal, continued the J-series with a number of newer monoplane designs. One of the most successful was the all-duralumin J 7 technology demonstrator aircraft prototype, which went through five major and minor changes in its airframe design during tests throughout 1917 and, stretched to form the two-seat J 8; the J 8 was the first cantilever monoplane design, looked "modern" when compared to contemporary wire-braced biplane designs. The J 8 was put into limited production by the Junkers-Fokker Werke as the J 10, receiving the IdFlieg designation of CL. I, a small number of which saw service on the Eastern Front; the single-seat J 7 itself led to the J 9 design, built in small numbers as the Junkers D. I low wing fighter by both the Junkers firm itself and the Junkers-Fokker-Werke AG — with the resulting three-letter abbreviation of either firm marked on the J-9's landing gear wheel covers.
The corrugated duralumin wing and fuselage "skin" introduced in the J-series became a trademark of Junkers aircraft built in the 1920s and'30s. Development continued during the course of World War I, including a growing partnership with Fokker, as the Junkers-Fokker Aktiengesellschaft. Several Junkers designs were licensed to Fokker during this period; the visual similarity of Junkers and Fokker aircraft during the next decade after Reinhold Platz adapted some of the Junkers design concepts, but crafted in wood for the Fokker designs' wing structures instead of the all-metal Junkers construction techniques, is attributable to this early affiliation. The Great War ended with German Navy trials of the model J 11, an all-metal floatplane prototype. In the immediate post-war era, Junkers used their J8 layout as the basis for the F-13, first flown on 25 June 1919 and certified airworthy in July of the sam
Karl Friedrich May was a German writer best known for his adventure novels set in the American Old West. His main protagonists are Old Shatterhand. May set similar books in Latin America and Germany. May wrote poetry, a play, composed music. Many of his works were adapted for film, audio dramas and comics. In his career, May turned to philosophical and spiritual genres, he is one of the best-selling German writers of all time with about 200 million copies worldwide. May was the fifth child of a poor family of weavers in Schönburgische Rezessherrschaften, he had thirteen siblings of. During his school years, he received instruction in composition. At twelve, May was making money at a skittle alley. In 1856, May commenced teacher training in Waldenburg but in 1859 was expelled for stealing six candles. After an appeal, he was allowed to continue in Plauen. Shortly after graduation, when his roommate accused him of stealing a watch, May was jailed in Chemnitz for six weeks and his license to teach was permanently revoked.
After this, May worked with little success as a private tutor, an author of tales, a composer and a public speaker. For four years, from 1865 to 1869, May was jailed in the workhouse at Zwickau. With good behaviour, May became an administrator of the prison library which gave him the chance to read widely, he made a list of the works he planned to write On his release, May continued his life of crime, impersonating various characters and spinning fantastic tales as a method of fraud. He was arrested, but when he was transported to a crime scene during a judicial investigation, he escaped and fled to Bohemia, where he was detained for vagrancy. For another four years, from 1870 to 1874, May was jailed in Saxony. There he met Johannes Kochta, who assisted May. After his release in May 1874, May began to write. In November 1874, Die Rose von Ernstthal was published. May became an editor in the publishing house of Heinrich Gotthold Münchmeyer in Dresden. May managed entertainment papers such as Schacht und Hütte and continued to publish his own works such as Geographische Predigten.
May was employed by Bruno Radelli of Dresden. In 1878, May became a freelance writer. In 1880, he married Emma Pollmer. Once again, May was insolvent. In 1882, May returned to the employ of Münchmeyer and began the first of five large colportage novels. One of these was Das Waldröschen. From 1879, May was published in Deutscher Hausschatz, a Catholic weekly journal from the press of Friedrich Pustet in Regensburg. In 1880, May began the Orient Cycle, which ran, with interruption, until 1888. May was published in the teenage boys' journal Der Gute Kamerad of Wilhelm Spemann, Stuttgart. In 1887, it published Der Sohn des Bärenjägers. In 1891 Der Schatz im Silbersee was published. May published in other journals using pseudonyms. In all, he published over one hundred articles. In October 1888, May moved to 1891 to Villa Agnes in Oberlößnitz. In 1891, Friedrich Ernst Fehsenfeld offered to print the Deutscher Hausschatz "Son of the Bear Hunter" stories as books. In 1892, publication of Carl May's Gesammelte Reiseromane brought financial security and recognition.
