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League of Peja

The League of Peja known as Besa-Besë between Albanians, was an Albanian political organization established in 1899 in the city of İpek, Kosovo Vilayet, Ottoman Empire. It was led by Haxhi Zeka, a former member of the League of Prizren, shared the same aim of achieving an autonomous Albanian vilayet within the Ottoman Empire; this organization was encouraged and supported by Austria-Hungary and directed against Ottoman reforms and against Serbs from Kosovo Vilayet. Albanian patriotic circles had been seeing a need of creating a new organisation, similar to the first League of Prizren, to include all the Albanian lands and place it in front of a national movement; the first efforts for the creation of the League began in September 1896. Haxhi Zeka was named as head of this movement by the most influential Albanian leaders in the Ottoman province of Kosovo. Albanian leaders led by Haxhi Zeka organised a meeting in Yakova in March–April 1897 as a first step for the creation of the league. There were two groups of members.

The first group of conservative and more moderate members wanted five vilayets to be united into the Albanian vilayet, the second group of the more radical members wanted full administrative autonomy for the four vilayets united in the Albanian vilayet. The League ended its activity in 1900 after an armed conflict with the Ottoman forces. Zeka was assassinated by a Serbian agent Adem Zajmi in 1902. Selim Rusi

List of guitar tunings

This list of guitar tunings supplements the article guitar tunings. In particular, this list contains more examples of open and regular tunings, which are discussed in the article on guitar tunings. In addition, this list notes dropped tunings. Major open-tunings give a major chord with the open strings. E-A-C♯-E-A-EAlternatively: A-E-A-E-A-C♯ "Slide" Open A: E-A-E-A-C♯-E Used by Jimmy Page on "In My Time of Dying"" and Jack White on "Seven Nation Army"→ B-F♯-B-F♯-B-D♯Alternatively: F♯-B-D♯-F♯-B-D♯Used by Nickelback on "Should've Listened", Devin Townsend in recent years, Big Wreck on "Albatross". C-G-C-G-C-EThis open C tuning is used by William Ackerman for his "Townsend Shuffle" and by John Fahey for his tribute to Mississippi John Hurt; this tuning is commonly used by John Butler on his 12 string guitar. This tuning is used on most work by Devin Townsend in his solo work as well as his work with Strapping Young Lad; when playing on a 7 string guitar, he would have a low G as the lowest string to complete the fifth.

C-E-G-C-E-GThe English guitar used a repetitive open-C tuning that approximated a major-thirds tuning. C-C-G-C-E-GThis open-C tuning gives the initial harmonic series; the C-C-G-C-E-G tuning uses the harmonic sequence of the note C. When an open-note C-string is struck, its harmonic sequence begins with the notes; this overtone-series tuning was modified by Mick Ralphs, who used a high C rather than the high G for "Can't Get Enough" on Bad Company. Ralphs said, "It needs the open C to have that ring," and "it never sounds right in standard tuning". D-A-D-F♯-A-DOpen-D tuning is used by Joni Mitchell for her "Big Yellow Taxi", Nick Drake for "Place To Be", Alt-J for "Interlude 2", Boys Like Girls for "Thunder" and by Soko for "No More Home, No More Love". Open-D tuning has been called Vestapol tuning. Richie Havens used Open D tuning to be able to play chords using only his thumb and one or two fingers. Alternatively: D-A-D'-A'-D-DThis alternative Open D tuning is used by Mark Tremonti guitarist for the bands Creed, Alter Bridge, Tremonti.

It was used by Keith Richards on "Jumpin' Jack Flash" and the Stone Roses in "Love Spreads". C♯-G♯-C♯-F-G♯-C♯Same as Open-D but tuned a half-step down. Used by Alice In Chains on the songs "Over Now", "Nothin' Song", "Shame in You". E-B-E-G#-B-E Open E is used by: Brian Jones on "No Expectations", "I Wanna Be Your Man"; the tuning is used by Hoobastank on their first and second albums, by Junior Campbell on The Marmalade recordings "Reflections of My Life" and "I See the Rain". Lastly, the Open E tuning is used by Johnny Marr of the Smiths on "The Headmaster Ritual". F-A-C-F-C-F Alternatively: C-F-C-F-A-CC-F-C-F-A-C is the more common of the two. Used by Elizabeth Cotten on her song "When I Get Home" Led Zeppelin on "When the Levee Breaks" and "Bron-Yr-Aur Stomp" F-Sharp Tuning: F♯-B♭-C♯-F♯-C♯-F♯ Alternative: C♯-F♯-C♯-F♯-A♭-C♯F-F-C-F-A-C is used by Dave Mason on "Only You Know and I Know" D-G-D-G-B-D Open G was used in rock by Jimmy Page of Led Zeppelin in the songs "Dancing Days", "That's The Way" and "Black Country Woman", Keith Richards of The Rolling Stones as well as in Mississippi blues by Son House, Charley Patton, Robert Johnson, in "Fearless" by Pink Floyd.

G-G-D-G-B-DListing the initial six harmonics of the G note, this open-G tuning was used by Joni Mitchell for "Electricity", "For the Roses", "Hunter". It was used by Mick Ralphs for "Hey Hey" on Bad Company's debut album. and on the Meowtain song "Alleyway" Stone Gossard used this tuning in the song "Daughter" by Pearl Jam. Alternatively: G-B-D-G-B-D Alternatively: C-G-D-G-B-D. Dobro Open G: G-B-D-G-B-D. Russian-guitar Open G: The tuning of the Russian guitarD-G-B-D-G-B-D is an open G tuning in major thirds; the following open-tunings use a minor third, give a minor chord with open strings. To avoid the cumbersome designation "open D minor", "open C minor", such tunings are sometimes called "cross-note tunings"; the term expresses the fact that, compared to Major chord open tunings, by fretting the lowered string at the first fret, it is possible to produce a major chord easily. Cross-note or open E-minor was used by Skip James. Cross-note tunings include: Cross-note A: E-A-E-A-C-E Alternative: E-A-C-E-A-E Cross-note C: C-G-C-G-C-E♭ C-C-G-C-E♭-G, a cross-note overtones tuning C-C-G-C-E♭-A♭ a cross-note overtones tuning that facilitates seventh chords.

Cross-note D: D-A-D-F-A-D Alternative: D-A-D-A-D-F Cross-note E: E-B-E-G-B-E Cross-note F: F-A♭-C-F-C-F Alternative: F-C-F-A♭-C-F Cross-note G: D-G-D-G-B♭-D Alternative Cross A: E-A-E-A-E-A. «Sitar A» - an alternative low guitar system. Recalls the sound of Indian sitar. In modal tunings, the strings are tuned to form a chord, n