Dietrich Bonhoeffer

Dietrich Bonhoeffer was a German pastor, anti-Nazi dissident, key founding member of the Confessing Church. His writings on Christianity's role in the secular world have become influential, his book The Cost of Discipleship has been described as a modern classic. Apart from his theological writings, Bonhoeffer was known for his staunch resistance to Nazi dictatorship, including vocal opposition to Hitler's euthanasia program and genocidal persecution of the Jews, he was arrested in April 1943 by the Gestapo and imprisoned at Tegel prison for one and a half years. He was transferred to Flossenbürg concentration camp. After being accused of being associated with the July 20 plot to assassinate Adolf Hitler, he was tried, along with other accused plotters, including former members of the Abwehr, hanged on 9 April 1945 as the Nazi regime was collapsing. 21 days Adolf Hitler committed suicide. Bonhoeffer was born on 4 February 1906 in Germany into a large family. In addition to his other siblings, Dietrich had a twin sister, Sabine Bonhoeffer Leibholz: he and Sabine were the sixth and seventh children out of eight.

His father was psychiatrist and neurologist Karl Bonhoeffer, noted for his criticism of Sigmund Freud. Bonhoeffer's family dynamic and his parents values enabled him to receive a high level of education and encouraged his curiosity, which in turn impacted his ability to lead others around him in the church setting, his oldest brother Karl Friedrich Bonhoeffer became a chemist, along with Paul Harteck, discovered the spin isomers of hydrogen in 1929. Walter Bonhoeffer, the second born of the Bonhoeffer family, was killed in action during World War I, when the twins were 12; the third Bonhoeffer child, was a lawyer until he was executed for his involvement in the 20 July plot. Both of Bonhoeffer's older sisters, Ursula Bonhoeffer Schleicher and Christel Bonhoeffer von Dohnanyi, married men who were executed by the Nazis. Christel survived. Sabine and their youngest sister Susanne Bonhoeffer Dress each married men, his cousin Karl-Günther von Hase was the German Ambassador to the United Kingdom from 1970 to 1977.

Bonhoeffer completed his Staatsexamen, the equivalent of both a bachelor's degree and a master's degree, at the Protestant Faculty of Theology of the University of Tübingen. He went on to complete his Doctor of Theology degree from Berlin University in 1927, graduating summa cum laude. Still too young to be ordained, at the age of twenty-four Bonhoeffer went to the United States in 1930 for postgraduate study and a teaching fellowship at New York City's Union Theological Seminary. Although Bonhoeffer found the American seminary not up to his exacting German standards, he had life-changing experiences and friendships, he studied under Reinhold Niebuhr and met Frank Fisher, a black fellow-seminarian who introduced him to Abyssinian Baptist Church in Harlem, where Bonhoeffer taught Sunday school and formed a lifelong love for African-American spirituals, a collection of which he took back to Germany. He heard Adam Clayton Powell, Sr. preach the Gospel of Social Justice, became sensitive to not only social injustices experienced by minorities, but the ineptitude of the church to bring about integration.

Bonhoeffer began to see things "from below" -- from the perspective of those. He observed, "Here one can speak and hear about sin and grace and the love of God...the Black Christ is preached with rapturous passion and vision." Bonhoeffer referred to his impressions abroad as the point at which he "turned from phraseology to reality." He learned to drive an automobile, although he failed the driving test three times. He borrowed a 1924 Oldsmobile sedan from a member of the Greenville Community Church in Westchester County in order to drive to Mexico. After returning to Germany in 1931, Bonhoeffer became a lecturer in systematic theology at the University of Berlin. Interested in ecumenism, he was appointed by the World Alliance for Promoting International Friendship through the Churches as one of its three European youth secretaries. At this time he seems to have undergone something of a personal conversion from being a theologian attracted to the intellectual side of Christianity to being a dedicated man of faith, resolved to carry out the teaching of Christ as he found it revealed in the Gospels.

On 15 November 1931—at the age of 25—he was ordained at Old-Prussian United St. Matthew, Berlin-Tiergarten in Berlin-Tiergarten. Bonhoeffer's promising academic and ecclesiastical career was altered with the Nazi ascension to power on 30 January 1933, he was a determined opponent of the regime from its first days. Two days after Hitler was installed as Chancellor, Bonhoeffer delivered a radio address in which he attacked Hitler and warned Germany against slipping into an idolatrous cult of the Führer, who could well turn out to be Verführer, he was cut off the air in the middle of a sentence, though it is unclear whether the newly elected Nazi regime was responsible. In April 1933, Bonhoeffer raised the first voice for church resistance to Hitler's persecution of Jews, declaring that the church must not "bandage the victims under the wheel, but jam the spoke in the wheel itself."In November 1932, two months before the Nazi takeover, there had been an election


Kishanganj is a city and district headquarters of Kishanganj district in Purnia division of Bihar state. Kishanganj, part of Purnia district, is part of the Mithila region. Mithila first gained prominence after being settled by Indo-Aryan peoples who established the Mithila Kingdom. During the late Vedic period, the Kingdom of the Videhas became one of the major political and cultural centres of South Asia, along with Kuru and Pañcāla; the kings of the Kingdom of the Videhas were called Janakas. The Mithila Kingdom was incorporated into the Vajji confederacy, which had its capital in the city of Vaishali, in Mithila; as of the 2011 Census of India, Kishanganj has a population of 105,782 of which male and female are 55,143 and 50,639 respectively. Literacy rate of Kishanganj city is 73.46 % higher than state average of 61.80 %. In Kishanganj, Male literacy is around 78.37 % while female literacy rate is 68.08 %. In Kishanganj, Total children in Kishanganj city are 16,884 as per figure from Census India report on 2011.