May became absorbed in the stories he wrote and the lives of his characters. Readers wrote to May. May conducted talking tours in Germany and Austria and allowed autographed cards to be printed and photos in costume to be taken. In December 1895, May moved to the Villa Shatterhand in Alt-Radebeul, which he purchased from the Ziller brothers. In 1899, May travelled to Egypt Sumatra with his servant, Sejd Hassan. In 1900, he was joined by Richard Plöhn; the group returned to Radebeul in July 1900. May demonstrated some emotional instability during his travels. Hermann Cardauns and Rudolf Lebius criticised May for his self-promotion with the Old Shatterhand legend, he was reproached for his writing for the Catholic Deutscher Hausschatz and several Marian calendars. There were charges of unauthorised book publications and the use of an illegal doctoral degree. In 1902, May did receive a Doctor honoris causa from the Universitas Germana-Americana, Chicago for Im Reiche des Silbernen Löwen In 1908, Karl and Klara May spent six weeks in North America.
They travelled through Albany, New York, New York, the Niagara Falls and visited friends in Lawrence, Massachusetts. May was inspired to write Winnetou IV. However, on his return, May began work on complex allegorical texts, he considered the "question of mankind", the raising of humans from evil to good. Sascha Schneider provided symbolistic covers for the Fehsenfeld edition. On 22 March 1912, May was invited by the Academic Society for Literature and Music in Vienna to present a lecture entitled Empor ins Reich der Edelmenschen. There, he met Bertha von Suttner. Karl May died one week on 30 March 1912. According to the register of deaths, the cause was cardiac arrest
Dessau is a town and former municipality in Germany on the junction of the rivers Mulde and Elbe, in the Bundesland of Saxony-Anhalt. Since 1 July 2007, it has been part of the newly created municipality of Dessau-Roßlau. Population of Dessau proper: 77,973. Dessau is situated on a floodplain; this causes yearly floods. The worst flood took place in the year 2002, when the Waldersee district was nearly flooded; the south of Dessau touches a well-wooded area called Mosigkauer Heide. The highest elevation is a 110 m high former rubbish dump called Scherbelberg in the southwest of Dessau. Dessau is surrounded by numerous parks and palaces that ranks Dessau as one of the greenest towns in Germany. Dessau was first mentioned in 1213, it became an important centre in 1570. Dessau became the capital of this state within the Holy Roman Empire. In 1603 the state was split into four – five – Anhalts, Dessau becoming the capital of the mini-state of Anhalt-Dessau. In 1863 two of the noble lines died out, the Duchy of Anhalt became reunited.
From 1918 to 1945, Dessau was the capital of Free State of Anhalt. Dessau is famous for its college of architecture Bauhaus, it moved here in 1925. Many famous artists were lecturers in Dessau in the following years, among them Walter Gropius, Paul Klee and Wassily Kandinsky; the Nazis forced the closure of the Bauhaus in Dessau 1932. The town was completely destroyed by Allied air raids in World War II on 7 March 1945, six weeks before American troops occupied the town. Afterwards it was rebuilt with typical GDR concrete slab architecture and became a major industrial centre of East Germany. Since German reunification in 1990 many historic buildings have been restored; the composer Kurt Weill was born in Dessau. Since 1993 the city has hosted an annual Kurt Weill Festival. Dessau was the birthplace of the philosopher Moses Mendelssohn, Leopold I, Prince of Anhalt-Dessau, a lauded field marshal for the Kingdom of Prussia. In January 2005, Dessau gained notoriety for the mysterious death of a Sierra Leonean convicted drug trafficker and failed asylum seeker Oury Jalloh in his cell at a Dessau police station.
According to local police, drunk and had been tied to his bed because he was volatile and violent, set his own mattress on fire, causing his own death as he burned alive. A number of contradictions and inconsistencies as well as the disappearance of key evidence such as video tapes have led to allegations that the police and maybe the local court may have been involved in Jalloh's death and subsequent cover-up efforts. A local court acquitted officers in 2008. In 2010, however, a higher federal court declared the ruling null and void, ordered a new investigation and trial be launched. Garden Kingdom of Dessau-Wörlitz, is a World Heritage Site landscape garden, it is an exceptional example of 18th century Age of Enlightenment landscape design in the English style. Dresden Elbe Valley Zoo at Mausoleumspark Wallwitzburg Rondell remains of the City Castle Georgium Palace and Park Kühnau Palace and Park Mosigkau Palace and Park Luisium Palace and Park There are several examples of Bauhaus architecture in Dessau, some of which are part of the Bauhaus and its Sites in Weimar and Bernau World Heritage Site.
This includes the Bauhaus Dessau school building, designed by Walter Gropius, one of the iconic modernist buildings of the 20th century. In addition to the buildings that are part of the World Heritage Site, other notable Bauhaus architecture in Dessau includes: Dessau-Törten Estate, designed by Walter Gropius in 1926-28. Stahlhaus, designed by Georg Muche and Richard Paulick in 1926–27. Fieger Haus, designed by Carl Fieger in 1927; the Kornhaus, a restaurant overlooking the river Elbe designed by Carl Fieger in 1929-30. Arbeitsamt, designed by Walter Gropius in 1928-29, it is now the Dessau-Roßlau Amt für Ordnung und Verkehr. St. Mary's Church St. John's Church Georgenkirche Petruskirche Auferstehungskirche Pauluskirche Christuskirche Propsteikirche St. Peter and Paul Dreieinigkeit St. Josef Townhall, built in 1901 The palaces of Waldersee and Dietrich, today used as libraries General post office New water tower Umweltbundesamt Footbridge crossing the river Mulde Anhalt Theatre including Gregor Seyffert & Compagnie City history museum Anhalt Art Gallery at Georgium Palace with park Mosigkau Palace museum Luisium Castle museum with park Oranienbaum Palace museum with park Museum of Natural- and Prehistory Moses Mendelssohn-Centre Hugo Junkers Technical Museum UCI Cinema Complex Kiez-Cinema Mitteldeutsche Zeitung Wochenspiegel and Supersonntag REGJO leo local Studios of the MDR and SAW local TV Stations: RAN 1 and Offener Kanal Dessau The Dessau tramway network has three lines and is supplemented by numerous bus lines.
Dessau's public transport is operated by Dessauer Verkehrsgesellschaft, which transports around 6 million people each year. Dessau Hauptbahnhof has connections to Magdeburg, Leipzig, Halle and Lutherstadt Wittenberg; the line from Berlin was opened on 1 September 1840. The Dessau-Bitterfeld line was electrified in 1911, the first electrified long-distance railway in
Germans are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe, who share a common German ancestry and history. German is the shared mother tongue of a substantial majority of ethnic Germans; the English term Germans has referred to the German-speaking population of the Holy Roman Empire since the Late Middle Ages. Since the outbreak of the Protestant Reformation within the Holy Roman Empire, German society has been characterized by a Catholic-Protestant divide. Of 100 million native speakers of German in the world 80 million consider themselves Germans. There are an additional 80 million people of German ancestry in the United States, Argentina, South Africa, the post-Soviet states, France, each accounting for at least 1 million. Thus, the total number of Germans lies somewhere between 100 and more than 150 million, depending on the criteria applied. Today, people from countries with German-speaking majorities most subscribe to their own national identities and may or may not self-identify as ethnically German.