There were 8,636 boys. The children form 15.96% of total population of Kishanganj City. It is one of the few districts. According to the statistics, Kishanganj has a major railhead, connected to major cities and towns of India. Kishanganj railway station comes under Northeast Frontier Railway and is'A' category station of Indian Railways; the railway station and NH 31 connect northeastern regions of India to the rest of the country. It has direct train connected to majority of major cities namely- New Delhi, Patna, Guwahati, Chennai, Thiruvananthapuram etc. Garib Nawaz express starts from here for Ajmer. Rajdhani Express which runs between Delhi and Dibrugarh has its stoppage in Kishanganj; the National Highway 31 runs along with the railway line. It is connected with Bagdogra International Airport in Bagdogra, about 60 km from Kishanganj. Kishanganj has an All India Radio Relay station known as Akashvani Kishanganj, it broadcasts on FM frequencies

Hollywood Rip Ride Rockit

Hollywood Rip Ride Rockit is a steel roller coaster at Universal Studios Florida in Orlando, Florida. With a height of 167 feet, a length of 3,800 feet, a top speed of 65 miles per hour, it is the largest X-Coaster built by German manufacturer Maurer Söhne. Announced on March 19, 2008, the coaster debuted on August 19, 2009, despite original plans to open several months earlier in the spring. Hollywood Rip Ride Rockit features on-ride music LED lighting, on-ride photos and videos captured from cameras mounted in each passenger row. During the second week of January 2008, Universal Parks & Resorts filed a Notice of Commencement with Orange County, Florida indicating that they were to construct a ride system that they had code-named "Project Rumble." The notice stated that the contractor was "Maurer Rides GmbH," located in Munich, Germany. After months of rumors, the new attraction was announced by Universal Studios Officials on March 19, 2008. Unlike usual announcements, officials did not reveal the specifications of the entire roller coaster.

In the original press release, it stated that the roller coaster's vertical lift hill would be 167 feet tall, that the trains would reach a maximum speed of 65 miles per hour. The press release mentioned that each train would be equipped with a multi-media package, LED lights, built-in video recorders, the option for riders to choose a song from a list to be played during the course of the ride; the ride would include six near miss encounters. At the time, the new roller coaster was scheduled to open in Spring 2009. In the months after the announcement, Universal Studios surveyed guests on what songs they think should be included in the roller coaster; some of the artists that guests could choose from were: The Black Eyed Peas, Bee Gees, The Beach Boys, Johnny Cash. Construction began in May 2008 with preliminary land clearing, which caused the removal of some of Twister... Ride it Out’s outdoor extended queue; the first track pieces were installed during the week of December 7, 2008. In February 2009, Universal launched a website for the attraction, which included a construction blog and photographs chronicling progress of the attraction's construction.

The track layout was completed at the end of April 2009 with the crowning of the lift hill. In April 2009, Universal confirmed that the roller coaster would not open as planned and said it would open in the summer. Though Universal has never mentioned what the exact problem with the roller coaster was, it is believed by newspapers that issues with the anti-rollback devices on the lift hill that were not working caused the delay. After the issues with the ride were resolved, Hollywood Rip Ride Rockit began public previews in mid-August 2009. On August 19, 2009, Universal Studios Florida opened the attraction. Guests first enter into one of three queues. Riders must pass through a metal detector in order to board, may not board with any loose items on their person or in pockets. Lockers are provided for storage of these items. In each of the queue lines, there are several large screen displays that explain how to pick a song to play during the ride and important safety instructions. In the video, characters called "Video DJ's" are used as demonstrators to provide a visual explanation.

The station for the roller coaster is a unique design, in which trains enter and slow down but do not stop. There is a moving sidewalk on both sides that moves at the same speed as the train allowing riders to board. Riders have 30 seconds to take their seat, lower the lap-bar, make their song choice. After the restraints are checked, the train begins to climb the 167-foot vertical chain lift, the song selected by the rider begins to play; the on-ride video recorder begins recording. When the train reaches the top of the lift, it drops back to the ground, reaching a maximum speed of 65 miles per hour; the train enters a non-inverting loop nicknamed "The Double Take", followed by an upward right turn into one of the several mid-course brakes. It drops back down, going through a hole in a wall before entering a left, upward helix section of the coaster, nicknamed "The Treble Clef". Next the train enters a quick element nicknamed "The Jump Cut", a non-inverting corkscrew; this is followed by a large dip.

Following a small drop to the left, the track straightens for a moment before making a right turn, a left turn, another right leading into the third set of mid-course brakes. An s-bend turn follows, which leads the train into a fourth set of brakes; the train drops once more, travels over a small hill, enters the final brake run as the song playing ends. The steel track of Hollywood Rip Ride Rockit is 3,800 feet long, the height of the lift is 167 feet; because the lift hill is vertical, a special evacuation system is used in the event that a train stalls on the lift. The track is filled with sand and gravel to reduce the noise when a train is on the track. Throughout the layout of the roller coaster, there are 5 sets of brakes to control the speed of the trains; the roller coaster operates with seven stadium-style seating X-Car trains. Each train has two cars. On the headrest of each seat there are two speakers; the speakers have been designed so. On the restraint is a small touch screen where riders can choose which song they want to listen to duri