The German term Deutsche originates from the Old High German word diutisc, referring to the Germanic "language of the people". It is not clear how if at all, the word was used as an ethnonym in Old High German. Used as a noun, ein diutscher in the sense of "a German" emerges in Middle High German, attested from the second half of the 12th century; the Old French term alemans is taken from the name of the Alamanni. It was loaned into Middle English as almains in the early 14th century; the word Dutch is attested in English from the 14th century, denoting continental West Germanic dialects and their speakers. While in most Romance languages the Germans have been named from the Alamanni, the Old Norse and Estonian names for the Germans were taken from that of the Saxons. In Slavic languages, the Germans were given the name of němьci with a meaning "foreigner, one who does not speak "; the English term Germans is only attested from the mid-16th century, based on the classical Latin term Germani used by Julius Caesar and Tacitus.
It replaced Dutch and Almains, the latter becoming obsolete by the early 18th century. The Germans are a Germanic people. Part of the Holy Roman Empire, around 300 independent German states emerged during its decline after the Peace of Westphalia in 1648 ending the Thirty Years War; these states formed into modern Germany in the 19th century. The concept of a German ethnicity is linked to Germanic tribes of antiquity in central Europe; the early Germans originated on the North German Plain as well as southern Scandinavia. By the 2nd century BC, the number of Germans was increasing and they began expanding into eastern Europe and southward into Celtic territory. During antiquity these Germanic tribes remained separate from each other and did not have writing systems at that time. In the European Iron Age the area, now Germany was divided into the La Tène horizon in Southern Germany and the Jastorf culture in Northern Germany. By 55 BC, the Germans had reached the Danube river and had either assimilated or otherwise driven out the Celts who had lived there, had spread west into what is now Belgium and France.
Conflict between the Germanic tribes and the forces of Rome under Julius Caesar forced major Germanic tribes to retreat to the east bank of the Rhine. Roman emperor Augustus in 12 BC ordered the conquest of the Germans, but the catastrophic Roman defeat at the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest resulted in the Roman Empire abandoning its plans to conquer Germania. Germanic peoples in Roman territory were culturally Romanized, although much of Germania remained free of direct Roman rule, Rome influenced the development of German society the adoption of Christianity by the Germans who obtained it from the Romans. In Roman-held territories with Germanic populations, the Germanic and Roman peoples intermarried, Roman and Christian traditions intermingled; the adoption of Christianity would become a major influence in the development of a common German identity. The first major public figure to speak of a German people in general, was the Roman figure Tacitus in his work Germania around 100 AD; however an actual united German identity and ethnicity did not exist and it would take centuries of development of German culture until the concept of a German ethnicity began to become a popular identity.
The Germanic peoples during the Migrations Period came into contact with other peoples. The Limes Germanicus was breached in AD 260. Migrating Germanic tribes commingled with the local Gallo-Roman populations in what is now Swabia and Bavaria; the arrival of the Huns in Europe resulted in Hun conquest of large parts of Eastern Europe, the Huns were allies of the Roman Empire who fought against Germanic tribes, but the Huns cooperated with the Germanic tribe of the Ostrogoths, large numbers of Germans lived within the lands of the Hunnic Empire of
1½ Knights: In Search of the Ravishing Princess Herzelinde
1 1/2 Knights: In Search of the Ravishing Princess Herzelinde is a 2008 German film directed by Til Schweiger. It stars Rick Kavanian, Julia Dietze, Thomas Gottschalk and Udo Kier; the film centers on two knights and Erdal who are trying to save kidnapped Princess Herzelinde from the Black Knight. Some characters from Der Ring des Nibelungen by Richard Wagner, such as Siegfried and Brünnhilde appear in the film. Knight Lanze and Halb Night Erdal finds out it's right by the out numbered appearance and finds a group of nazi soldiers and kills them and finds out that they are going to a place to know and finds out that a bad guy Luipiud has to know it's going good and Knight says that the Liupiud Soldiers has arrived and Knight kills them and he leaves and gen Knight tells Halb knows the answer. Knight and Halb knows that they are giving answers by getting it the right or wrong way and knows the answer and Knight finds the Crude sharks and Knight kills them and drives away fast. Knight and Halb and finds Herzalinde to find out what the answer is and Knight finds the crude members and kills them and scatters across the way in.
Knight and Halb takes Herzalinde to a book club and finds a book and takes it and purchases it and leaves the book club. In a real knowledge Knight finds Halb in order to present the question and he finds Halb and finds Crude Sharks and kills them And Halb is taken by The Black Knight and Halb kills them and leaves the area. Halb and Knight and they finds Schwarzer River and takes him to a store and finds the tough soldiers and kills them and gets him to a safe place to know he is the good guy and drops him off safe. Knight and Halb finds a way to go to the nightclub parking and goes over to the bikes and a group of bikers arrive and Knight kills them until he has a chance to get rid of them and they leave the nightclub parking lot to find Konig and gets him out fast and to the house. Knight and Konig finds the dealers and kills them and leaves the area and gets away. Knight knows the answer and finds Walter and Knight greets him and gives him money for the job and Knight tells Walter to enter his car for the job as a completion.
Knight finds Hexe and Knight goes to the warehouse and talks to Hexe and follows her out of the warehouse and Knight follows Hexe to a helicopter and Hexe flies the helicopter. Knight takes the car and searches for a coin and takes it and drops it down the river and finds Prince Gustav and Knight takes him to his house and follows him in his room and Knight leaves his house and drives to his house and looks at the file. Knight tells Knappe Georgie and knight knows he is bad and follows him to an office building and kills him through the office and escapes and finds a group of killers and kills them. Til Schweiger as Knight Lanze Rick Kavanian as Half–Knight Erdal Julia Dietze as Princess Herzelinde Thomas Gottschalk as King Gunther Udo Kier as Luipold Trumpf Tobias Moretti as the Black Knight Mark Keller as Prince Gustav Ralph Herforth as Walter Sattler Gregor Bloéb as Jailer Thierry van Werveke as Siegfried Stefanie Stappenbeck as Brünnhilde Tim Wilde as Jailer's Assistant Anna Maria Mühe as Magd Denis Moschitto as the Archer Hannelore Elsner as Hexe Johannes Heesters as an old scientist Dieter Hallervorden as the Horse Seller Roberto Blanco as Roberto Helmut Markwort as the Chief of the Tabloid The film earned negative reviews from film critics.
German newspaper Süddeutsche Zeitung described it as an "embarrassing parade of celebrities", " Til Schweiger has got both the critics and the press to hate him for this film. Not without reason; the film is just as lame as its trailer". TV Movie.de wrote, "If the jokes were better and went beyond adolescent humor, it would become a real comedy". Cinefacts.de added that "Til once again tried in the comedy genre, but that, unlike his previous films Barfuss and Keinohrhasen, it lacks gags". Dorit Koch from General Anzeiger Bonn wrote "Though the film lacks good gags, the famous cast will attract the audience". Cinema.de described the film as a "shallow medieval farce with a few funny ideas". "Til Schweiger stars in his middle age film with childish jokes and Monty Python style. You can try to find it funny, but you won't", the Welt wrote; the 1 1⁄2 Knights – In Search of the Ravishing Princess Herzelinde soundtrack album was released through the Interscope Records on 19 December 2008, includes the song "Walta Sattla", performed by Til Schweiger.
In the review of the album, the Bild wrote that "unlike the film itself, the soundtrack is just beautiful, not a funny parade". Official Website 1½ Knights – In Search of the Ravishing Princess Herzelinde on IMDb
Der Springteufel is a 1974 West German TV movie starring Dieter Hallervorden and Arno Assmann, directed by Heinz Schirk based on a story by Derrick Sherwin, an English television writer best known for his work in Doctor Who. It's a psychological thriller about a hitchhiker to Frankfurt who takes the man who gives him a lift hostage and plays mind games with him, it was released on DVD in 2006. Arno Assmann – Driver Dieter Hallervorden – Hitchhiker Hanna Seiffert Klaus Dieter Söder Manfred Böhm Hans Weverinck Hans Diener Der Springteufel on IMDb Review from fernsehkritik.tv